Article One of the United States Constitution

Article IArticle OneU.S. Const. art. I
The idea of allowing Congress to have say over agreements between states traces back to the numerous controversies that arose between various colonies. Eventually compromises would be created between the two colonies and these compromises would be submitted to the Crown for approval. After the American Revolutionary War, the Articles of Confederation allowed states to appeal to Congress to settle disputes between the states over boundaries or "any cause whatever". The Articles of Confederation also required Congressional approval for "any treaty or alliance" in which a state was one of the parties.

Battles of Lexington and Concord

Battle of LexingtonBattle of Lexington and ConcordLexington and Concord
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge. They marked the outbreak of armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in America. In late 1774, Colonial leaders adopted the Suffolk Resolves in resistance to the alterations made to the Massachusetts colonial government by the British parliament following the Boston Tea Party.

United States Bill of Rights

Bill of RightsU.S. Bill of RightsUS Bill of Rights
The Philadelphia Convention set out to correct weaknesses of the Articles that had been apparent even before the American Revolutionary War had been successfully concluded. The convention took place from May 14 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Although the Convention was purportedly intended only to revise the Articles, the intention of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The convention convened in the Pennsylvania State House, and George Washington of Virginia was unanimously elected as president of the convention.

Free Negro

free blackfree blacksfree
Before the American Revolutionary War, few slaves were manumitted. The war greatly disrupted the slave societies. Beginning with Lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia, the British colonial governments recruited slaves of rebels to the armed forces and promised them freedom in return. The Continentals gradually also began to allow blacks to fight with a promise of freedom. Tens of thousands of slaves escaped from plantations or other venues during the war, especially in the South. Some joined British lines or disappeared in the disruption of war.

Russia and the American Revolution

the Russian EmpireUnited States Declaration of Independence
The Russian Empire's role in the American Revolutionary War was part of a global conflict of colonial supremacy between the Thirteen Colonies and the Kingdom of Great Britain. Prior to the onset of the war, the Russian Empire had already begun exploration along North America's west coast; and, the year following the combat's conclusion, the Eurasian empire established its first colony in Alaska. Although the Russian Empire did not directly send troops or supplies to the colonies or British Empire during the war, it responded to the Declaration of Independence, played a role in international diplomacy, and contributed to the lasting legacy of the American Revolution abroad.

Roger Williams

Roger Williams (theologian)founderRoger William
However, when the four towns of the colony were reunited, the Aquidneck towns refused to accept this law, making it a dead letter. For the next century, Newport was the economic and political center of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and that town disregarded the anti-slavery law. Instead, Newport entered the African slave trade in 1700, after Williams' death, and became the leading port for American ships carrying slaves in the colonial American triangular trade until the American Revolutionary War. Ezekiel Holliman baptized Williams in late 1638. A few years later, Dr.

United Kingdom–United States relations

Anglo-AmericanAnglo-American relationsrelations
When the Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia in May 1775, deliberations conducted by notable figures such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock, Samuel Adams, and John Adams eventually resulted in seeking full independence from the mother country. Thus, the Declaration of Independence, unanimously ratified on 4 July 1776, was a radical and decisive break. The United States of America became the first colony in the world to successfully achieve independence in the modern era. In early 1775 the Patriots forced all the British officials and soldiers out of the new nation.

History of liberalism

classical liberalClassical liberalismliberalism
Algernon Sidney was second only to John Locke in his influence on liberal political thought in eighteenth-century Britain and Colonial America, and was widely read and quoted by the Whig opposition during the Glorious Revolution. Sidney's argument that "free men always have the right to resist tyrannical government" was widely quoted by the Patriots at the time of American Revolutionary War and Thomas Jefferson considered Sidney to have been one of the two primary sources for the Founding Fathers' view of liberty.

Public Land Survey System

PLSSPublic Lands Survey Systemsurvey
Originally proposed by Thomas Jefferson to create a nation of "yeoman farmers", the PLSS began shortly after the American Revolutionary War, when the federal government became responsible for large areas of land west of the original thirteen states. The government wished both to distribute land to Revolutionary War soldiers in reward for their services, as well as to sell land as a way of raising money for the nation. Before this could happen, the land needed to be surveyed. The Land Ordinance of 1785 marks the beginning of the Public Land Survey System. The Confederation Congress was deeply in debt following the Declaration of Independence.

