Universalism

universalistUniversalistsuniversal
Jesus Christ reveals the nature and character of God, and is the spiritual leader of humankind. Humankind is created with an immortal soul, which death can not end—or a mortal soul that shall be resurrected and preserved by God. A soul which God will not wholly destroy. Sin has negative consequences for the sinner either in this life or the afterlife. All of God's punishments for sin are corrective and remedial. None of such punishments will last forever, or result in the permanent destruction of a soul.

Rajneesh

OshoBhagwan Shree RajneeshOsho Rajneesh
Rajneesh's ashram, now known as OSHO International Meditation Resort, and all associated intellectual property, is managed by the Zurich registered Osho International Foundation (formerly Rajneesh International Foundation). Rajneesh's teachings have had a notable impact on Western New Age thought, and their popularity has increased markedly since his death. A notable example is the influence that his thought has had on the German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk.

Ceremonial magic

ritual magicceremonial magicianmagician
Some claim that the new age occultism is a sham and borrowed heavily from these old record books by the religious. Such books contain astrological correspondences, lists of angels and demons, directions on casting charms, spells, and exorcism, on mixing medicines, summoning elemental entities, and making talismans. Magical books in almost any context, especially books of magical spells, are also called grimoires. Enochian magic is a system of ceremonial magic centered on the evocation and commanding of various spirits that was the magical exploration made by an English occultist Dr. John Dee.

A Course in Miracles

Course in Miracles
Finding some elements of ACIM to be what he called "severe and potentially dangerous distortions of Christian theology", he wrote that it is "a good example of a false revelation" and that it has "become a spiritual menace to many”. The evangelical editor Elliot Miller says that Christian terminology employed in ACIM is "thoroughly redefined" to resemble New Age teachings. Other Christian critics say that ACIM is "intensely anti-Biblical" and incompatible with Christianity, blurring the distinction between creator and created and forcefully supporting the occult and New Age worldview. The skeptic Robert T.

Involution (esoterism)

Involution
Esotericism. Etiology. Law of Complexity/Consciousness. Round (Theosophy).

Soul

soulsspirithuman soul
Kabbalah and other mystic traditions go into greater detail into the nature of the soul. Kabbalah separates the soul into five elements, corresponding to the five worlds: Kabbalah also proposed a concept of reincarnation, the gilgul. (See also nefesh habehamit the "animal soul".) The Scientology view is that a person does not have a soul, it is a soul. A person is immortal, and may be reincarnated if they wish. The Scientology term for the soul is "thetan", derived from the Greek word "theta", symbolizing thought. Scientology counselling (called auditing) addresses the soul to improve abilities, both worldly and spiritual.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
However, Indian doctrines influenced Western thinking via the Theosophical Society, a New Age group which became popular among Euro-American intellectuals. Psychology was a popular topic in Enlightenment Europe. In Germany, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) applied his principles of calculus to the mind, arguing that mental activity took place on an indivisible continuum—most notably, that among an infinity of human perceptions and desires, the difference between conscious and unconscious awareness is only a matter of degree. Christian Wolff identified psychology as its own science, writing Psychologia empirica in 1732 and Psychologia rationalis in 1734.

Counterculture of the 1960s

counterculture1960s counterculturecountercultural
The emergence of an interest in expanded spiritual consciousness, yoga, occult practices and increased human potential helped to shift views on organized religion during the era. In 1957, 69% of US residents polled by Gallup said religion was increasing in influence. By the late 1960s, polls indicated less than 20% still held that belief. The "Generation Gap", or the inevitable perceived divide in worldview between the old and young, was perhaps never greater than during the counterculture era.

Mircea Eliade

Eliade, MirceaEliadeAllan
A doctor in the Kabbalah and future Romanian Orthodox cleric, Avramescu joined Eliade in editing the short-lived esoteric magazine Memra (the only one of its kind in Romania). Among the intellectuals who attended his lectures were Mihai Şora (whom he deemed his favorite student), Eugen Schileru and Miron Constantinescu—known later as, respectively, a philosopher, an art critic, and a sociologist and political figure of the communist regime. Mariana Klein, who became Șora's wife, was one of Eliade's female students, and later authored works on his scholarship.

