Gluten-free diet

gluten-freegluten freegluten free diet
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale). The inclusion of oats in a gluten-free diet remains controversial, and may depend on the oat cultivar and the frequent cross-contamination with other gluten-containing cereals. Gluten causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and wheat allergy.


winter ryerye flourLargest rye producer
Like wheat, barley, and their hybrids and derivatives, rye contains gluten, which makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy, among others. Nevertheless, some wheat allergy patients can tolerate rye or barley. Ergotism is an illness that can result from eating rye and other grains infected by ergot fungi (which produce LSD-25-like toxins in infected products).

Wheat allergy

Wheatallergic to wheatbaker's asthma
While gluten is also the causative agent of celiac disease (CD), celiac disease can be contrasted to gluten allergy by the involvement of different immune cells and antibody types (See Comparative pathophysiology of gluten sensitivities), and because the list of allergens extend beyond the classic gluten category of proteins. Prolamins and the closely related glutelins, a recent study in Japan found that glutenins are a more frequent allergen, however gliadins are associated with the most severe disease. A proteomics based study found a γ-gliadin isoform gene. Glutenin (wheat glutelin) is a predominant allergen in wheat.


corncorn (maize)Zea mays
When ground into flour, maize yields more flour with much less bran than wheat does. It lacks the protein gluten of wheat and, therefore, makes baked goods with poor rising capability. A genetic variant that accumulates more sugar and less starch in the ear is consumed as a vegetable and is called sweet corn. Young ears can be consumed raw, with the cob and silk, but as the plant matures (usually during the summer months), the cob becomes tougher and the silk dries to inedibility. By the end of the growing season, the kernels dry out and become difficult to chew without cooking them tender first in boiling water. Planting density affects multiple aspects of maize.


Gliadin (a type of prolamin) is a class of proteins present in wheat and several other cereals within the grass genus Triticum. Gliadins, which are a component of gluten, are essential for giving bread the ability to rise properly during baking. Gliadins and glutenins are the two main components of the gluten fraction of the wheat seed. This gluten is found in products such as wheat flour. Gluten is split about evenly between the gliadins and glutenins, although there are variations found in different sources. Gliadin is the water-soluble component of gluten, while glutenin is insoluble.


malting barleysix-row barleyH. vulgare
Like wheat, rye, and their hybrids and derivatives, barley contains gluten, which makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others. Nevertheless, some wheat allergy patients can tolerate barley or rye. Barley is a key ingredient in beer and whisky production. Two-row barley is traditionally used in German and English beers. Six-row barley was traditionally used in US beers, but both varieties are in common usage now.


farinaceouswhite flourmeal
When gluten-free flours are free from contamination with gluten, they are suitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or wheat allergy sufferers, among others. Contamination with gluten-containing cereals can occur during grain harvesting, transporting, milling, storing, processing, handling and/or cooking. Flour also can be made from soybeans, arrowroot, taro, cattails, acorns, manioc, quinoa, and other non-cereal foodstuffs.


They are found in plants, mainly in the seeds of cereal grains such as wheat (gliadin), barley (hordein), rye (secalin), corn (zein), sorghum (kafirin), and oats (avenin). They are characterised by a high glutamine and proline content, and are generally soluble only in strong alcohol [70-80%] solutions, light acids, and alkaline solution. They do not coagulate in heat. They hydrolyse into prolin and ammonia. Some prolamins, notably gliadin, and similar proteins found in the tribe Triticeae (see Triticeae glutens) may induce coeliac disease in genetically predisposed individuals.


breadsbreadmakingleavened bread
Non-wheat cereals including rye, barley, maize (corn), oats, sorghum, millet and rice have been used to make bread, but, with the exception of rye, usually in combination with wheat flour as they have less gluten. Gluten-free breads have been created for people affected by gluten-related disorders such as coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, who may benefit from a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free bread is made with ground flours from a variety of materials such as almonds, rice, sorghum, corn, or legumes such as beans, but since these flours lack gluten they may not hold their shape as they rise and their crumb may be dense with little aeration.


carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
It is abundant in cereals (wheat, maize, rice), potatoes, and processed food based on cereal flour, such as bread, pizza or pasta. Sugars appear in human diet mainly as table sugar (sucrose, extracted from sugarcane or sugar beets), lactose (abundant in milk), glucose and fructose, both of which occur naturally in honey, many fruits, and some vegetables. Table sugar, milk, or honey are often added to drinks and many prepared foods such as jam, biscuits and cakes. Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber.

