Karma

karmickammakarmas
Karma (कर्म, ; kamma) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect). Good intent and good deeds contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deeds contribute to bad karma and future suffering. The philosophy of karma is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Indian religions (particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism ) as well as Taoism. In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - one's saṃsāra.

Spiritualism

spiritualistspiritualistsspiritual
After the 1920s, spiritualism evolved in three different directions, all of which exist today. The first of these continued the tradition of individual practitioners, organised in circles centered on a medium and clients, without any hierarchy or dogma. Already by the late 19th century spiritualism had become increasingly syncretic, a natural development in a movement without central authority or dogma. Today, among these unorganised circles, spiritualism is similar to the new age movement. However, theosophy with its inclusion of Eastern religion, astrology, ritual magic and reincarnation is an example of a closer precursor of the 20th century new age movement.

David Spangler

In 2010 his memoir Apprenticed to Spirit was published by Riverhead Books,describing his early years, his spiritual training, his association with Findhorn, Lindisfarne, and the New Age Movement, and his subsequent work with the Lorian Association and the development of Incarnational Spirituality. Spangler is currently the Director of the Lorian Center for Incarnational Spirituality and a Director of the Lorian Association (www.lorian.org). Through Lorian, he publishes a free monthly essay, David's Desk, and a subscription-only quarterly esoteric journal, Views from the Borderland, offering "field notes" from his clairvoyant researches and encounters with the subtle worlds.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval period
Most European monasteries were of the type that focuses on community experience of the spiritual life, called cenobitism, which was pioneered by Pachomius (d. 348) in the 4th century. Monastic ideals spread from Egypt to Western Europe in the 5th and 6th centuries through hagiographical literature such as the Life of Anthony. Benedict of Nursia (d. 547) wrote the Benedictine Rule for Western monasticism during the 6th century, detailing the administrative and spiritual responsibilities of a community of monks led by an abbot.

Universalism

universalistUniversalistsuniversal
Jesus Christ reveals the nature and character of God, and is the spiritual leader of humankind. Humankind is created with an immortal soul, which death can not end—or a mortal soul that shall be resurrected and preserved by God. A soul which God will not wholly destroy. Sin has negative consequences for the sinner either in this life or the afterlife. All of God's punishments for sin are corrective and remedial. None of such punishments will last forever, or result in the permanent destruction of a soul.

Transpersonal psychology

transpersonaltranspersonal experiencetranspersonal psychologist
Transpersonal psychology may also, sometimes, be associated with New Age beliefs and pop psychology. However, leading authors in the field, among those Sovatsky, and Rowan, have criticized the nature of "New Age"-philosophy and discourse. Rowan even states that "The Transpersonal is not the New Age". Although some consider that the distinction between transpersonal psychology and the psychology of religion, is fading (e.g. The Oxford Handbook of Psychology and Spirituality), there is still generally considered to be a clear distinction between the two.

Ceremonial magic

ritual magicceremonial magicianmagician
Some claim that the new age occultism is a sham and borrowed heavily from these old record books by the religious. Such books contain astrological correspondences, lists of angels and demons, directions on casting charms, spells, and exorcism, on mixing medicines, summoning elemental entities, and making talismans. Magical books in almost any context, especially books of magical spells, are also called grimoires. Enochian magic is a system of ceremonial magic centered on the evocation and commanding of various spirits that was the magical exploration made by an English occultist Dr. John Dee.

A Course in Miracles

Course in Miracles
Finding some elements of ACIM to be what he called "severe and potentially dangerous distortions of Christian theology", he wrote that it is "a good example of a false revelation" and that it has "become a spiritual menace to many”. The evangelical editor Elliot Miller says that Christian terminology employed in ACIM is "thoroughly redefined" to resemble New Age teachings. Other Christian critics say that ACIM is "intensely anti-Biblical" and incompatible with Christianity, blurring the distinction between creator and created and forcefully supporting the occult and New Age worldview. The skeptic Robert T.

Involution (esoterism)

Involution
Esotericism. Etiology. Law of Complexity/Consciousness. Round (Theosophy).

Mircea Eliade

Eliade, MirceaEliadeAllan
A doctor in the Kabbalah and future Romanian Orthodox cleric, Avramescu joined Eliade in editing the short-lived esoteric magazine Memra (the only one of its kind in Romania). Among the intellectuals who attended his lectures were Mihai Şora (whom he deemed his favorite student), Eugen Schileru and Miron Constantinescu—known later as, respectively, a philosopher, an art critic, and a sociologist and political figure of the communist regime. Mariana Klein, who became Șora's wife, was one of Eliade's female students, and later authored works on his scholarship.

Religious studies

religionstudy of religionRS
Common issues considered by the (Western) philosophy of religion are the existence of God, belief and rationality, cosmology, and logical inferences of logical consistency from sacred texts. Although philosophy has long been used in evaluation of religious claims (e.g. Augustine and Pelagius's debate concerning original sin), the rise of scholasticism in the 11th century, which represented "the search for order in intellectual life" (Russell, 170), more fully integrated the Western philosophical tradition (with the introduction of translations of Aristotle) in religious study. There is some amount of overlap between subcategories of religious studies and the discipline itself.