History of the United States

American historyU.S. historyUnited States history
The Thirteen Colonies began a rebellion against British rule in 1775 and proclaimed their independence in 1776 as the United States of America. In the American Revolutionary War (1775–83) the Americans captured the British invasion army at Saratoga in 1777, secured the Northeast and encouraged the French to make a military alliance with the United States. France brought in Spain and the Netherlands, thus balancing the military and naval forces on each side as Britain had no allies.

Postage stamps and postal history of the United States

United States postage stampsU.S. postage stampU.S. postage stamps
The tax was repealed a year later, and very few were ever actually used in the thirteen colonies, but they saw service in Canada and the British Caribbean islands. In the years leading up to the American Revolution mail routes among the colonies existed along the few roads between Boston, New York and Philadelphia. In the middle 18th century, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails then and were the general architects of a postal system that started out as an alternative to the Crown Post (the colonial mail system then) which was now becoming more distrusted as the American Revolution drew near.

Augusta Declaration

Five days later, on May 15, the Convention declared Virginia wholly independent of Great Britain, and called for state papers (a declaration of rights and constitution), foreign alliances, and a confederation of the colonies. These resolutions were forwarded to the Second Continental Congress and introduced as the Lee Resolution, which initiated the drafting of the United States Declaration of Independence, the Model Treaty (foreign policy), and the Articles of Confederation (the first U.S. constitution), respectively.

List of capitals in the United States

state capitalcapitalcapital city
Declaration of Independence was debated and signed, and which starting in 1775 coordinated the American Revolutionary War, met primarily in the Pennsylvania State House, today Independence Hall, in Independence National Historic Park. The room as it was then is accurately depicted in the famous painting Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull, commissioned by Congress, which has hung in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda since 1825. The Articles of Confederation, though drafted in York, Pennsylvania, were adopted in Philadelphia in 1777, subject to the states' approval. The Second Continental Congress also met briefly in the following locations:.

Signing of the United States Declaration of Independence

SignersDeclaration of Independence signeroriginal 56 signatories
Not to be confused with John Trumbull's painting Declaration of Independence. The signing of the United States Declaration of Independence occurred primarily on August 2, 1776 at the Pennsylvania State House, Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The 56 delegates to the Second Continental Congress represented the 13 former colonies which had declared themselves the "United States of America," and they endorsed the Declaration of Independence which, contrary to popular belief, the Congress had approved on July 2, 1776.

Maryland in the American Revolution

History of Maryland in the American Revolutionkey political and military roles in the warState of Maryland
He arrived too late to vote in favor of it, but was able to sign the Declaration of Independence. It is possible that the First Amendment to the United States Constitution - guaranteeing freedom of religion - was written in appreciation for Carroll's considerable financial support during the Revolutionary War. Carroll was the only Roman Catholic to sign the Declaration of Independence, and until his death in 1832 he was its last living signatory. Samuel Chase (1741–1811), was a "firebrand" states-righter and revolutionary, and was a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland.

Architecture of the United States

American architectureAmericanNorth America
Boston and Salem in the Massachusetts Bay Colony were two primary cities where the Georgian style took hold, but in a simpler style than in England, adapted to the colonial limitations. The Georgian style predominated residential design in the British colonial era in the thirteen Colonies. At the Mount Pleasant mansion (1761–1762) in Philadelphia, the residence is constructed with an entrance topped by a pediment supported by Doric columns. The roof has a balustrade and a symmetrical arrangement, characteristic of the neoclassic style popular in Europe then. In 1776 the members of the Continental Congress issued the Declaration of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies.

History of Philadelphia

Philadelphiahistorycolonial Philadelphia
After the American Revolutionary War began in April 1775 following the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the Second Continental Congress met in May at the Pennsylvania State House. There they also met a year later to write and sign the Declaration of Independence in July 1776. Philadelphia was important to the war effort; Robert Morris said, You will consider Philadelphia, from its centrical situation, the extent of its commerce, the number of its artificers, manufactures and other circumstances, to be to the United States what the heart is to the human body in circulating the blood. The port city was vulnerable to attack by the British by sea.

Give me liberty, or give me death!

