GNU/LinuxLinux on the desktopLin
Linux Foundation. Linux From Scratch. Linux Software Map. List of Linux distributions. List of games released on Linux. List of operating systems. Loadable kernel module. Usage share of operating systems. Graphical map of Linux Internals. Linux kernel website and archives. The History of Linux in GIT Repository Format 1992–2010.


smartphonessmart phonesmart phones
Android (based on the modified Linux kernel) is a mobile operating system developed by Google Inc. Besides having the largest installed base worldwide on smartphones, it is also the most popular operating system for general purpose computers (a category that includes desktop computers and mobile devices), even though Android is not a popular operating system for regular (desktop) personal computers (PCs). Although the Android operating system is free and open-source software, in devices sold, much of the software bundled with it (including Google apps and vendor-installed software) is proprietary software and closed source.

Apple Inc.

AppleApple ComputerApple Inc
Mac OS X, based on NeXT's OPENSTEP and BSD Unix, was released on March 24, 2001, after several years of development. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability, and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface. To aid users in migrating from Mac OS 9, the new operating system allowed the use of OS 9 applications within Mac OS X via the Classic Environment. On May 19, 2001, Apple opened its first official eponymous retail stores in Virginia and California. On October 23 of the same year, Apple debuted the iPod portable digital audio player.

Tablet computer

tabletstabletTablet PC
Before the release of iPad, Axiotron introduced an aftermarket, heavily modified Apple MacBook called Modbook, a Mac OS X-based tablet computer. The Modbook uses Apple's Inkwell for handwriting and gesture recognition, and uses digitization hardware from Wacom. To get Mac OS X to talk to the digitizer on the integrated tablet, the Modbook was supplied with a third-party driver. Following the launch of the Ultra-mobile PC, Intel began the Mobile Internet Device initiative, which took the same hardware and combined it with a tabletized Linux configuration.

Microsoft Windows

WindowsPCMS Windows
According to Net Applications, which tracks the use of operating systems in devices that are active on the Web, Windows was the most used operating-system family on personal computers in July 2017, with close to 90% usage share. Including personal computers of all kinds (e.g., desktops, laptops, mobile devices), Windows OSes accounted for 35.24% of usage share in July 2017, compared to Android (highest, at 41.24%), iOS's 13.22%, and macOS's 4.64%, according to StatCounter, which tracks use of operating systems by their use in devices active on the Web.


Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
Since the 1990s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011., Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android.


Mozilla LabsMozilla ResearchFirefox Marketplace
XULRunner binaries are available for the Windows, GNU/Linux and OS X operating systems, allowing such applications to be effectively cross-platform. Pdf.js is a library developed by Mozilla that allows in-browser rendering of pdf documents using the HTML5 Canvas and JavaScript. It is included by default in recent versions of Firefox, allowing the browser to render pdf documents without requiring an external plugin; and it is available separately as an extension named "PDF Viewer" for Firefox for Android, SeaMonkey, and the Firefox versions which don't include it built-in.

Chrome OS

ChromeOSGoogle Chrome OSChrome
Comparison of operating systems. Google Fuchsia. Timeline of operating systems. CoreOS. Instant WebKiosk. List of operating systems. Webconverger. zram – a Linux kernel feature. Official website. Official blog. Release blog. Chromium OS project page. Chrome OS wiki. Official announcement. Google Chrome OS Live Webcast; November 19, 2009.

Proprietary software

ProprietaryClosed sourceclosed-source
Examples of proprietary software include Microsoft Windows, Adobe Flash Player, PS3 OS, iTunes, Adobe Photoshop, Google Earth, macOS (formerly Mac OS X and OS X), Skype, WinRAR, Oracle's version of Java and some versions of Unix. Software distributions considered as proprietary may in fact incorporate a "mixed source" model including both free and non-free software in the same distribution. Most if not all so-called proprietary UNIX distributions are mixed source software, bundling open-source components like BIND, Sendmail, X Window System, DHCP, and others along with a purely proprietary kernel and system utilities.

Berkeley Software Distribution

Although these proprietary BSD derivatives were largely superseded in the 1990s by UNIX SVR4 and OSF/1, later releases provided the basis for several open-source operating systems including FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, DragonFly BSD, Darwin, and TrueOS. These, in turn, have been used by proprietary operating systems, including Apple's macOS and iOS, which derived from them, and Microsoft Windows, which used a part of its TCP/IP code. Code from FreeBSD was also used to create the operating system for the PlayStation 4. The earliest distributions of Unix from Bell Labs in the 1970s included the source code to the operating system, allowing researchers at universities to modify and extend Unix.

