Moundsville, West Virginia

MoundsvilleMoundsville, VirginiaMoundsville, WV
Moundsville is a city in Marshall County, West Virginia, along the Ohio River. It is part of the Wheeling, West Virginia metropolitan area. The population was 9,318 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Marshall County. The city was named for the nearby ancient Grave Creek Mound, constructed 250 to 100 BC by indigenous people of the Adena culture. In 1771 by English colonists Samuel and James Tomlinson built a cabin at what later became Moundsville, although they did not overwinter, and in fact left for several years after attacks by Native Americans.

Appalachian Regional Commission

Appalachian Regional Development ActARCdefinition of Appalachia
Beginning in about 1960, the Council of Appalachian Governors, a group of the ten governors of the Appalachian states of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, united to seek federal government assistance for the mountainous portions of their states, which lagged behind the rest of the United States in income, education, health care, and transportation. During the 1960 Presidential campaign, candidate John F. Kennedy met with the governors to hear their concerns and observed living conditions in West Virginia that convinced him of the need for federal assistance to address the region's problems.


territoryThe Western Country
Westsylvania was a proposed state of the United States located in what is now West Virginia, southwestern Pennsylvania, and small parts of Kentucky, Maryland, and Virginia. First proposed early in the American Revolution, Westsylvania would have been the fourteenth state in the newly formed United States, had it been recognized. In the years before the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), jurisdiction of the region west of the Allegheny Mountains around Pittsburgh and along the Ohio River had been disputed between the British colonies of Virginia and Pennsylvania.

Pendleton County, West Virginia

Pendleton CountyPendletonPendleton Counties
Sixty-two people were killed in West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, in what became known as the "1985 Election Day floods" in Virginia, or the "Killer Floods of 1985" in West Virginia. According to the National Weather Service, thirty-eight of the deaths occurred in Pendleton and Grant Counties, West Virginia. Twenty-two people were killed in Virginia, and there was one fatality each attributed to the flooding in Maryland and Pennsylvania. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 698 sqmi, of which 696 sqmi is land and 2.1 sqmi (0.3%) is water. It is the fifth-largest county in West Virginia by area.

Restored Government of Virginia

Reorganized Government of VirginiaRestored GovernmentUnionist government
Pierpont: Union War Governor and Father of West Virginia (1937), the standard scholarly biography. Ambler, Charles H. and Festus P. Summers. West Virginia, the Mountain State (2nd ed. 1958) pp 202–6 online. West Virginia statehood at West Virginia Archives and History. West Virginia statehood at West Virginia Archives and History.

Shepherdstown, West Virginia

ShepherdstownShepherdstown, VirginiaShepherdstown, WV
Shepherdstown is located at 39.43194°N, -77.80611°W (39.432005, −77.806108), in the upper Shenandoah Valley along the Potomac River in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.37 sqmi, all of it land. Three primary highways serve Shepherdstown. West Virginia Route 45 heads west from Shepherdstown to Martinsburg and Interstate 81. West Virginia Route 230 extends southward to U.S. Route 340 near Harpers Ferry. Finally, West Virginia Route 480 extends east to cross the Potomac River into Maryland, continuing as Maryland Route 34 towards Sharpsburg. Westward, WV 480 connects to West Virginia Route 9.

Fort Ancient

Fort Ancient cultureFort Ancient culture potteryFort Ancient peoples
Fort Ancient is a name for a Native American culture that flourished from Ca. 1000-1750 CE and predominantly inhabited land near the Ohio River valley in the areas of modern-day southern Ohio, northern Kentucky, southeastern Indiana and western West Virginia. Although a contemporary of the Mississippian Culture, they are often considered a "sister culture" and distinguished from the Mississippian Culture. Although far from agreed upon, there is evidence to suggest that the Fort Ancient Culture were not the direct descendants of the Hopewellian Culture ]. It is suspected that the Fort Ancient Culture introduced maize agriculture to Ohio.

Upland South

Upper SouthHistory of the Upland Southmore northern slave states
The uplands of western Virginia became the state of West Virginia as a result, though half the counties of the new state were Secessionist, and partisan warfare continued throughout the war. Kentucky and Missouri remained in the Union but were torn by internal strife. The southern Appalachian region of East Tennessee, parts of western North Carolina and some parts of Northern Alabama and Northern Georgia were widely noted for their pro-Union sentiments. The two regions also differ physically. The upland south is dominated by deciduous hardwood forest, in contrast to the Deep South's predominantly evergreen pine forests.