Give me liberty or give me deathLiberty or Deathgive me liberty or give me death" speech
The Declaration is commonly cited as an inspiration for the United States Declaration of Independence by many, including the US Senate and it is possible that Henry knew of the Declaration when he wrote his speech. The motto of Greece is "Liberty or Death" (Eleftheria i thanatos). It arose during the Greek War of Independence in the 1820s, where it was a war cry for the Greeks who rebelled against Ottoman rule. A popular (and possibly concocted) story in Brazil relates that in 1822, the emperor Pedro I uttered the famous [[Pedro I of Brazil#Independence or Death|"Cry from [the river] Ipiranga"]], "Independence or Death" (Independência ou Morte), when Brazil was still a colony of Portugal.

Pennsylvania in the American Revolution

PennsylvaniaPennsylvania during the American Revolutionary War
The American Revolution included both the political and social development of the Thirteen Colonies of British America, and the Revolutionary War. John Adams wrote to Thomas Jefferson in 1815: "What do We mean by the Revolution? The War? That was no part of the Revolution. It was only an Effect and Consequence of it. The Revolution was in the Minds of the People, and this was effected, from 1760 to 1775, in the course of fifteen Years before a drop of blood was drawn at Lexington.

18th century

18th18th-centuryEighteenth Century
The United States Declaration of Independence is adopted by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. 1776: Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations. 1778: James Cook becomes the first European to land on the Hawaiian Islands. 1779–1879: Xhosa Wars between British and Boer settlers and the Xhosas in the South African Republic. 1780: Outbreak of the indigenous rebellion against Spanish colonization led by Túpac Amaru II in Peru. 1781: The city of Los Angeles is founded by Spanish settlers. 1781–1785: Serfdom is abolished in the Austrian monarchy (first step; second step in 1848). 1783: The Treaty of Paris formally ends the American Revolutionary War. 1785–1791: Imam Sheikh Mansur, a Chechen

Abolitionism in the United States

In the 18th century, Thomas Jefferson and some of his contemporaries had plans to abolish slavery. Despite the fact that Jefferson was a lifelong slaveholder, he had included strong anti-slavery language in the original draft of the Declaration of Independence, but other delegates removed it. Benjamin Franklin, also a slaveholder for most of his life, was a leading member of the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery, the first recognized organization for abolitionists in the United States. Massachusetts took a much more radical position. Its Supreme Court ruled in 1783, that a black man was, indeed, a man and therefore free under the state's constitution.

History of Albany, New York

the city's history
In 1775, with the colonies in the midst of the Revolutionary War, the Stadt Huys became home to the Albany Committee of Correspondence (the political arm of the local revolutionary movement), which took over operation of Albany's government and eventually expanded its power to control all of Albany County. Tories and prisoners of war were often jailed in the Stadt Huys alongside common criminals. In 1776, Albany native Philip Livingston signed the Declaration of Independence at Independence Hall in Philadelphia. During and after the Revolutionary War, there was a great increase in real estate transactions in Albany County.


enlightenment thinkerparti philosophiquephilosophie au triomphe de laquelle était consacrée l’''Encyclopédie
In the British Thirteen Colonies of North America, James Bowdoin (1726–1790), John Adams (1735–1826) and John Hancock (1737–1793) founded the American Academy of Arts and Sciences at Boston during the American War of Independence. In 1743, Benjamin Franklin founded the American Philosophical Society. At the start of the 19th century, Thomas Jefferson had one of the largest private libraries in the country. Of all the learned societies, the most advanced was that of the Freemasons, although restricted to the upper classes. Having its origin in Great Britain, freemasonry embraced all the characteristics of the Lumières: God-fearing, tolerant, liberal, humanist, aesthetic.

List of Assassin's Creed characters

Ratonhnhaké:tonEdward KenwayHaytham Kenway
Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 – 4 July 1826) was one of the American Founding Fathers of the United States, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States. During the fight against King Washington's tyranny, Thomas Jefferson was the leader of the New York rebellion. When Ratonhnhaké꞉ton crashed the Aquila into another ship off the shore of New York City, Washington traveled to the docks to investigate the disturbance. Jefferson seized this opportunity and infiltrated Washington's fortress. He was later quickly overwhelmed and required Ratonhnhaké꞉ton's assistance in order to retreat.

Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

Rhode IslandColony of Rhode IslandRhode Island Colony
Leading figures in the colony were involved in the 1776 launch of the American Revolutionary War which delivered American independence from the British Empire, such as former royal governors Stephen Hopkins and Samuel Ward, as well as John Brown, Nicholas Brown, William Ellery, the Reverend James Manning, and the Reverend Ezra Stiles, each of whom had played an influential role in founding Brown University in Providence in 1764 as a sanctuary for religious and intellectual freedom.