Pseudoscience

pseudoscientificpseudo-scientificpseudo-science
Science is also distinguishable from revelation, theology, or spirituality in that it offers insight into the physical world obtained by empirical research and testing. The most notable disputes concern the evolution of living organisms, the idea of common descent, the geologic history of the Earth, the formation of the solar system, and the origin of the universe. Systems of belief that derive from divine or inspired knowledge are not considered pseudoscience if they do not claim either to be scientific or to overturn well-established science.

Julius Evola

EvolianEvolian TraditionalismRide the Tiger
Many of Evola's theories and writings were centered on his hostility toward Christianity and his idiosyncratic mysticism, occultism, and esoteric religious studies, and this aspect of his work has influenced occultists and esotericists. Evola also justified rape (among other forms of male domination of women) because he saw it "as a natural expression of male desire." This misogynistic outlook stemmed from his extreme right views on gender roles, which demanded absolute submission from women.

Qi

kichich'i
Esoteric healing. Livity (spiritual concept). Orgone. Prana. Reiki. Pneuma. Geist. Mana. Spirit. Article by Bing YeYoung "A Philosophical and Cultural Interpretation of Qi". The Skeptics Dictionary. Qi Encyclopedia.

Qigong

qi gongChi GongCh'i Kung
In Daoism various practices now known as Daoist Qigong are claimed to provide a way to achieve longevity and spiritual enlightenment, as well as a closer connection with the natural world. In Buddhism meditative practices now known as Buddhist Qigong are part of a spiritual path that leads to spiritual enlightenment or Buddhahood. In Confucianism practices now known as Confucian Qigong provide a means to become a Junzi through awareness of morality.

Spiritism

spiritistKardecistSpiritists
Later, a new source of criticism came from Occultist movements such as the Theosophical Society, a competing new religion, which saw the Spiritist explanations as too simple or even naïve. During the interwar period a new form of criticism of Spiritism developed. René Guénon's influential book The Spiritist Fallacy criticized both the more general concepts of Spiritualism, which he considered to be a superficial mix of moralism and spiritual materialism, as well as Spiritism's specific contributions, such as its belief in what he saw as a post-Cartesian, modernist concept of reincarnation distinct from and opposed to its two western predecessors, metempsychosis and transmigration.

Benjamin Creme

MaitreyaChrist
Transmission: A Meditation for the New Age. Tara Center, 1983. Creme, Benjamin (ed.). A Master Speaks. Share International Foundation, 1985. Creme, Benjamin. Maitreya's Mission. 3 vols. Share International Foundation, 1986, 1993, 1997. Creme, Benjamin. The Ageless Wisdom Teaching: An Introduction to Humanity's Spiritual Legacy. Share International Foundation, 1996. Creme, Benjamin. The Great Approach: New Light and Life for Humanity. Share International Foundation, 2001. Creme, Benjamin. The Art of Co-operation. Share International Foundation, 2002. Creme, Benjamin (ed.). Maitreya's Teachings — The Laws of Life. Share International Foundation, 2005. Creme, Benjamin.

Astral projection

astral travelastralastrally project
The idea of the astral figured prominently in the work of the nineteenth-century French occultist Eliphas Levi, whence it was adopted and developed further by Theosophy, and used afterwards by other esoteric movements. Carrington, Muldoon, Peterson, and Williams claim that the subtle body is attached to the physical body by means of a psychic silver cord. The final chapter of the Book of Ecclesiastes is often cited in this respect: "Before the silver cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be shattered at the fountain, or the wheel be broken at the cistern."

Helena Blavatsky

Madame BlavatskyBlavatskyH. P. Blavatsky
Blavatsky's Theosophy has been described as representing "a major factor in the modern revival" of Western esotericism. Godwin deemed there to be "no more important figure in modern times" within the Western esoteric tradition than Blavatsky. For Johnson, Blavatsky was "a central figure in the nineteenth-century occult revival". Lachman claimed that "practically all modern occultism and esotericism" can trace its origins back to her influence.

Chaos magic

Chaos MagickChaoteoriginally portrayed
Chaos magic grew out of the desire of some occultists to strip away these extrinsic details and distill magic down to a set of tried-and-tested techniques for causing effects to occur in reality. An oft quoted line from Peter Carroll is "Magic will not free itself from occultism until we have strangled the last astrologer with the guts of the last spiritual master." Peter J. Carroll and Ray Sherwin are considered to be the founders of chaos magic, although Phil Hine points out that there were others "lurking in the background, such as the Stoke Newington Sorcerors" – a group which included Charles Brewster (Frater Choronzon).

Absolute (philosophy)

Absolutethe Absoluteultimate reality
Religious aspects of Nazism: Occultism in Nazism, Esoteric Nazism, and Positive Christianity — Gottgläubig. Raëlism — Everything In Everything, see Raëlian beliefs and practices. Perennial philosophy: Unitarian Universalism — generally Conceptions of God. Kongo religion — Nzambi a Mpungu, Kengue. Fon people: Dahomean religion — Nana Buluku, see Fon creation myth. West African Vodun — Bondye. Akan religion — Anansi Kokuroku. Haitian Vodou — Bondye, Gran Maître, Damballa. Kapauku Papuans — Ugatame. Itelmen religion — Kutka and Chachy, Dusdaechschitsh. The Heikum of South Africa — Xamaba. The Bassari people in Togo — Unumbotte. Serer religion — Roog, see Serer creation myth.