Intaglio (printmaking)

intagliocopperplateintaglio printing
Stanley William Hayter. Edward Hopper. Max Klinger. Käthe Kollwitz. Mauricio Lasansky. Martin Lewis. Lucas van Leyden. Cheryl Anne Lorance. Gabor Peterdi. Pablo Picasso. Anton Pieck. Krishna Reddy. Rembrandt. Félicien Rops. Ludwig von Siegen. James Abbott McNeill Whistler. William Kentridge. Diane Victor. Photogravure, an intaglio photo-printmaking process. Rotogravure. Line engraving. Viscosity printing. History of printing.


In the 20th century, true engraving was revived as a serious art form by artists including Stanley William Hayter whose Studio 17 in Paris and New York City became the magnet for such artists as Pablo Picasso, Alberto Giacometti, Mauricio Lasansky and Joan Miró. Artists using this technique include Albrecht Dürer, Rembrandt, Francisco Goya, Wenceslaus Hollar, Whistler, Otto Dix, James Ensor, Edward Hopper, Käthe Kollwitz, Pablo Picasso, Cy Twombly, Lucas van Leyden. Etching is part of the intaglio family (along with engraving, drypoint, mezzotint, and aquatint.)

Pablo Picasso

PicassoPablo Ruiz PicassoPicassos
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (, ; 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces during the Spanish Civil War.

Kala Bhavana

Kala BhavanKala-Bhavana
Krishna Reddy, master printmaker at Atelier 17 and sculptor, studied at Kala Bhavana. Shantiniketan Art Tour. The presence of women in the institutionalized space and their interventions: Kala bhavana (1920-1930).

Joan Miró

MiróJoan MiroJoan Mirò
Joan Miró i Ferrà (, also, ; 20 April 1893 – 25 December 1983) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, and ceramicist born in Barcelona. A museum dedicated to his work, the Fundació Joan Miró, was established in his native city of Barcelona in 1975, and another, the Fundació Pilar i Joan Miró, was established in his adoptive city of Palma de Mallorca in 1981.

Alberto Giacometti

Alberto Giacometti (, ; 10 October 1901 – 11 January 1966) was a Swiss sculptor, painter, draftsman and printmaker. Beginning in 1922, he lived and worked mainly in Paris but regularly visited his hometown Borgonovo to see his family and work on his art.

Zarina (artist)

Zarina HashmiZarina
Born in Aligarh, India, she earned a degree in mathematics before studying a variety of printmaking methods in Thailand, France (where she was apprenticed to Stanley William Hayter), and printmaker Toshi Yoshido in Tokyo, Japan. She has lived and worked in New York City since the 1970s. During the 1980s, Zarina served as a board member of the New York Feminist Art Institute and an instructor of papermaking workshops at the affiliated Women's Center for Learning.

Ruth Leaf

She studied at the New School for Social Research, Art Students League of New York and Brooklyn College, and Atelier 17. While fluent in the methods of woodcut, linoleum, monotype, collagraph and collage, she is most known for her viscosity etchings. Born in New York City, she spent many years teaching in Long Island before moving to Venice, California where she lived until her death in 2015. Leaf had a long and prolific career; teaching and exhibiting work until her late eighties and producing work up until her death.

Notable people associated with Santiniketan

Krishna Reddy, master printmaker at Atelier 17 and sculptor, studied at Kala Bhavana. Mukul Dey, pioneering printmaker and graphic artist; first Indian principal of Government School of Art & Craft, Kolkata went to school at Santiniketan in its earlier days. Nabakanta Barua, noted Assamese poet, novelist and dramatist, completed his undergraduate education at Santiniketan. He later received the Sahitya Akademi Award and was conferred the Padma Bhusan. Subinoy Roy, came to Santiniketan to study Chemistry and became a renowned singer specialising in Rabindrasangeet. Sumitra Guha, (then Sumitra Raju), exponent of both Carnatic and Hindusthani classical music.

Martin Barooshian

While at Atelier 17, Baooshian was taught the color viscosity etching techniques developed by Hayter and his colleagues. Previous to this time in Paris, Barooshian’s graphics output was largely woodcuts and lithographs. However, with intaglio etching, he found the graphics medium that best allowed him to express his personal vision and that would dominate his printmaking for decades. Barooshian continued to adapt the concepts of color viscosity etching to his own needs, becoming one of its most important masters. Of these works, critic Malcolm Preston wrote, “Barooshian’s prints enjoy a uniqueness.

Clifton Pugh

Cliff PughClifton Ernest Pugh
Pugh worked with the printmaker Stanley Hayter for three months in Paris in 1970. He brought Hayter’s oil viscosity printing technique back to Australia the same year. Pugh and John Olsen purchased an etching press and operated it at Dunmoochin. In 1971 Pugh invited Frank Hodgkinson to move to Dunmoochin and Pugh's "enthusiasm proved to be a major stimulus for Hodgkinson's printmaking." Pugh chaired the Victorian ALP Arts Policy Committee from 1971, and Gough Whitlam appointed Pugh to the Australia Council for the Arts in 1973.

Sohan Qadri

He also met the printmaker Krishna Reddy who was working with his wife, Judy Reddy and the British painter Stanley William Hayter. During this time, Qadri stopped painting with impasto oil on canvas and experimented with paper, which he considered softer, more feminine, and more suited to works that evolved out of a meditative state. While in Paris, the Danish Ministry of Culture offered Qadri a show, including traveling expenses and a stipend. The ministry's gallery director bought a painting, as did New Yorker Sam Kanner of Court Gallerie.

List of printmakers

Krishna Reddy Et. K. G. Subramanyan Li. Anupam Sud Et. Laxma Goud Et. Jyoti Bhatt Et. Stanley Palmer. Marilyn Webb.

