Haptic display: These displays provide a sense of touch to the user (haptic technology). This type of output is sometimes referred to as force feedback. Vestibular display: These displays provide a sense of motion to the user (motion simulator). They often manifest as motion bases for virtual vehicle simulation such as driving simulators or flight simulators. Motion bases are fixed in place but use actuators to move the simulator in ways that can produce the sensations pitching, yawing or rolling. The simulators can also move in such a way as to produce a sense of acceleration on all axes (e.g., the motion base can produce the sensation of falling).

Video game

video gamesgamegaming
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are often game sound effects, music and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones. Some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing. The emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry.

Computer graphics

graphicsCGCG artwork
Modern computers, dating from the 1980s, often use graphical user interfaces (GUI) to present data and information with symbols, icons and pictures, rather than text. Graphics are one of the five key elements of multimedia technology. In the field of realistic rendering, Japan's Osaka University developed the LINKS-1 Computer Graphics System, a supercomputer that used up to 257 Zilog Z8001 microprocessors, in 1982, for the purpose of rendering realistic 3D computer graphics.

Motion capture

performance capturemotion-capturehead tracking
Another alternative is using a 6DOF (Degrees of freedom) motion platform with an integrated omni-directional treadmill with high resolution optical motion capture to achieve the same effect. The captured person can walk in an unlimited area, negotiating different uneven terrains. Applications include medical rehabilitation for balance training, bio-mechanical research and virtual reality. * The fascination for motion capture, an introduction to the history of motion capture technology Low latency, close to real time, results can be obtained. In entertainment applications this can reduce the costs of keyframe-based animation. The Hand Over technique is an example of this.

Virtual reality applications

Applications of virtual realityVirtual Reality
Virtual reality can control robots in telepresence and telerobotic systems. VR has been used in experiments that investigate how robots can be applied as an intuitive human user interface. Another example is remotely-controlled robots in dangerous environments. Early commercial virtual reality headsets were released for gaming during the early-mid 1990s. These included the Virtual Boy, iGlasses, Cybermaxx and VFX1 Headgear. Since 2010, commercial headsets for VR gaming include the Oculus Rift, HTC Vive and PlayStation VR. The Samsung Gear VR is an example of a phone-based device.

The Sword of Damocles (virtual reality)

The Sword of Damoclesfirst VR head-mounted display
Sutherland modestly stated, "My little contribution to virtual reality was to realize we didn't need a camera - we could substitute a computer. However, in those days no computer was powerful enough to do the job so we had to build special equipment" Understanding the race for the next computer platform by Goldman Sachs. The future of the VR market. The reality of VR Growth.

Apple Inc.

AppleApple ComputerApple Inc
Jobs and several Apple employees, including human–computer interface expert Jef Raskin, visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see a demonstration of the Xerox Alto. Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for the option to buy 100,000 shares (5.6 million split-adjusted shares ) of Apple at the pre-IPO price of $10 a share. Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a graphical user interface (GUI), and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa. In 1982, however, he was pushed from the Lisa team due to infighting.


Sony PlayStationPlayStation BlogPS
The controller will also have strong haptic feedback through voice coil actuators, which together with an improved controller speaker is intended to give better in-game feedback. USB-C connectivity, together with a higher rated battery are other improvements to the new controller. The PlayStation 5 will feature a completely revamped user interface. The PlayStation 5 will be fully backwards-compatible with PlayStation 4 and PlayStation VR games, with Cerny stating that the transition to the new console is meant to be a soft one. The PocketStation was a miniature game console created by SCE as a peripheral for the original PlayStation.

Nintendo Switch

SwitchNSNintendo Switch eShop
In February 2017, Nintendo president Tatsumi Kimishima stated that it had been "studying" virtual reality solutions, but felt that comfort was a main concern. Nintendo of America president and COO Reggie Fils-Aimé also cited that existing VR solutions were not "fun" or "social". Nintendo ultimately unveiled a new Labo VR kit in March 2019, using a cardboard headset and viewer placed in front of the console's screen, in combination with attached accessories.


Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
Released in January 2007, the next version of Windows, Vista, focused on features, security and a redesigned user interface dubbed Aero. Microsoft Office 2007, released at the same time, featured a "Ribbon" user interface which was a significant departure from its predecessors. Relatively strong sales of both products helped to produce a record profit in 2007. The European Union imposed another fine of €899 million ($1.4 billion) for Microsoft's lack of compliance with the March 2004 judgment on February 27, 2008, saying that the company charged rivals unreasonable prices for key information about its workgroup and backoffice servers.

Computer mouse

mousemicecomputer mice
Such a mouse can augment user-interfaces with haptic feedback, such as giving feedback when crossing a window boundary. To surf by touch requires the user to be able to feel depth or hardness; this ability was realized with the first electrorheological tactile mice but never marketed. Tablet digitizers are sometimes used with accessories called pucks, devices which rely on absolute positioning, but can be configured for sufficiently mouse-like relative tracking that they are sometimes marketed as mice. As the name suggests, this type of mouse is intended to provide optimum comfort and avoid injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome, arthritis and other repetitive strain injuries.

Vortex (software)

Vortex adds accurate physical motion and interactions to objects in visual-simulation applications for operator training, mission planning, product concept validation, heavy machinery and robotics design and testing, haptics devices, immersive and virtual reality (VR) environments. The Vortex Studio content creation platform and the C++ SDK have several modules that simulate physics-based particles, sensors, floating bodies, cable systems, earthmoving operations, grasping, and vehicles (wheeled or tracked).

Ubiquitous computing

pervasive computingubiquitousPervasive
Virtual reality. Wearable computer. Adam Greenfield's book Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing (ISBN: 0-321-38401-6). John Tinnell's book Actionable Media: Digital Communication Beyond the Desktop Oxford University Press, 2018. ISBN: 0190678089. International Conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive). Pervasive and Mobile Computing journal, PMC (Elsevier). Proceedings of the Semantic Ambient Media Workshop Series (iAMEA).

Arcade game

Arcadearcadesarcade games
Currently with the advent of Virtual reality, arcade makers have begun to experiment with Virtual reality technology. Arcades have also progressed from using coin as credits to operate machines to cards that hold the virtual currency of credits. Arcade games often have short levels, simple and intuitive control schemes, and rapidly increasing difficulty. This is due to the environment of the Arcade, where the player is essentially renting the game for as long as their in-game avatar can stay alive (or until they run out of tokens). Games on consoles or PCs can be referred to as "arcade games" if they share these qualities or are direct ports of arcade titles.

Wired glove

dataglovedata glovedata gloves
Expensive high-end wired gloves can also provide haptic feedback, which is a simulation of the sense of touch. This allows a wired glove to also be used as an output device. Traditionally, wired gloves have only been available at a huge cost, with the finger bend sensors and the tracking device having to be bought separately. Wired gloves are often used in virtual reality environments and to mimic human hand movement by robots. The Sayre Glove, created by Electronic Visualization Laboratory in 1977, was the first wired glove. In 1982 Thomas G. Zimmerman filed a patent (US Patent 4542291) on an optical flex sensor mounted in a glove to measure finger bending.

Organic user interface

Organic User Interfaces
Note that OUIs differ from a natural user interface (NUI) in that NUIs are limited to touch or remote gestural interactions with a flat display only. Although remote gestural interaction violates the principle of Input Equals Output, OUIs generally subsume NUIs. Also note that OUI is a successor to and form of tangible user interface that always features a bitmapped display skin around its multi-shaped body. Finally, note that all OUIs are examples of haptic technologies, as their physical shapes, like real objects, provide passive tactile-kinaesthetic feedback even in non-actuated cases. * Organic User Interfaces: Special Issue of CACM

Augmented reality

ARaugmentedaugmented reality game
In Virtual Reality (VR), the users' perception of reality is completely based on virtual information. In Augmented Reality (AR) the user is provided with additional computer generated information that enhances their perception of reality. For example, in architecture, VR can be used to create a walk-through simulation of the inside of a new building; and AR can be used to show a building's structures and systems super-imposed on a real-life view. Augmented Reality (AR) differs from Virtual Reality (VR) in the sense that in AR part of the surrounded environment is actually 'real' and just adding layers of unreal objects to the real environment.

