George Wythe

WytheWythe, George
The first of the seven Virginia signatories of the United States Declaration of Independence, Wythe served as one of Virginia's representatives to the Continental Congress and the Philadelphia Convention. Wythe taught and was a mentor to Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, Henry Clay and other men who became American leaders. Born into a wealthy Virginia planter family, Wythe established a legal career in Williamsburg, Virginia after studying under his uncle. He became a member of the House of Burgesses in 1754 and helped oversee defense expenditures during the French and Indian War. He opposed the Stamp Act of 1765 and other British taxes imposed on the Thirteen Colonies.

George Tucker (politician)

George TuckerProf. George Tucker
He was elected in 1816 to the Virginia House of Delegates for one term, and served in the United States House of Representatives from 1819 to 1825. From his youth until early middle age, Tucker's lofty social lifestyle was often profligate, and occasionally scandalous. Nevertheless, upon completion of his congressional term, his eloquent publications led Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to extend to him an appointment to serve as Professor of Moral Philosophy at the newly founded University of Virginia; he accepted and held that post until 1845.

Congress Hall

Philadelphia served as the capital of the United States both during and immediately after the American Revolutionary War. Independence Hall, located next door, served as the meeting place of the Continental Congress until the Pennsylvania Mutiny in June 1783. The failure of the Pennsylvania government to protect Congress from a mob of angry mutineers caused the representatives to withdraw to Princeton, New Jersey. The national capital then moved to Annapolis, Maryland in November 1783, then to Trenton, New Jersey in November 1784 before finally moving to New York City in January 1785.

Liberty Bell

Liberty Bell CenterBellL. Bell
Once placed in the steeple of the Pennsylvania State House (now renamed Independence Hall), the bell today is located in the Liberty Bell Center in Independence National Historical Park. The bell was commissioned in 1752 by the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly from the London firm of Lester and Pack (known subsequently as the Whitechapel Bell Foundry), and was cast with the lettering "Proclaim LIBERTY Throughout all the Land unto all the Inhabitants Thereof", a Biblical reference from the Book of Leviticus . The bell first cracked when rung after its arrival in Philadelphia, and was twice recast by local workmen John Pass and John Stow, whose last names appear on the bell.

Natural law

laws of naturenatural lawslaw of nature
Cicero became John Adams's "foremost model of public service, republican virtue, and forensic eloquence." Adams wrote of Cicero that "as all the ages of the world have not produced a greater statesman and philosopher united in the same character, his authority should have great weight." Thomas Jefferson "first encountered Cicero as a schoolboy while learning Latin, and continued to read his letters and discourses throughout his life. He admired him as a patriot, valued his opinions as a moral philosopher, and there is little doubt that he looked upon Cicero's life, with his love of study and aristocratic country life, as a model for his own."

1788–89 United States presidential election

17891788–1789 United States presidential election1788
Washington had distinguished himself in his role as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and he was enormously popular. After Washington agreed to come out of retirement, it was widely assumed that he would be elected president. Washington did not select a running mate, and no formal political parties had arisen, so it was unclear who would become the first vice president. Prior to the election, Thomas Jefferson predicted that a popular Northern leader like Governor John Hancock of Massachusetts or Adams, a former minister to Great Britain who had represented Massachusetts in Congress, would be elected vice president.

List of Vice Presidents of the United States

14th48thVice President
The youngest person to become Vice President was John C. Breckinridge at 36 years of age while the oldest was Alben W. Barkley at 71 years of age. Two Vice Presidents—George Clinton and John C. Calhoun—served under more than one President. There are currently five living former vice presidents. The most recent former vice president to die was George H. W. Bush on November 30, 2018. Twenty-five Vice Presidents held other high state or federal government positions after leaving the vice presidency. Fourteen went on to become President, namely John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Van Buren, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A.

List of tie-breaking votes cast by vice presidents of the United States

tie-breaking votetie-breaking votesany tie-breaking votes
The first President of the Senate, John Adams, cast 29 tie-breaking votes. He cast his first tie-breaking vote on July 18, 1789. His votes protected the president's sole authority over the removal of appointees, influenced the location of the national capital, and prevented war with Great Britain. On at least one occasion he persuaded senators to vote against legislation that he opposed, and he frequently lectured the Senate on procedural and policy matters. Adams's political views and his active role in the Senate made him a natural target for critics of the Washington administration.

Presidency of George Washington

first inauguration of George Washingtoninauguratedpresidency
In an August 1788 letter, Thomas Jefferson wrote that he considered John Adams, John Hancock, John Jay, James Madison, and John Rutledge to be contenders for the vice presidency. In January 1789, upon hearing that Adams would probably win the vice presidency, Washington wrote to Henry Knox, saying "[I am] entirely satisfied with the arrangement for filling the second office." Each state's presidential electors gathered in their state's capital on February 4, 1789, to cast their votes for the president.

List of Presidents of the United States

President of the United StatesPresident44th
Soon after the 1st Congress convened, factions began rallying around dominant Washington Administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Greatly concerned about the capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never affiliated with a political party. Since Washington, every president has been affiliated with a political party at the time they assumed office. Three presidents held another U.S. federal office after serving as president.

United States Electoral College

Electoral Collegepresidential electorelectoral votes
Pennsylvania split eight to seven for Jefferson, favoring Jefferson with a majority of 53% in a state with 0.1% slave population. In 1800, Thomas Jefferson, a Virginia slaveowner, was elected president over the incumbent John Adams, whose home state of Massachusetts had abolished slavery, with Jefferson netting twenty free-soil votes, about the same a Virginia’s twenty-one votes, or 25.4% of Jefferson’s Electoral College total count.

