Independence Day (United States)

Independence Day4th of JulyFourth of July
Historians have long disputed whether members of Congress signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, even though Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin all later wrote that they had signed it on that day. Most historians have concluded that the Declaration was signed nearly a month after its adoption, on August 2, 1776, and not on July 4 as is commonly believed. Coincidentally, both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, the only signers of the Declaration of Independence later to serve as Presidents of the United States, died on the same day: July 4, 1826, which was the 50th anniversary of the Declaration.

United States Bill of Rights

Bill of RightsU.S. Bill of RightsBill of Rights Day
The Philadelphia Convention set out to correct weaknesses of the Articles that had been apparent even before the American Revolutionary War had been successfully concluded. The convention took place from May 14 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Although the Convention was purportedly intended only to revise the Articles, the intention of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The convention convened in the Pennsylvania State House, and George Washington of Virginia was unanimously elected as president of the convention.

State funerals in the United States

state funeralstate funeralsfunerals of sitting and former presidents of the United States
Two ex-presidents and fierce rivals, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, died within hours of each other on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson's funeral, held in Charlottesville, Virginia, was simple. No invitations were sent out for the religious service officiated by Reverend Frederick Hatch at the Episcopal Church in Charlottesville. Only friends and family members gathered at his gravesite on the grounds of Monticello. It is likely that Jefferson's casket was wooden, built by Monticello slave John Hemings.

1776 (musical)

17761776'' (musical)1969 Broadway musical of the same name
Directed by Garry Hynes, the limited engagement starred Santino Fontana as John Adams, John Larroquette as Benjamin Franklin, John Behlmann as Thomas Jefferson, Christiane Noll as Abigail Adams, Nikki Renée Daniels as Martha Jefferson, Bryce Pinkham as John Dickinson, Alexander Gemignani as Edward Rutledge, André De Shields as Stephen Hopkins, and Jubilant Sykes as Richard Henry Lee, with the cast rounded out by MacIntyre Dixon and Ric Stoneback reprising their roles from the 1997 revival as Andrew McNair and Samuel Chase, respectively, with Terence Archie, Larry Bull, John Hickok, John Hillner, Kevin Ligon, John-Michael Lyles, Laird Mackintosh, Michael McCormick, Michael Medeiros, Wayne Pretlow

Visit of the Marquis de Lafayette to the United States

grand tourgrand tour of the United Statestour of the United States
September 28 – Visit to Philadelphia with a parade followed by speeches at the State House (Independence Hall) under Philadelphia architect William Strickland's Triumphal Arches. October 6 – Escorted to Wilmington, Delaware by the Grand Lodge of Delaware Masons. October 8 to October 11 - Toured Baltimore and met with surviving officers and soldiers of the Revolution. October 12 – Arrives in the District of Columbia. October 15 – Spends the entire evening at Arlington House, although he returns to his hotel in Washington D.C. at night. October 17 – Visits Mount Vernon and George Washington's tomb in Virginia.

Congress Voting Independence

Congress Voting Independence is a painting by Robert Edge Pine showing the interior of Independence Hall, Philadelphia, and contains the portraits of most of the signers of the United States Declaration of Independence. The artist worked on the painting from 1784 until his death in 1788. The painting is unfinished. It currently is held in Independence Hall, Philadelphia. Most of the portraits can be identified. The central figures, left to right, are John Adams of Massachusetts, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, Robert R. Livingston, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, and Benjamin Franklin (seated).

Timeline of Baltimore

Baltimore Town
Reconstruction begins of old American Revolutionary War fortifications at Fort Whetstone at end of southern peninsula between Basin (modern Inner Harbor) and Northwest Branch of Patapsco River on its north side to Middle and Ferry (now Southern) Branches on its south side. Star-shaped Fort McHenry, renamed for James McHenry, third Secretary of War under Presidents George Washington and John Adams.

Signing of the United States Declaration of Independence

SignersDeclaration of Independence signeroriginal 56 signatories
Not to be confused with John Trumbull's painting Declaration of Independence. The signing of the United States Declaration of Independence occurred primarily on August 2, 1776 at the Pennsylvania State House, Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The 56 delegates to the Second Continental Congress represented the 13 former colonies which had declared themselves the "United States of America," and they endorsed the Declaration of Independence which the Congress had approved on July 4, 1776. The Declaration proclaimed that the former Thirteen Colonies then at war with Great Britain were now a sovereign, independent nation and thus no longer a part of the British Empire.

New Castle Court House Museum

New Castle Court HouseCourt Housecourthouse
Two years later, President Thomas Jefferson appointed Rodney U.S. Attorney General. In 1801, John and Richard Penn, heirs of William, brought a federal lawsuit seeking compensation for the uncultivated lands of Delaware which they claimed they were entitled to as former proprietors. The damages they sought were allowed under the Midnight Judges Act signed into law by President John Adams before the end of his term. The Act was repealed in 1802. In 1804, the case was heard in a trial at the New Castle Court House. The case was notable for the prominence of the legal teams assembled on each side.

American civil religion

civil religion
It produced a Moses-like leader (George Washington), prophets (Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine), apostles (John Adams, Benjamin Franklin) and martyrs (Boston Massacre, Nathan Hale), as well as devils (Benedict Arnold), sacred places (Valley Forge), rituals (raising the Liberty Tree), flags (the Betsy Ross flag), sacred holidays (July 4th) and a holy scripture (The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution). The elitists who ran the Federalists were conscious of the need to boost voter identification with their party. Elections remained of central importance but for the rest of the political year celebrations, parades, festivals, and visual sensationalism were used.