Colony of Virginia

VirginiaVirginia Colonycolonial Virginia
The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776. The name "Virginia" is the oldest designation for English claims in North America. In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh sent Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore what is now the North Carolina coast, and they returned with word of a regional king (weroance) named Wingina, who ruled a land supposedly called Wingandacoa.

Blue Ridge Mountains

Blue RidgeBlue Ridge provinceBlue Ridge Escarpment
West Virginia's state song, Take Me Home, Country Roads by John Denver, prominently mentions the Blue Ridge Mountains along with the Shenandoah River (both found in the Eastern Panhandle). Mentioned in and is the title of a Fleet Foxes song that bears the name of the mountain range. Appalachian balds. Appalachian bogs. Appalachian temperate rainforest. Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests. Cove (Appalachian Mountains).

Fairfax Stone Historical Monument State Park

Fairfax StoneFairfax Stone State Parkstone
This is the base point for the western dividing line between Maryland and West Virginia." *List of West Virginia state parks * The Fairfax Stone and West Virginia v. Maryland from The Traveling 219 project. History of the Fairfax Line from Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1753-1761 from the Maryland State Archives. "US SCt Deakins Line Stone 33, 1910, Maryland - West Virginia" from The Fairfax Stone and West Virginia v. Maryland from The Traveling 219 project.

Potomac River

PotomacSouth Branch Potomac RiverNorth Branch Potomac River
West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. West Virginia Rivers Coalition. Trout and Smallmouth Fishing on the North Branch of the Potomac. Wade and Shoreline Fishing the Potomac River for Smallmouth Bass.


The Tutelo historic homeland was said to include the area of the Big Sandy River on the West Virginia-Kentucky border, which they called the "Totteroy River." The Iroquois drove them from this region during the later Beaver Wars (c. 1670), after which the Iroquois established the Ohio Valley as their hunting ground by right of conquest. Although previously known to the Virginia colonists by their other names, a form of Tutelo first appeared in Virginia records in 1671, when the Batts and Fallam expedition noted their visit to "Totero Town" near what is now Salem, Virginia.

Kanawha River

Kanawha ValleyKanawhaGreat Kanawha
List of West Virginia rivers. Little Kanawha River, an unrelated Ohio River tributary also in West Virginia. Kanawha River Valley AVA, an American Viticultural Area. USS Kanawha (AO-1)—a fleet oiler built in 1914. Kanawha a steam-powered luxury yacht built in 1899 and owned by Henry Huttleston Rogers, developer of coal and railroad properties in southern West Virginia, including the Virginian Railway. The built in Charleston, served as an Army transport vessel and now preserved as a floating restaurant. West Virginia Waterways. Charleston, West Virginia metropolitan area, often called the "Kanawha Valley" by locals. Port of Huntington Tri-State.


Shawnee IndiansShawneesShawnee people
Several other Shawnee villages were located in the northern Shenandoah Valley: at Moorefield, West Virginia, on the North River; and on the Potomac at Cumberland, Maryland. In 1753, the Shawnee on the Scioto River in the Ohio country sent messengers to those still in the Shenandoah Valley suggesting that they leave Virginia and cross the Alleghenies to join the people further west, which they did the following year. The community known as Shannoah (Lower Shawneetown) on the Ohio River reached a population of around 1,200 by 1750.

American Civil War

Civil WarU.S. Civil WarUnited States Civil War
Congress admitted West Virginia to the Union on June 20, 1863. West Virginia provided about 20,000–22,000 soldiers to both the Confederacy and the Union. A Unionist secession attempt occurred in East Tennessee, but was suppressed by the Confederacy, which arrested over 3,000 men suspected of being loyal to the Union. They were held without trial. The Civil War was a contest marked by the ferocity and frequency of battle. Over four years, 237 named battles were fought, as were many more minor actions and skirmishes, which were often characterized by their bitter intensity and high casualties.

Monongahela culture

MonongahelaMonongahela tribe
Prehistory of West Virginia. Protohistory of West Virginia. Monongahela Culture, Virtual First Ohioans. "Ghosts of the Mountains", a video of Somerset County Archaeology, Pennsylvania, the working of sites of Monongahela people.