United States Secretary of the Treasury

Secretary of the TreasuryTreasury SecretaryU.S. Secretary of the Treasury
Acting Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence Adam J. Szubin served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from January 20, 2017, until the confirmation of Steven Mnuchin which occurred February 13, 2017. If both the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury are unable to carry out the duties of the office of Secretary of the Treasury, then whichever Treasury official of Under Secretary rank sworn in earliest assumes the role of Acting Secretary. Positions listed on the Department of the Treasury website include the Under Secretary for Domestic Finance, the Under Secretary for International Affairs, and the Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence.

James Monroe

MonroePresident MonroePresident James Monroe
His death came 55 years after the United States Declaration of Independence was proclaimed and 5 years after the death of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Monroe was originally buried in New York at the Gouverneur family's vault in the New York City Marble Cemetery. Twenty-seven years later, in 1858, his body was re-interred at the President's Circle in Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia. The James Monroe Tomb is a U.S. National Historic Landmark. "When it comes to Monroe's thoughts on religion," historian Bliss Isely notes, "less is known than that of any other President." No letters survive in which he discussed his religious beliefs.

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

Associate JusticeJusticeSupreme Court Justice
There are four living retired associate justices at the present time: Sandra Day O'Connor, retired January 31, 2006; David Souter, retired June 29, 2009; John Paul Stevens, retired June 29, 2010; and Anthony Kennedy, retired July 31, 2018. Both O'Connor and Souter occasionally serve on panels of the Courts of Appeals of various circuits. Stevens and Kennedy have not performed any judicial duties. Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, the following 102 persons have served as an associate justice: *Associate Justice Historic Supreme Court Decisionsby Justice, Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Supreme Court of the United States (website home page).

Levi Lincoln Sr.

Levi Lincoln
In the later days of the John Adams administration, the President issued a large number of commissions, some of which had not been delivered by John Marshall, his Secretary of State, at the time Jefferson assumed office. Jefferson ordered Lincoln (in his capacity as acting Secretary of State), and then Madison (after his assumption of the position) not to deliver these commissions. Some intended recipients of these commissions, William Marbury among them, filed a suit in the United States Supreme Court to compel their delivery. In his role as Attorney General, Lincoln was present at the preliminary hearing on the case, representing Madison.

Meriwether Lewis

LewisCaptain Meriwether LewisLewis, Meriwether
On April 1, 1801, Lewis was appointed as an aide by President Thomas Jefferson, whom he knew through Virginia society in Albemarle County. Lewis resided in the presidential mansion, and frequently conversed with various prominent figures in politics, the arts and other circles. He compiled information on the personnel and politics of the United States Army, which had seen an influx of Federalist officers as a result of "midnight appointments" made by outgoing president John Adams in 1801. When Jefferson began to plan for an expedition across the continent, he chose Lewis to lead the expedition. Meriwether Lewis recruited Clark, then age 33, to share command of the expedition.

Military Peace Establishment Act

Military Peace Establishment Act of 1802
On March 1, 1802 Congress authorized President Jefferson to organize a corps of engineers. After Jefferson signed the Military Peace Establishment Act on March 16, the United States Military Academy at West Point was soon established on the Hudson River in New York. On July 4, 1802, the U.S. Military Academy formally opened for instruction. At first it appeared that Jefferson's Military Peace Establishment Act was calling for a reduction in the army's authorized strength, but the Act resulted in the removal of few enlisted men. Jefferson and Dearborn instead began to relieve some of the most visible and partisan Federalists that were commissioned under John Adams' presidency.

Thomas Pinckney

General Thomas PinckneyPinckney, ThomasThomas
Following his diplomatic success in Spain, the Federalists chose Pinckney as John Adams's running mate in the 1796 presidential election. Under the rules then in place, the individual who won the most electoral votes became president, while the individual who won the second most electoral votes became vice president. Although Adams won the presidential election, Democratic-Republican candidate Thomas Jefferson won the second most electoral votes and won election as vice president. After the election, Pinckney served in the United States House of Representatives from 1797 to 1801.

Richard Price

Dr PriceDr. PricePrice
The group that Benjamin Franklin christened the "Club of Honest Whigs" was an informal dining group around John Canton. It met originally in St Paul's Churchyard, at the London Coffee House; in 1771 it moved to Ludgate Hill. Price and Sir John Pringle were members, as were Priestley and Benjamin Vaughan. At home, or at his church itself, Price was visited by Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and Thomas Paine; other American politicians such as Ambassador John Adams, who later became the second president of the United States, and his wife Abigail; and British politicians such as Lord Lyttleton, Earl Stanhope (known as "Citizen Stanhope"), and William Pitt the Elder.

USS Constitution

USS ''ConstitutionConstitutionOld Ironsides
In response, Thomas Jefferson sent a squadron of frigates to protect American merchant ships in the Mediterranean and to pursue peace with the Barbary States. The first squadron under the command of Richard Dale in was instructed to escort merchant ships through the Mediterranean and to negotiate with leaders of the Barbary States. A second squadron was assembled under the command of Richard Valentine Morris in. The performance of Morris's squadron was so poor, however, that he was recalled and subsequently dismissed from the Navy in 1803.

Jefferson Bible

Jeffersonian BibleLife and Morals of JesusThe Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth
Bibliography of Thomas Jefferson. Jesuism. The Jesus Seminar. List of Gospels. Rationalism. Religious views of Thomas Jefferson. Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. Official Smithsonian Jefferson Bible website: "Thomas Jefferson's Bible" – at National Museum of American History. Online text: The Jefferson Bible: The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, Extracted From The Four Gospels; Originally Compiled by Thomas Jefferson; Edited by Charles M. Province United Christ Church Ministry. Thomas Jefferson and his Bible from Frontline.