List of Presidents of the United States on currency

has appeared
Thomas Jefferson * $5, 1991, silver, with Independence Hall – Declaration of Independence KM#143 Abraham Lincoln * $5 1991, silver, with Abolition of Slavery KM#145 Theodore Roosevelt * $5 1991, silver, with Panama Canal KM#149 Abraham Lincoln * $50, 1990, silver, with United States Capitol dome KM#48 Thomas Jefferson * $50, 1993, gold, KM#175 George Washington * $50 1993, gold, KM#173 Abraham Lincoln * 1 Peso, 1993 1 peso, copper, commemorative, shows U.S.A (lower 48) and broken chains in background, Cuban shield on obverse. km#509 '''Dwight D.

James Wilson

Fort Wilson RiotWilson
Scholars considered his work on par with the seminal works of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams of the same year. However, it was actually penned in 1768, perhaps the first cogent argument to be formulated against British dominance. Some see Wilson as a leading revolutionary while others see him as another reluctant, elite revolutionary reacting to the stream of events determined by the radicals on the ground. In 1775, he was commissioned Colonel of the 4th Cumberland County Battalion and rose to the rank of Brigadier General of the Pennsylvania State Militia. As a member of the Continental Congress in 1776, Wilson was a firm advocate for independence.

Historical characters in the Southern Victory Series

Abraham LincolnErnest HemingwayRichard Lyons
Flora Hamburger once quoted Franklin's warning "Those who would trade essential liberty for a little temporary security deserve neither liberty nor security" in a floor debate in the House of Representatives—which incidentally met in Independence Hall. Former president Abraham Lincoln also quoted Franklin to his host when he visited Salt Lake City in 1881. Thomas Jefferson was the third President of the United States. Following the War of Secession, Thomas Jefferson's status as a Virginian (and more substantively, his insistence on a weak central government) tarnished his memory considerably in the United States.

Federalist Party

The party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a national coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies. These supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, which was committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government. The only Federalist President was John Adams. George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, but he remained officially non-partisan during his entire presidency.

Alien and Sedition Acts

Sedition ActSedition Act of 1798Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
Opposition to them resulted in the highly controversial Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, authored by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson. Prominent prosecutions under the Sedition Act include: The Democratic-Republicans made the Alien and Sedition Acts an important issue in the 1800 election campaign. Upon assuming the Presidency, Thomas Jefferson pardoned those still serving sentences under the Sedition Act, and Congress soon repaid their fines. It has been said that the Alien Acts were aimed at Albert Gallatin, and the Sedition Act aimed at Benjamin Bache's Aurora.

Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
This hurt Adams's 1800 reelection campaign and split the Federalist Party, virtually assuring the victory of the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Jefferson, in the election of 1800; it destroyed Hamilton's position among the Federalists. Jefferson had beaten Adams, but both he and his running mate, Aaron Burr, had received 73 votes in the Electoral College (Adams finished in third place, Pinckney in fourth, and Jay received one vote). With Jefferson and Burr tied, the United States House of Representatives had to choose between the two men. Several Federalists who opposed Jefferson supported Burr, and for the first 35 ballots, Jefferson was denied a majority.

Historical rankings of presidents of the United States

rankedrankgenerally ranked
Bush (95%). 4) George Washington (94%). 5) Abraham Lincoln (88%). 6) John F. Kennedy (83%). 7) Richard Nixon (82%). 8) Jimmy Carter (79%). 9) Thomas Jefferson (72%). 10) Ronald Reagan (66%). 11) Gerald Ford (62%). 12) Franklin D. Roosevelt or Theodore Roosevelt (60%). 13) John Adams or John Quincy Adams (56%). 14) Dwight D. Eisenhower (54%). 15) Harry S. Truman (50%). 16) Andrew Jackson (47%). 17) Herbert Hoover (42%). 18) Andrew Johnson or Lyndon B. Johnson (41%). 19) William Howard Taft (39%). 20) James Madison (38%). 21) Ulysses S. Grant (38%). 22) James Monroe (30%). 23) Woodrow Wilson (29%). 24) Calvin Coolidge (22%). 25) James A. Garfield (19%). 26) James K. Polk (17%). 27) Warren G.

Committee of Five

committeefive-man committeefive-man drafting committee
On June 11, the Committee of Five was appointed: John Adams of Massachusetts, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, Robert Livingston of New York, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, and Thomas Jefferson of Virginia. Because the committee left no minutes, there is some uncertainty about how the drafting process proceeded—accounts written many years later by Jefferson and Adams, although frequently cited, are contradictory and not entirely reliable. Certainly the committee, after discussing the general outline that the document should follow, decided that Jefferson would write the first draft. With Congress's busy schedule, Jefferson had limited time to write the draft over the ensuing 17 days.

Democratic-Republican Party

The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (2005), detailed narrative history, 1800–1860. Wills, Garry. Henry Adams and the Making of America (2005), a close reading of Henry Adams (1889–1891). Cunningham, Noble E. In Pursuit of Reason The Life of Thomas Jefferson (ISBN: 0-345-35380-3) (1987). Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. "John Beckley: An Early American Party Manager", William and Mary Quarterly, 13 (January 1956), 40–52, in JSTOR. Miller, John C. Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox (1959), full-scale biography. Peterson; Merrill D. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1975), full-scale biography. Remini, Robert.

John Quincy Adams

AdamsJohn QuincyJ. Q. Adams
In the 1800 presidential election, Jefferson defeated John Adams, and both Adams left office in early 1801. On his return to the United States, Adams re-established a legal practice in Boston, and in April 1802 he was elected to the Massachusetts Senate. In November of that same year he ran unsuccessfully for the United States House of Representatives. In February 1803, the Massachusetts legislature elected Adams to the United States Senate. Though somewhat reluctant to affiliate with any political party, Adams joined the Federalist minority in Congress.