Barefoot running

barefootrunning barefootran barefoot
Charles Robbins who won 11 U.S. national championships including the Yonkers Marathon in 1944, finished the Boston Marathon 20 times, with a third place in 1944, and was an alternate to the marathon team at the 1948 London Olympics often ran races barefoot. In 1960, Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the Olympic marathon in Rome barefoot setting a new world record after discovering that Adidas, the Olympic shoe supplier, had run out of shoes in his size. He was in pain because he had received shoes that were too small, so he decided to simply run barefoot; Bikila had trained running barefoot prior to the Olympics.

Plantar fasciitis

plantar fascia injuryDancer's heelHeel spur syndrome
Identified risk factors for plantar fasciitis include excessive running, standing on hard surfaces for prolonged periods of time, high arches of the feet, the presence of a leg length inequality, and flat feet. The tendency of flat feet to excessively roll inward during walking or running makes them more susceptible to plantar fasciitis. Obesity is seen in 70% of individuals who present with plantar fasciitis and is an independent risk factor. Plantar fasciitis is commonly a result of some biomechanical imbalance that causes an increased amount of tension placed along the plantar fascia.

Achilles tendinitis

Achilles tendonitis
Achilles tendinitis is most commonly found in individuals aged 30–40 Runners are susceptible, as well as anyone participating in sports, and men aged 30–39. Risk factors include participating in a sport or activity that involves running, jumping, bounding, and change of speed. Although Achilles tendinitis is mostly likely to occur in runners, it also is more likely in participants in basketball, volleyball, dancing, gymnastics and other athletic activities. Other risk factors include gender, age, improper stretching, and overuse.

Shoe

shoessoleinsole
Even the gods and heroes were primarily depicted barefoot, the hoplite warriors fought battles in bare feet and Alexander the Great conquered his vast empire with barefoot armies. The runners of Ancient Greece are also believed to have run barefoot. Pheidippides, the first marathoner, ran from Athens to Sparta in less than 36 hours. After the Battle of Marathon, he ran straight from the battlefield to Athens to inform the Athenians of the news. The Romans, who eventually conquered the Greeks and adopted many aspects of their culture, did not adopt the Greek perception of footwear and clothing.

Gait

gallopleaping gaitsaction
In spite of the differences in leg number shown in terrestrial vertebrates, according to the inverted pendulum model of walking and spring-mass model of running, "walks" and "runs" are seen in animals with 2, 4, 6, or more legs. The term 'gait' has even been applied to flying and swimming organisms that produce distinct patterns of wake vortices. * Bipedal gait cycle. Gait analysis. Gait abnormality. Gait (dog). Gait (human). Horse gait. Parkinsonian gait.

Plantar fascia

plantar aponeurosisplantar aponeuroses
The plantar fascia also has an important role in dynamic function during gait. It was found the plantar fascia continuously elongated during the contact phase of gait. It went through rapid elongation before and immediately after mid-stance, reaching a maximum of 9% to 12% elongation between mid-stance and toe-off. During this phase the plantar fascia behaves like a spring, which may assist in conserving energy. In addition, the plantar fascia has a critical role in normal mechanical function of the foot, contributing to the "windlass mechanism".

Terrestrial locomotion

locomotionterrestrialTerrestrial locomotion in animals
Animals show a vast range of gaits, the order that they place and lift their appendages in locomotion. Gaits can be grouped into categories according to their patterns of support sequence. For quadrupeds, there are three main categories: walking gaits, running gaits, and leaping gaits. In one system (relating to horses), there are 60 discrete patterns: 37 walking gaits, 14 running gaits, and 9 leaping gaits. Walking is the most common gait, where some feet are on the ground at any given time, and found in almost all legged animals. In an informal sense, running is considered to occur when at some points in the stride all feet are off the ground in a moment of suspension.

Vivobarefoot

Terra Plana
Vivobarefoot is a minimalist running shoe company. Their technology, invented by Tim Brennan and developed by British shoe company Terra Plana, is aimed at offering the optimum biomechanics and posture commonly associated with walking barefoot and barefoot running and advocated within the barefoot movement and barefoot running community. It has been described as "as close to going barefoot in the city as you can get." The most prominent shoe using this technology is their Evo running shoe. * Wiggling Their Toes at the Shoe Giants, The New York Times, 30 August 2008 Barefoot running. Minimalist shoe. Vibram FiveFingers. Xero Shoes.