Religious studies

religionstudy of religionRS
Scientific investigators have used a SPECTscanner to analyze the brain activity of both Christian contemplatives and Buddhist meditators, finding them to be quite similar. The "origin of religion" refers to the emergence of religious behavior in prehistory, before written records. The psychology of religion is concerned with the psychological principles operative in religious communities and practitioners. William James's The Varieties of Religious Experience analyzed personal experience as contrasted with the social phenomenon of religion.

Pseudoscience

pseudoscientificpseudo-scientificpseudo-science
Science is also distinguishable from revelation, theology, or spirituality in that it offers insight into the physical world obtained by empirical research and testing. The most notable disputes concern the evolution of living organisms, the idea of common descent, the geologic history of the Earth, the formation of the solar system, and the origin of the universe. Systems of belief that derive from divine or inspired knowledge are not considered pseudoscience if they do not claim either to be scientific or to overturn well-established science.

Julius Evola

EvolianEvolian TraditionalismRide the Tiger
James Gregor Evola's definition of spirituality can be found in Meditations on the Peaks: "what has been successfully actualized and translated into a sense of superiority which is experienced inside by the soul, and a noble demeanor, which is expressed in the body." Goodrick-Clarke wrote that Evola's "rigorous New Age spirituality speaks directly to those who reject absolutely the leveling world of democracy, capitalism, multi-racialism and technology at the outset of the twenty-first century. Their acute sense of cultural chaos can find powerful relief in his ideal of total renewal."

Theosophy and science

Some scientists, according to Blavatsky, were more prone to spiritual, and she "selectively approved" them. "The positive side of Descartes' work" was supposedly his faith in the "magnetic doctrine" and alchemy, although he was a "worshipper of matter." She was admired by Kepler's method, "combining scientific and esoteric thought." She gave also some excerpts from Newton's most "speculative" works, where he supports a "spiritualized" approach to gravity. Thus, according to her words, these "greatest scientists" rediscovered the esoteric knowledge already available to "Western occultists including Paracelsus... kabbalists and alchemists."

Spiritism

spiritistKardecistSpiritists
Later, a new source of criticism came from Occultist movements such as the Theosophical Society, a competing new religion, which saw the Spiritist explanations as too simple or even naïve. During the interwar period a new form of criticism of Spiritism developed. René Guénon's influential book The Spiritist Fallacy criticized both the more general concepts of Spiritualism, which he considered to be a superficial mix of moralism and spiritual materialism, as well as Spiritism's specific contributions, such as its belief in what he saw as a post-Cartesian, modernist concept of reincarnation distinct from and opposed to its two western predecessors, metempsychosis and transmigration.

Benjamin Creme

MaitreyaChrist
Transmission: A Meditation for the New Age. Tara Center, 1983. Creme, Benjamin (ed.). A Master Speaks. Share International Foundation, 1985. Creme, Benjamin. Maitreya's Mission. 3 vols. Share International Foundation, 1986, 1993, 1997. Creme, Benjamin. The Ageless Wisdom Teaching: An Introduction to Humanity's Spiritual Legacy. Share International Foundation, 1996. Creme, Benjamin. The Great Approach: New Light and Life for Humanity. Share International Foundation, 2001. Creme, Benjamin. The Art of Co-operation. Share International Foundation, 2002. Creme, Benjamin (ed.). Maitreya's Teachings — The Laws of Life. Share International Foundation, 2005. Creme, Benjamin.

Transcendence (religion)

transcendenttranscendencetranscendental
In Jewish Kabbalistic cosmology, God is described as the "Ein Sof" (literally, without end) as reference to God's divine simplicity and essential unknowability. The emanation of creation from the Ein Sof is explained through a process of filtering. In the Kabbalistic creation myth referred to as the "breaking of the vessels," filtering was necessary because otherwise this intense, simple essence would have overwhelmed and made impossible the emergence of any distinct creations. Each filter, described as a vessel, captured the emanation of this creative force until it was overwhelmed and broken by the intensity of God's simple essence.