Graphical user interface

GUIgraphicalgraphical interface
The GUIs familiar to most people as of the mid-late 2010s are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and the X Window System interfaces for desktop and laptop computers, and Android, Apple's iOS, Symbian, BlackBerry OS, Windows Phone/Windows 10 Mobile, Tizen, Palm OS-WebOS, and Firefox OS for handheld (smartphone) devices. Since the commands available in command line interfaces can be many, complex operations can be performed using a short sequence of words and symbols. This allows greater efficiency and productivity once many commands are learned, but reaching this level takes some time because the command words may not be easily discoverable or mnemonic.

ARM architecture

Android. ChibiOS/RT. Deos. DRYOS. eCos. embOS. FreeRTOS. Integrity. Linux. Micro-Controller Operating Systems. MQX. Nucleus PLUS. NuttX. OSE. OS-9. Pharos. Plan 9. PikeOS. QNX. RIOT. RTEMS. RTXC Quadros. SCIOPTA. ThreadX. TizenRT. T-Kernel. VxWorks. Windows Embedded Compact. Windows 10 IoT Core. Zephyr. Android. Bada. BlackBerry OS/BlackBerry 10. Chrome OS. Firefox OS. MeeGo. Sailfish. Symbian. Tizen. Ubuntu Touch. webOS. Windows RT. Windows Mobile. Windows Phone. Windows 10 Mobile. FreeBSD. NetBSD. OpenBSD. OpenSolaris. several Linux distributions, such as:. Debian. Gentoo. Ubuntu. Raspbian. Slackware. Integrity. OSE. SCIOPTA. seL4.


iPhonesApple iPhoneiPhone app
The iPhone runs an operating system known as iOS (formerly iPhone OS). It is a variant of the Darwin operating system core found in macOS. Also included is the "Core Animation" software component from Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard. Together with the graphics hardware (and on the iPhone 3GS, OpenGL ES 2.0), it is responsible for the interface's motion graphics. The iPhone comes with a set of bundled applications developed by Apple, and supports downloading third-party applications through the App Store. Apple provides free updates to the operating system for the iPhone either wirelessly or through iTunes. Major new updates have historically accompanied new models.


Google Inc.Google, Inc.Google LLC
Google develops the Android mobile operating system, as well as its smartwatch, television, car, and Internet of things-enabled smart devices variations. It also develops the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS, an operating system based on Chrome. In January 2010, Google released Nexus One, the first Android phone under its own brand, "Nexus". It spawned a number of phones and tablets under the "Nexus" branding until its eventual discontinuation in 2016, replaced by a new brand called Pixel. In 2011, the Chromebook was introduced, described as a "new kind of computer" running Chrome OS.


Various free, low-cost, and unrestricted substitutes for UNIX emerged in the 1980s and 1990s, including 4.4BSD, Linux, and Minix. Some of these have in turn been the basis for commercial "Unix-like" systems, such as BSD/OS and macOS. Several versions of (Mac) OS X/macOS running on Intel-based Mac computers have been certified under the Single UNIX Specification. The BSD variants are descendants of UNIX developed by the University of California at Berkeley with UNIX source code from Bell Labs. However, the BSD code base has evolved since then, replacing all of the AT&T code.

Comparison of operating systems

common operating systems
List of operating systems. Lightweight Linux distribution. MacvsWindows. Operating system advocacy. Security-focused operating system. Timeline of operating systems. Usage share of operating systems. Comparison of BSD operating systems. Comparison of DOS operating systems. Comparison of IPv6 support in operating systems. Comparison of operating system kernels. Comparison of Linux distributions. Comparison of netbook-oriented Linux distributions. Comparison of Microsoft Windows versions. Comparison of mobile operating systems. Comparison of open-source operating systems. Comparison of real-time operating systems. Comparison of OpenSolaris distributions.

Comparison of mobile operating systems

This is a comparison of mobile operating systems. Only the latest versions are shown in the table below, even though older versions may still be marketed. List of custom Android firmware. List of GPS software for mobile phones.


Symbian OSSymbian^3Symbian Belle
All of this discouraged third-party developers, and served to cause the native app ecosystem for Symbian not to evolve to a scale later reached by Apple's App Store or Android's Google Play. By contrast, iPhone OS (renamed iOS in 2010) and Android had comparatively simpler design, provided easier and much more centralized infrastructure to create and obtain third-party apps, offered certain developer tools and programming languages with a manageable level of complexity, and having capabilities such as multitasking and graphics in order to meet future consumer demands.

