Barefoot running

barefootrunning barefootran barefoot
Charles Robbins who won 11 U.S. national championships including the Yonkers Marathon in 1944, finished the Boston Marathon 20 times, with a third place in 1944, and was an alternate to the marathon team at the 1948 London Olympics often ran races barefoot. In 1960, Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the Olympic marathon in Rome barefoot setting a new world record after discovering that Adidas, the Olympic shoe supplier, had run out of shoes in his size. He was in pain because he had received shoes that were too small, so he decided to simply run barefoot; Bikila had trained running barefoot prior to the Olympics.

Plantar fasciitis

plantar fascia injuryDancer's heelHeel spur syndrome
Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the connective tissue which supports the arch of the foot. It results in pain in the heel and bottom of the foot that is usually most severe with the first steps of the day or following a period of rest. Pain is also frequently brought on by bending the foot and toes up towards the shin. The pain typically comes on gradually, and it affects both feet in about one third of cases.

Plantar fascia

plantar aponeurosisplantar aponeuroses
The plantar fascia also has an important role in dynamic function during gait. It was found the plantar fascia continuously elongated during the contact phase of gait. It went through rapid elongation before and immediately after mid-stance, reaching a maximum of 9% to 12% elongation between mid-stance and toe-off. During this phase the plantar fascia behaves like a spring, which may assist in conserving energy. In addition, the plantar fascia has a critical role in normal mechanical function of the foot, contributing to the "windlass mechanism".

Vivobarefoot

Terra Plana
Their technology, invented by Tim Brennan and developed by British shoe company Terra Plana, is aimed at offering the optimum biomechanics and posture commonly associated with walking barefoot and barefoot running and advocated within the barefoot movement and barefoot running community. It has been described as "as close to going barefoot in the city as you can get." The most prominent shoe using this technology is their Evo running shoe. * Wiggling Their Toes at the Shoe Giants, The New York Times, 30 August 2008 Barefoot running. Minimalist shoe. Vibram FiveFingers. Xero Shoes. Wiggling Their Toes at the Shoe Giants, The New York Times, 30 August 2008.

Minimalist shoe

minimalist runnersminimalist shoes
Vibram FiveFingers. Vivobarefoot. Xero Shoes.

Vibram

Vibram is well known for pioneering the barefoot running movement with the FiveFingers line of shoes, which mimic the look and mechanics of being barefoot. In the United States, Vibram soling products are manufactured under exclusive license by Quabaug Corporation of North Brookfield, Massachusetts. Although the brand is best known among the outdoor and mountaineering community, Vibram produces numerous models of soles specifically designed for fashion, military, rescue, law enforcement or industrial use. Vibram also produces soles used exclusively for footwear resoling.

Footwear

fashion footwearApparel/Footwear Retaildesigner
Bare feet are also seen as a sign of humility and respect, and adherents of many religions worship or mourn while barefoot. Some religious communities explicitly require people to remove shoes before they enter holy buildings, such as temples. In several cultures people remove their shoes as a sign of respect towards someone of higher standing. In a similar context deliberately forcing other people to go barefoot while being shod oneself has been used to clearly showcase and convey one's superiority within a setting of power disparity. Practitioners of the craft of shoemaking are called shoemakers, cobblers, or cordwainers.

Shoe

shoessoleinsole
Even the gods and heroes were primarily depicted barefoot, the hoplite warriors fought battles in bare feet and Alexander the Great conquered his vast empire with barefoot armies. The runners of Ancient Greece are also believed to have run barefoot. Pheidippides, the first marathoner, ran from Athens to Sparta in less than 36 hours. After the Battle of Marathon, he ran straight from the battlefield to Athens to inform the Athenians of the news. The Romans, who eventually conquered the Greeks and adopted many aspects of their culture, did not adopt the Greek perception of footwear and clothing.

Siraj Gena

Siraj Gena Amda
The event was made more special by the fact that it was in honour of the 50th anniversary of Ethiopian Abebe Bikila's Olympic gold in the 1960 Rome Olympic marathon, in which he became the first black African to win an Olympic gold medal. Gena marked the occasion by removing his shoes to run barefoot for the last 300 metres, mirroring the shoe-less running style of Bikila and earning a 5000€ bonus in the process. Gena won his second marathon of 2010 in October at the Beijing International Marathon.

Sport in Ethiopia

EthiopiaSports in Ethiopia
Ethiopian distance-runners include Derartu Tulu, Abebe Bikila, Mamo Wolde, Miruts Yifter, Addis Abebe, Sileshi Sihine, Gebregziabher Gebremariam, Belayneh Densamo, Werknesh Kidane, Tirunesh Dibaba, Meseret Defar, Million Wolde, and Assefa Mezgebu. Derartu Tulu was the first woman from Africa to win an Olympic gold medal, doing so over 10,000 meters at Barcelona. Abebe Bikila, the first Olympic champion representing an African nation, won the Olympic marathon in 1960 and 1964, setting world records both times. He is well-known to this day for winning the 1960 marathon in Rome while running barefoot.