Gluten-related disorders

gluten intolerancegluten-sensitive enteropathygluten sensitivity
Avenin present in oats may also be toxic for coeliac sufferers. Its toxicity depends on the cultivar consumed. Furthermore, oats are frequently cross-contaminated with gluten-containing cereals. In the United States, fewer cases of CD have been found compared to other countries. The incidence of celiac disease and of wheat allergy is estimated each to lie at around 1% of the population. There has been a 6.4 increase in the case reports of celiac disease between 1990 and 2009. The incidence of NCGS is unknown; some estimates range from 0.6% to 6%, and a systematic review of 2015 reported on studies with NCGS prevalence rates between 0.5% and 13%.

Whole grain

whole wheatwhole-grainwhole grains
In genetically susceptible people, gluten (proteins found in wheat, barley, rye, oat, and related species and hybrids) can trigger coeliac disease. Coeliac disease affects about 1% of the general population in developed countries. There is evidence that most cases remain undiagnosed and untreated. The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. While coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to wheat proteins, it is not the same as a wheat allergy. Other diseases triggered by eating gluten are non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, (estimated to affect 0.5% to 13% of the general population), gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.

Triticeae glutens

Triticeae'' glutensglutenglutens
This renders gluten soluble enough without alcohol to mix with other products like milk. Individuals who suffer from gluten-sensitive enteropathy/coeliac disease have an adverse reaction to the gluten in cultivars of Triticeae when eaten. In addition to bread wheat, rye and barley (which have similar glutens) are known to cause symptoms in coeliacs. Between 2 and 10% of gluten sensitive individuals are also sensitive to oats, but it is not clear how much of this is due to contamination of triticeae seeds in oats or allergic responses (versus intolerance).


Gluten-free matzo-lookalike made from potato starch, tapioca, and other non-traditional flour is available and may be eaten on Passover, but does not fulfill the commandment of eating matzo, even for people with celiac disease who cannot eat Passover matzo, because matzo must be made from one of the five grains (wheat, barley, oat, spelt, and rye), all of which contain gluten, except for most (but not all) types of oat matzo. Oat matzo may only be used by those who cannot have any other kind because it's not certain that oat is actually one of the five grains (it may be a mistranslation ), so those who can have wheat matzo should do so.

Breakfast cereal

cerealbreakfast cerealscereals
Wheat-based cereals (Cream of Wheat, Malt-o-Meal, Wheatena, etc.) are widely available if less popular. Grits is a porridge of Native American origin made from corn (maize) which is popular in the South. Breakfast cereal companies make gluten-free cereals which are free of any gluten-containing grains. These cereals are targeted for consumers who suffer from gluten-related disorders, as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy, among others. Some companies that produce gluten-free cereals include Kellogg's, General Mills, Nature's Path and Arrowhead Mills. Cereal box prize. Cerealicious. List of breakfast cereal advertising characters. List of breakfast cereals.