Allegheny Mountains

AllegheniesAlleghany MountainsAllegheny
The B&O had reached Martinsburg, (West) Virginia by May 1842, Hancock, (West) Virginia, by June, Cumberland, Maryland, on November 5, 1842, Piedmont, (West) Virginia on July 21, 1851, and Fairmont, (West) Virginia on June 22, 1852. (It finally reached its Ohio River terminus at Wheeling, (West) Virginia on January 1, 1853.) The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal—also begun in 1828, but at Georgetown—was also a public work of enormous economic and social significance for the Alleghenies. It approached Hancock, Maryland, by 1839.

Francis Harrison Pierpont

Francis H. PierpontFrancis Pierpont
West Virginia & Regional History Center, WVU Libraries's Pierpont, Francis Harrison (1814-1899), Papers 1811-1949. Klos, Stanley Y., The Father of West Virginia: A Perplexing Name Change.


West Virginia's Grant, Hampshire and Hardy counties region (Brashler 1987) also have archaeological sites where Susquehannock ceramics have been found. Archeologists have also found evidence of this people along the Potomac River and its tributaries. They have classified these artifacts as the "late Susquehannock sequence". A Contact Period (1550~1630) Susquehanna site, 46Hy89, is located in the Eastern Panhandle at Moorefield, West Virginia. The English seldom visited the upper Susquehanna inland region during the early colonial period. It is likely that the Susquehannock had occupied the same lands for several hundred years.

Berkeley County, West Virginia

Berkeley CountyBerkeleyBerkeley County, Virginia
National Register of Historic Places listings in Berkeley County, West Virginia. Aler, F. Vernon. 1888. Aler's History of Martinsburg and Berkeley County, West Virginia: From the Origin of the Indians ..., Hagerstown, MD: Mail Publishing Company. Doherty, William T. Berkeley County, U.S.A.: A Bicentennial History of a Virginia and West Virginia County, 1772-1972. Parsons, WV: McClain Printing Company, 1972. Evans, Willis F. History of Berkeley County, West Virginia. Wheeling, WV, 1928 (unknown publisher). Dilger, Dr. Robert Jay, Director, Institute for Public Affairs and Professor of Political Science at West Virginia University. Chamber of Commerce of Martinsburg and Berkeley County.

Christopher Gist

Gist's Plantation
During the summer of 1751 he again went west to explore the Pennsylvania and western Virginia (present day West Virginia), country south of the Ohio River. During 1753 Gist again returned to the Ohio Country, this time accompanying George Washington. Robert Dinwiddie, the governor of Virginia, sent Washington to Fort Le Boeuf to deliver a message to the French demanding they leave the Ohio Country. (The French were constructing forts in the Ohio Country to prevent the British colonies from expanding there; they ignored Dinwiddie's letter.) Washington took (now Lieutenant) Gist along as his guide. They traveled on the Venango Path through the Ohio Country to get to the fort.

Vandalia (colony)

VandaliaIndiana Land CompanyVandalia colony
"How did West Virginia get its name?" radio piece. "Vandalia: The First West Virginia?".

Jefferson County, West Virginia

Jefferson CountyJeffersonJefferson County, Virginia
Beall and Jefferson County, (West) Virginia in the Civil War Era" (U. Of Massachusetts MA Thesis 2014) online, major local newspaper 1848–1870. Potomac River. Opequon Creek. Shenandoah River. Washington County, Maryland (north). Loudoun County, Virginia (east). Clarke County, Virginia (southwest). Berkeley County (northwest). 25px U.S. Highway 340. 20px West Virginia Route 9. 20px West Virginia Route 45. 20px West Virginia Route 51. 25px West Virginia Route 115 (Old West Virginia Route 9). 25px West Virginia Route 230. Charles Town (county seat). Ranson. Bolivar. Harpers Ferry. Shepherdstown. Charles Town. Harpers Ferry. Kabletown. Middleway. Shepherdstown. Middleway. Shannondale.

Waitman T. Willey

Waitman WilleyWaitman Thomas Willey
The West Virginia & Regional History Center at WVU has two collections of Waitman T. Willey's papers, A&M 3 and A&M 1361.