Bipedalism

bipedalbipedbipeds
A larger number of modern species intermittently or briefly use a bipedal gait. Several lizard species move bipedally when running, usually to escape from threats. Many primate and bear species will adopt a bipedal gait in order to reach food or explore their environment, though there are a few cases where they walk on their hindlimbs only. Several arboreal primate species, such as gibbons and indriids, exclusively walk on two legs during the brief periods they spend on the ground. Many animals rear up on their hind legs whilst fighting or copulating.

Walking

walkambulantwalkers
The fastest "walks" with a four-beat footfall pattern are actually the lateral forms of ambling gaits such as the running walk, singlefoot, and similar rapid but smooth intermediate speed gaits. If a horse begins to speed up and lose a regular four-beat cadence to its gait, the horse is no longer walking, but is beginning to either trot or pace. Elephants can move both forwards and backwards, but cannot trot, jump, or gallop. They use only two gaits when moving on land, the walk and a faster gait similar to running. In walking, the legs act as pendulums, with the hips and shoulders rising and falling while the foot is planted on the ground.

Jogging

joggerjoggersjog
A recent meta-analysis on running/jogging and mortality, including more than 230,000 participants found that runners were at 27% lower risk of death than non-runners, during 5.5-35 year follow-ups. Activewear. Outline of running. Physical exercise. 5K run. Fixx, James. The Complete Book of Running (Hardcover), Random House; 1st edition, 12 September 1977. ISBN: 0-394-41159-5. Fixx, James. Jim Fixx's Second Book of Running (Hardcover), Random House; 1st edition, 12 March 1980. ISBN: 0-394-50898-X. Bowerman, William J.; Harris, W.E.; Shea, James M. Jogging, New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1967. LCCN 67016154.

Iliotibial band syndrome

injured her left kneeIT Band Syndrome
ITBS can result from one or more of the following: training habits, anatomical abnormalities, or muscular imbalances: Training habits Abnormalities in leg/feet anatomy Muscle imbalance Iliotibial band syndrome is one of the leading causes of lateral knee pain in runners. The iliotibial band is a thick band of fascia on the lateral aspect of the knee, extending from the outside of the pelvis, over the hip and knee, and inserting just below the knee. The band is crucial to stabilizing the knee during running, as it moves from behind the femur to the front of the femur during activity.

Minimalist shoe

minimalist runnersminimalist shoes
Huarache (running shoe). Vibram FiveFingers. Vivobarefoot. Xero Shoes.

Long-distance running

long-distance runnerlong distance runnerlong-distance
Early tracks were usually on flattened earth or were simply marked areas of grass. The style of running tracks became refined during the 20th century: the oval running tracks were standardised to 400 metres in distance and cinder tracks were replaced by synthetic all-weather running track of asphalt and rubber from the mid-1960s onwards. It was not until the 1912 Stockholm Olympics that the standard long-distance track events of 5000 metres and 10,000 metres were introduced. Long-distance road running competitions are mainly conducted on courses of paved or tarmac roads, although major events often finish on the track of a main stadium.

Limb (anatomy)

limblimbsextremities
Many animals use limbs for locomotion, such as walking, running, or climbing. Some animals can use their front limbs (or upper limbs in humans) to carry and manipulate objects. Some animals can also use hind limbs for manipulation. Human legs and feet are specialized for two-legged locomotion – most other mammals walk and run on all four limbs. Human arms are weaker, but very mobile allowing us to reach at a wide range of distances and angles, and end in specialized hands capable of grasping and fine manipulation of objects.

Achilles tendon

AchillesAchilles' tendoncalcaneal tendon
It provides elastic energy storage in hopping, walking, and running. Computer models suggest this energy storage Achilles tendon increases top running speed by >80% and reduces running costs by more than three-quarters. It has been suggested that the "absence of a well-developed Achilles tendon in the nonhuman African apes would preclude them from effective running, both at high speeds and over extended distances." The oldest-known written record of the tendon being named for Achilles is in 1693 by the Flemish/Dutch anatomist Philip Verheyen. In his widely used text Corporis Humani Anatomia he described the tendon's location and said that it was commonly called "the cord of Achilles."

Vibram

Vibram is well known for pioneering the barefoot running movement with the FiveFingers line of shoes, which mimic the look and mechanics of being barefoot. In the United States, Vibram soling products are manufactured under exclusive license by Quabaug Corporation of North Brookfield, Massachusetts. Although the brand is best known among the outdoor and mountaineering community, Vibram produces numerous models of soles specifically designed for fashion, military, rescue, law enforcement or industrial use. Vibram also produces soles used exclusively for footwear resoling.