Astral projection

astral travelastralastrally project
American Harold Klemp, the current Spiritual Leader of Eckankar practices and teaches Soul Travel, as did his predecessors, through contemplative techniques known as the Spiritual Exercises of ECK (Divine Spirit). In occult traditions, practices range from inducing trance states to the mental construction of a second body, called the Body of Light in Aleister Crowley's writings, through visualization and controlled breathing, followed by the transfer of consciousness to the secondary body by a mental act of will. There is no known scientific evidence that astral projection as an objective phenomenon exists.

Helena Blavatsky

Madame BlavatskyBlavatskyH. P. Blavatsky
Blavatsky's Theosophy has been described as representing "a major factor in the modern revival" of Western esotericism. Godwin deemed there to be "no more important figure in modern times" within the Western esoteric tradition than Blavatsky. For Johnson, Blavatsky was "a central figure in the nineteenth-century occult revival". Lachman claimed that "practically all modern occultism and esotericism" can trace its origins back to her influence.

Guru–shishya tradition

paramparaguru-shishya traditionshishya
A formal recognition of this relationship, generally in a structured initiation ceremony where the guru accepts the initiate as a shishya and also accepts responsibility for the spiritual well-being and progress of the new shishya. Sometimes this initiation process will include the conveying of specific esoteric wisdom and/or meditation techniques. Gurudakshina, where the shishya gives a gift to the guru as a token of gratitude, often the only monetary or otherwise fee that the student ever gives. Such tokens can be as simple as a piece of fruit or as serious as a thumb, as in the case of Ekalavya and his guru Dronacharya. Guru – the immediate guru.

Absolute (philosophy)

Absolutethe Absoluteultimate reality
Religious aspects of Nazism: Occultism in Nazism, Esoteric Nazism, and Positive Christianity — Gottgläubig. Raëlism — Everything In Everything, see Raëlian beliefs and practices. Perennial philosophy: Unitarian Universalism — generally Conceptions of God. Kongo religion — Nzambi a Mpungu, Kengue. Fon people: Dahomean religion — Nana Buluku, see Fon creation myth. West African Vodun — Bondye. Akan religion — Anansi Kokuroku. Haitian Vodou — Bondye, Gran Maître, Damballa. Kapauku Papuans — Ugatame. Itelmen religion — Kutka and Chachy, Dusdaechschitsh. The Heikum of South Africa — Xamaba. The Bassari people in Togo — Unumbotte. Serer religion — Roog, see Serer creation myth.

Nambassa

age and green politics, alternative media, meditation, yoga, sufi dancing, I Ching, tarot cards, alchemy, massage, sweat lodge, nutrition, alternative medicine, astrology, prayer and chanting, clairvoyance, meditation, spiritual healing, naturopathy, acupuncture, t'ai chi, herbalism, natural remedies, reflexology, iridology and osteopathy.

Caroline Myss

Myss, C.
(In 2008, she wrote the foreword to Kübler-Ross's revised version of "On Life After Death". ) She started giving medical intuitive readings in 1982 and co-founded a small New Age publishing company, Stillpoint Publishing in Walpole, New Hampshire, where she also worked as an editor in 1983. Next she began consulting with holistic doctors, which in 1984, led to her extensive collaboration with C. Norman Shealy, physician and founder of the American Holistic Medical Association, with whom she later co-authored AIDS: Passageway to Transformation, in 1987, followed by The Creation of Health: The Emotional, Psychological, and Spiritual Responses that Promote Health and Healing, in 1988.

Anthropology of religion

anthropologist of religionreligionanthropological
Esotericism. Exorcism. Evil. Fertility rite. Fetishism. Genius (mythology). God. Ghost. Greco-Roman mysteries. Heresy. Icon. Immortality. Intercession. Kachina. Magic and religion. Mana. Mask. Miracle. Medicine. Modern paganism. Monotheism. Mother goddess. Mythology. Necromancy. New Age. Occult. Omen. Poles in mythology. Polytheism. Prayer. Principle of contagion. Prophecy. Reincarnation. Religious ecstasy. Ritual. Sacred food as offering. Sacrifice. Shamanism. Spell (paranormal). Supernatural. Supplication. Sympathetic magic. Theism. Totemism. Veneration of the dead. Western esotericism. Anthropological Perspectives on Religion. Archaeology of religion and ritual.