Achilles tendinitis

Achilles tendonitis
Achilles tendinitis, also known as achilles tendinopathy, is when the Achilles tendon, found at the back of the ankle, becomes irritated. The most common symptoms are pain and swelling around the affected tendon. The pain is typically worse at the start of exercise and decreases thereafter. Stiffness of the ankle may also be present. Onset is generally gradual.

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
Germany (Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland, ), is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance, and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west.

Stress fracture

hairline fracturestress fracturesstress reaction
On the other hand, some athletes have argued that cushioning in shoes actually causes more stress by reducing the body's natural shock-absorbing action, thus increasing the frequency of running injuries. During exercise that applies more stress to the bones, it may help to increase daily calcium (2,000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU) intake, depending on the individual. For low-risk stress fractures, rest is the best management option. The amount of recovery time varies greatly depending upon the location and severity of the fracture, and the body's healing response.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or simply America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km 2 ), it is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.

Seoul

Seoul, South KoreaSeoul, KoreaHanseong
Seoul (, like soul; 서울 ; ), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Ranked as an alpha world city, Seoul was the world's 4th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors generally reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years (2005–2013) by the Airports Council International.

Gait

gallopleaping gaitsaction
The term 'gait' has even been applied to flying and swimming organisms that produce distinct patterns of wake vortices. * Bipedal gait cycle. Gait analysis. Gait abnormality. Gait (dog). Gait (human). Horse gait. Parkinsonian gait.

Sole (foot)

solesolessole of the foot
Gait (human). Human skeletal changes due to bipedalism.

Nike Free

Barefoot running. Vivobarefoot. FiveFingers. Rocker bottom shoe.

Rome Marathon

Rome City MarathonRomeMaratona di Rome
The 2010 race was held in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of Abebe Bikila's win at the 1960 Rome Olympic marathon race, a watershed moment in the development of East African competitive running. The 2010 men's winner, Siraj Gena, earned a 5000€ bonus for crossing the finish line barefoot in honour of Abebe Bikila's style. Key: * Official website List of winners. Città di Roma Marathon. Association of Road Racing Statisticians (2009-03-27). Retrieved on 2010-01-31.

List of long-distance runners

Long-distance runners
Abebe Bikila, double Olympic marathon champion in 1960 and 1964, most famous for winning the marathon in the 1960 Summer Olympics while running barefoot. Brahim Boulami, former steeplechase world record holder. Christopher Chataway, set a 5000 m world record of 13 minutes 51.6 seconds in 1954, and was a pacesetter when Roger Bannister ran the first ever sub-4 minute mile that same year. Ron Clarke, held the 10,000 meter world record for eight years. Eamonn Coghlan, World 5000m champion 1983.

Foot

feetinstepft
Gait analysis. Pes cavus. Sole (foot). Runner's toe, repetitive injury seen in runners. Ball (anatomy). Barefoot. Heel. Squatting position. Comparison of orthotics.

Locomotor effects of shoes

Such shoes as water socks, running sandals, moccasins, huaraches, dime-store plimsolls, Vibram FiveFingers footwear and other minimal running shoes have relatively thin soles but provide some protection. However minimal shoes do not give runners the same feedback from the plantar mechanoreceptors. Because of the greater protection they offer in comparison to barefoot running, minimal shoes may also interfere with the development of a gentle foot strike, toughening of the soles of the feet, and awareness of road hazards. calluses. foot pain. blisters. hammer toes. bunions (hallux valgus).

Abebe Bikila Award

The Abebe Bikila Award is an annual prize given by the New York Road Runners club (NYRR) to honour individuals who have made a significant contribution to the sport of long-distance running. The first recipient of the award was Ted Corbitt, a founder of both NYRR and the Road Runners Club of America, who received the honour on October 27, 1978. The award is named in honour of the two-time Olympic marathon winner Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia.

Hand walking

handstand walkwalking on his handshand balancers
Hand walking is an unusual form of human locomotion in which a person travels in a vertically inverted orientation with all body weight resting on the hands. It can be executed with legs fully extended or with variations such as stag, straddle or front splits. Hand walking is performed in various athletic activities, including acro dance and circus acrobatics.

1960 Summer Olympics

19601960 Olympic Games1960 Rome
Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the marathon barefooted to become the first black African Olympic champion. Cassius Clay, later known as Muhammad Ali, won boxing's light-heavyweight gold medal. Ramon "Buddy" Carr was one of the coaches that led this team to winning gold. Herb Elliott, AUS, won the men's 1500 meters in one of the most dominating performances in Olympic history. Rafer Johnson defeated his rival and friend C.K. Yang in one of the greatest Decathlon events in Olympic history. Lance Larson, US, was controversially denied a 100 metres freestyle swimming gold, despite showing the best time.