Abebe Bikila Award

The Abebe Bikila Award is an annual prize given by the New York Road Runners club (NYRR) to honour individuals who have made a significant contribution to the sport of long-distance running. The first recipient of the award was Ted Corbitt, a founder of both NYRR and the Road Runners Club of America, who received the honour on October 27, 1978. The award is named in honour of the two-time Olympic marathon winner Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia.

Footwear

fashion footwearApparel/Footwear Retaildesigner
Bare feet are also seen as a sign of humility and respect, and adherents of many religions worship or mourn while barefoot. Some religious communities explicitly require people to remove shoes before they enter holy buildings, such as temples. In several cultures people remove their shoes as a sign of respect towards someone of higher standing. In a similar context deliberately forcing other people to go barefoot while being shod oneself has been used to clearly showcase and convey one's superiority within a setting of power disparity. Practitioners of the craft of shoemaking are called shoemakers, cobblers, or cordwainers.

New York Road Runners

NYRRNew York Road Runners ClubAbbott Dash to the Finish Line 5K
Various programs are all designed to help youth of all sizes, fitness levels and athletic talents utilize the discipline of running to improve health, build character and uplift the spirit. In 2007, NYRR Foundation programs serve more than 20,000 kids per week from over 150 schools and community centers participating in NYRR Foundation programs in New York City and across the country. The club gives out the Abebe Bikila Award annually in recognition of individuals who have contributed to the sport of running.

Siraj Gena

Siraj Gena Amda
The event was made more special by the fact that it was in honour of the 50th anniversary of Ethiopian Abebe Bikila's Olympic gold in the 1960 Rome Olympic marathon, in which he became the first black African to win an Olympic gold medal. Gena marked the occasion by removing his shoes to run barefoot for the last 300 metres, mirroring the shoe-less running style of Bikila and earning a 5000€ bonus in the process. Gena won his second marathon of 2010 in October at the Beijing International Marathon.

Sport in Ethiopia

EthiopiaSports in Ethiopia
Abebe Bikila, the first Olympic champion representing an African nation, won the Olympic marathon in 1960 and 1964, setting world records both times. He is well-known to this day for winning the 1960 marathon in Rome while running barefoot. Miruts Yifter, the first in a tradition of Ethiopians known for their brilliant finishing speed, won gold at 5,000 and 10,000 meters at the Moscow Olympics. At the 2008 Beijing Olympics, Kenenisa Bekele became the second man to achieve this feat, while fellow Ethiopian Tirunesh Dibaba became the first woman to win gold in both the 5,000 and 10,000 meters.

Ancient Olympic Games

Olympic GamesOlympicOlympics
Leonidas of Rhodes (running: stadion, diaulos and hoplitodromos) (His record of 12 individual olympic titles was broken in 2016 by Michael Phelps who received his 13th original title. ). From Croton:. Astylos of Croton (running: stadion, diaulos and hoplitodromos). Milo of Croton (wrestling). Timasitheos of Croton (wrestling). From other cities/kingdoms:. Koroibos of Elis (stadion, the very first Olympic champion). Orsippus of Megara (running: diaulos). Theagenes of Thasos (boxer, pankratiast and runner). Alexander I of Macedon (running: stadion). Dionysodorus, Theban. Non-Greek:. Tiberius (steerer of a four-horse chariot). Nero (steerer of a ten-horse chariot).

Sprint (running)

sprintersprintsprinting
The 200 metres begins on the curve of a standard track (where the runners are staggered in their starting position, to ensure that they all run the same distance), and ends on the home straight. The ability to "run a good bend" is key at the distance, as a well conditioned runner will typically be able to run 200 m in an average speed higher than their 100 m speed. Usain Bolt, however, ran 200 m in the world-record time of 19.19 sec, an average speed of 10.422 m/s, whereas he ran 100 m in the world-record time of 0.958 sec, an average speed of 10.438 m/s. Indoors, the race is run as one lap of the track, with only slightly faster times than indoors.

Marathon

marathon racemarathon runnermen's marathon
For events governed by IAAF rules, it is mandatory that the route be marked so that all competitors can see the distance covered in kilometres. The rules make no mention of the use of miles. The IAAF will only recognise world records that are established at events that are run under IAAF rules. For major events, it is customary to publish competitors' timings at the midway mark and also at 5 km splits; marathon runners can be credited with world records for lesser distances recognised by the IAAF (such as 20 km, 30 km and so on) if such records are established while the runner is running a marathon, and completes the marathon course.