3D computer graphics

3D3D graphicsthree-dimensional
The resulting images may be stored for viewing later (possibly as an animation) or displayed in real time. 3D computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D computer vector graphics in the wire-frame model and 2D computer raster graphics in the final rendered display. In computer graphics software, 2D applications may use 3D techniques to achieve effects such as lighting, and, similarly, 3D may use some 2D rendering techniques. The objects in 3D computer graphics are often referred to as 3D models. Unlike the rendered image, a model's data is contained within a graphical data file.

Positional tracking

trackingposition trackinghead-tracking
Technology is usually used in high-end VR systems. Good accuracy of measurement of coordinates and angles. Ability to build almost any working area. Requires a direct line of sight between emitters and receivers. Low speed of ultrasound, which can add latency if the emitters are moving. Low update rates, unless sensor fusion is used to augment the ultrasound measurements. Decrease of accuracy due to temperature, atmospheric pressure, and humidity. Finger tracking. Virtual reality. Augmented reality. Head-mounted display. Indoor positioning system. Tracking system. Simultaneous localization and mapping.


Google Inc.Google, Inc.Google LLC
In June 2014, Google announced Google Cardboard, a simple cardboard viewer that lets user place their smartphone in a special front compartment to view virtual reality (VR) media. G Suite is a monthly subscription offering for organizations and businesses to get access to a collection of Google's services, including Gmail, Google Drive and Google Docs, Google Sheets and Google Slides, with additional administrative tools, unique domain names, and 24/7 support.

Valve Corporation

ValveValve SoftwareSteamVR
At the Game Developers Conference in March 2015, Valve and Taiwanese electronics company HTC unveiled SteamVR and the HTC Vive—a virtual reality platform and a virtual reality headset. The platform would be distinguished by its "Lighthouse" motion tracking system, where sensors on the headset and its included motion controllers read the position of two "base stations" mounted in the play area.

Web browser

browserweb browsersinternet browser
Most browsers have these user interface features: There are also niche browsers with distinct features. One example is text-only browsers that can benefit people with slow Internet connections or those with visual impairments. Web browsers are popular targets for hackers, who exploit security holes to steal information, destroy files, and other malicious activities. Browser vendors regularly patch these security holes, so users are strongly encouraged to keep their browser software updated. Other protection measures are antivirus software and avoiding known-malicious websites.

Motion sickness

seasicknessseasicksea sickness
Motion sickness due to virtual reality is very similar to simulation sickness and motion sickness due to films. In virtual reality the effect is made more acute as all external reference points are blocked from vision, the simulated images are three-dimensional and in some cases stereo sound that may also give a sense of motion. The NADS-1, a simulator located at the National Advanced Driving Simulator, is capable of accurately stimulating the vestibular system with a 360-degree horizontal field of view and 13 degrees of freedom motion base.


animatedanimated filmanimated short
Wire-frame model. The making of an 8-minute cartoon short. "Animando", a 12-minute film demonstrating 10 different animation techniques (and teaching how to use them). Bibliography on animation – Websiite "Histoire de la télévision".

Game controller

controllerVideo game controllercontrollers
Many are force feedback (see Force Feedback Wheel), designed to give the same feedback as would be experienced when driving a real car, but the realism of this depends on the game. They usually come with pedals to control the gas and brake. Shifting is taken care of in various ways including paddle shifting systems, simple stick shifters which are moved forward or back to change gears or more complex shifters which mimic those of real vehicles, which may also use a clutch. Most wheels turn only 200 to 270 degrees lock-to-lock but some models, such as the Logitech Driving Force Pro, Logitech G25 and Logitech G27 can turn 900 degrees, or 2.5 turns, lock-to-lock.