Computing platform

platformplatformssoftware platform
Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system. Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems, originally 68k-based, then PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86. ARM architecture based mobile devices. iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS, also from Apple. Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux. Newton devices running the Newton OS, also from Apple. x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants. CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
An operating system (OS) manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. An operating system processes system data and user input, and responds by allocating and managing tasks and internal system resources as a service to users and programs of the system. An operating system performs basic tasks such as controlling and allocating memory, prioritizing system requests, controlling input and output devices, facilitating computer networking, and managing files. Common contemporary desktop operating systems are Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, Solaris and FreeBSD. Windows, macOS, and Linux all have server and personal variants.

Firefox OS

Boot to GeckoFirefoxDigital rights management (DRM)
As such, Mozilla with Firefox OS competed with commercially developed operating systems such as Apple's iOS, Google's Android, Microsoft's Windows Phone, BlackBerry's BlackBerry 10, Samsung's/Linux Foundation's Tizen and Jolla's Sailfish OS. In December 2015 Mozilla announced it would stop development of new Firefox OS smartphones, and in September 2016 announced the end of development. Successors to Firefox OS include the community-developed B2G OS (no longer maintained ), Acadine Technologies' H5OS (now also discontinued), KaiOS Technologies' KaiOS and Panasonic's My Home Screen. Firefox OS was publicly demonstrated in February 2012, on Android-compatible smartphones.

List of operating systems

List of embedded operating systemsList of hobbyist operating systemsoperating system,
RISC OS. AmigaOS. AmigaOS 1.0-3.9 (Motorola 68000). AmigaOS 4 (PowerPC). Amiga Unix (a.k.a. Amix). AMSDOS. Contiki. CP/M 2.2. CP/M Plus. SymbOS. Apple II family. Apple DOS. Apple Pascal. ProDOS. GS/OS. GNO/ME. Contiki. Apple III. Apple SOS. Apple Lisa. Apple Macintosh. Classic Mac OS. A/UX (UNIX System V with BSD extensions). Copland. MkLinux. Pink. Rhapsody. macOS (formerly Mac OS X and OS X). macOS Server (formerly Mac OS X Server and OS X Server). Apple Network Server. IBM AIX (Apple-customized). Apple MessagePad. Newton OS. iPhone and iPod Touch. iOS (formerly iPhone OS). iPad. iPadOS. Apple Watch. watchOS. Apple TV. tvOS. Embedded operating systems.

X Window System

X11XX Window
In particular, place user interface policy in the clients' hands. macOS (and its mobile counterpart, iOS) implements its windows system, which is known as Quartz. When Apple Inc. bought NeXT, and used NeXTSTEP to construct Mac OS X, it replaced Display PostScript with Quartz. Mike Paquette, one of the authors of Quartz, explained that if Apple had added support for all the features it wanted to include into X11, it would not bear much resemblance to X11 nor be compatible with other servers anyway. Android, which runs on the Linux kernel, uses its own system for drawing the user interface known as SurfaceFlinger. 3D rendering is handled by EGL.

Sailfish OS

Sailfish AllianceSailfishSailfish OS 2.0
According to Jolla, development with Sailfish SDK is development on Sailfish OS itself; there are no differences between developed software appearance and behaviour in the SDK and on a device running Sailfish OS. The availability of source code to the SDK allows shaping and rebuilding to companies' or developers' specific needs, creating a context-specific environment that is set once and needs no preparation when the device is booted. The SDK runs on the operating systems Android, 32- and 64-bit versions of Linux, 64-bit versions of OS X, and Microsoft Windows. It can be used for compiling software for Sailfish OS devices from Linux sources.


The WebKit2 targets were set to Linux, Mac, Windows, GTK+, and MeeGo-Harmattan. Safari for OS X switched to the new API with version 5.1. Safari for iOS switched to WebKit2 since iOS 8. The original WebKit API has been renamed WebKitLegacy API. WebKit2 API has been renamed just plain WebKit API. WebKit is used as the rendering engine within Safari and was formerly used by Google's Chrome web browser on Windows, macOS, iOS, and Android before version 4.4 KitKat (Chrome used only WebCore, and included its own JavaScript engine named V8 and a multiprocess system).