Frank Hodgkinson

Francis George Hodgkinson
Pugh introduced Hodgkinson to oil viscosity printing. Hodgkinson married Kate Ratten in 1972 then moved to Kenthurst, outside Sydney. Hodgkinson became a Member of the Order of Australia in 1999 for services to the visual arts.

K.R.H. Sonderborg

He went to Paris the same year where he received training in engraving from Stanley William Hayter in the Atelier 17. Paris is also the place where he first encounters Tachism. In the following the artist goes on longer journeys and works for some time in London, Cornwall, New York, Ascona, Rome and Paris again. In New York K.R.H. Sonderborg comes into contact with Action Painting. His own style is becoming abstract, painting in swift broads strokes, that reveal the painting process, with spontaneous color application. Black and white contrasts are an important feature, later he adds colors such as cadmium red. K.R.H. Sonderborg takes part in the 1958 Biennale in Venice.

Flora Blanc

Flora Blanc Reeder
The two went on to pursue their talents in New York and Paris, and studied under Stanley William Hayter. Blanc and Reeder married in New York in December 1937, and in 1940 the couple moved to Fort Worth, where Blanc painted and conducted acting classes for the Our Lady of Victory College. Blanc and Dickson performed with the Little Theater and forged close friendships with other local artists, eventually leading to the formation of the Fort Worth Circle, who would congregate at the Reeders' home on a regular basis to discuss their practices and engage in exchanges.

Catherine Yarrow

Yarrow studied etching at Atelier 17, a workshop established in Paris by Stanley William Hayter, an English printmaker, in 1929. This resulted in a number of prints characterized by surrealist and biomorphic forms. In the 1930s, Yarrow was also apprenticed to the potter Josep Llorens i Artigas. Yarrow later discussed the importance of pottery in the development of her career: 'It wasn't until I came to the pottery that I had any craft. And that's why it was extremely important for me in the early thirties. [...] It absolutely changed by life - this pottery, this occupation and the craft.'

Mauricio Lasansky

The Nazi DrawingsProf. Mauricio Lasansky
He dedicated his first several months in the United States to studying the extensive print collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, experimenting with modern art techniques in his own work at Atelier 17 in New York, absorbing techniques in intaglio and investigating particularly the work of Picasso, who was a major influence. Other influences cited include El Greco, Goya, Modigliani, Chagall and Stanley William Hayter. He was an innovator in the creation of large metal-plate artwork, sometimes combining more than 50 plates to produce a single image. In addition to his printmaking, Lasansky is known for the series "The Nazi Drawings".

Nemesio Antúnez

Upon completing his Master's degree in 1947, he began working in the studio Atelier 17 with Stanley William Hayter, who applied the techniques of printmaking to surrealist art. He worked with his brother Enrique to explore the possibilities of old printmaking techniques from artists like Yves Tanguy, Kurt Seligmann, Jacques Lipchitz and Joan Miro. In 1950, the French branch of Atelier 17 was moved. Antunez painted fifteen murals in total, only five of which are in Chile. Four are in Santiago - Luna, Quinchamalí, Sol and Terremoto - while one, No. 16, Bailarines con volantinesis, is in the Open-air museum of Valparaíso.

Shilpakala Padak

Shilpakala Padak is an award instituted by Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy (BSA) to recognize ten established artists for their contributions to the fields of Bangladeshi arts, theater, music, dance, instrumental music, folk music and film and others. The academy is the principal state-sponsored national cultural center of Bangladesh as a statutory organization under the Ministry of Cultural Affairs. The award is presented annually by the President of Bangladesh at National Theatre Hall Auditorium of Shilpakala Academy. The award includes ৳100,000, a certificate and an uttorio.

Relief printing

relief printreliefrelief prints
*Viscosity printing no:Høytrykk nn:Høgtrykk Prints & People: A Social History of Printed Pictures, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on relief printing. Types of Relief Printing Descriptions of woodcuts, engravings, linoleum cuts, and monotype relief printing. See also Relief printing techniques as used and described by French printmaker Dominique Lecomte.

Józef Hecht

Jozef Hecht
Atelier 17. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1977. Roosevelt, Michael A. Joseph Hecht. Philadelphia: Dolan/Maxwell Gallery, 1985. Suarès, André. l'Ymagier de l'Arche. Paris: Le Nouvel Essor, 1926. Reuben and Edith Hecht Museum, University of Haifa. History of Engraving, Museum of Modern Art. Artists Who Have Worked at Atelier 17 (1927-1955).

Elaine Breiger

Born in Springfield, Massachusetts, Breiger studied at the Art Students League of New York and the Cooper Union, and worked with Krishna Reddy. She has exhibited widely, and received grants during her career from the New York State Council on the Arts and the National Endowment for the Arts, in 1974 and 1979 respectively. The Brooklyn Museum, the DeCordova Museum, the Honolulu Academy of Art, and the Library of Congress are among the institutions holding examples of her work.

Carmen Gracia

Gracia left Argentina for Paris in 1960 and joined the printmaking studio Atelier 17, run by William Hayter. She later studied at the Slade School of Fine Art.

Roland Penrose

Sir Roland PenroseRoland Algernon Penrose
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006 accessed 27 May 2009 Stanley William Hayter. Julian Trevelyan. Forbes, Peter. Dazzled and Deceived: Mimicry and Camouflage. Yale, 2009. Newark, Tim. Now you see it… Now You Don't. History Today, March 2007. Penrose, Roland. Home Guard Manual of Camouflage. George Routledge and Sons, 1941. Farley Farm official site. Roland Penrose official site.