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

gluten sensitivitynon-coeliac gluten sensitivitygluten sensitive
These TLR4-stimulating activities of ATIs are limited to gluten-containing cereals (wheat, rye, barley, and derivatives) and may induce innate immunity in people with celiac disease or NCGS. ATIs resist proteolytic digestion. ATIs are about 2–4% of the total protein in modern wheat and are present in commercial gluten. Modern wheat cultivation, by breeding for high ATI content, may play a role in the onset and course of disorders such as celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. However, it has been questioned whether there is sufficient empirical evidence to support this claim, as there are no known studies that directly compare heritage and modern wheat genotypes for ATI activity.


hulled wheatSpelt breadspelt crust
Spelt contains gluten and is therefore suitable for baking, but this component also makes it unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy. In comparison to hard red winter wheat, spelt has a more soluble protein matrix characterized by a higher gliadin:glutenin ratio. In Germany and Austria, spelt loaves and rolls (Dinkelbrot) are widely available in bakeries as is spelt flour in supermarkets. The unripe spelt grains are dried and eaten as Grünkern ("green grain"). Dutch Jenever makers distill with spelt.

Khorasan wheat

kamutKhorasanoriental wheat
In 100 grams, Khorasan wheat provides 337 calories and is a rich source (more than 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of numerous essential nutrients, including protein (29% DV), dietary fiber (46% DV), several B vitamins and dietary minerals, especially manganese (136% DV) (table). Khorasan wheat is 11% water, 70% carbohydrates, 2% fat and 15% protein (table). Khorasan wheat has high protein content which improves its vitreousness which indicates a high milling yield. As kamut contains gluten, it is unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others.


brewing industrybeersbrewing
Other malted and unmalted grains (including wheat, rice, oats, and rye, and less frequently, corn and sorghum) may be used. Some brewers have produced gluten-free beer, made with sorghum with no barley malt, for those who cannot consume gluten-containing grains like wheat, barley, and rye. Flavouring beer is the sole major commercial use of hops. The flower of the hop vine is used as a flavouring and preservative agent in nearly all beer made today. The flowers themselves are often called "hops".


Common examples of such combinations are dal (lentils) with rice by South Indians and Bengalis, dal with wheat in Pakistan and North India, beans with corn tortillas, tofu with rice, and peanut butter with wheat bread (as sandwiches) in several other cultures, including the Americas. The amount of crude protein measured in grains is expressed as grain crude protein concentration. Cereals contain exogenous opioid peptides called exorphins and include opioid food peptides like Gluten exorphin and opioid food peptides. They mimic the actions of endorphines because they bind to the same opioid receptors in the brain.

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Duhring's diseaseskin condition
A connection between DH and celiac disease was recognised in 1967, although the exact causal mechanism is not known. DH is a specific manifestation of coeliac disease. The age of onset is usually about 15–40, but DH also may affect children and the elderly. Men and women are affected equally. Estimates of DH prevalence vary from 1 in 400 to 1 in 10,000. It is most common in patients of northern European/northern Indian ancestry, and is associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype HLA-DQ2 along with coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity.

Mash ingredients

mash billmashgrain bill
As gluten-free grains, they have gained popularity in the Northern Hemisphere as base materials for beers suitable for people with Celiac disease. Sorghum produces a dark, hazy beer, however, and sorghum malt is difficult to prepare and rarely commercially available outside certain African countries. Millet is an ingredient in chhaang and pomba, and both grains together are used in oshikundu. In the US, rice and maize (corn) are often used by commercial breweries as a means of adding fermentable sugars to a beer cheaply, due to the ready availability and low price of the grains.


Secalin is one of the forms of gluten proteins that people with coeliac disease cannot tolerate, and thus rye should be avoided by people with this disease. It is generally recommended that such people follow a gluten free diet. In bread making with rye flour, this protein requires exposure to an acid such as lactic acid to make the bread rise. This is usually achieved with a sourdough ferment.


Hordein is a prolamin glycoprotein, present in barley and some other cereals, together with gliadin and other glycoproteins (such as glutelins) coming under the general name of gluten. Some people are sensitive to hordein due to disorders such as celiac disease or gluten intolerance. Along with gliadin (the prolamin gluten found in wheat), hordein is present in many foods and also may be found in beer. Hordein is usually the main problem for coeliacs wishing to drink beer.


durum wheathard wheatT. durum
Because durum wheat contains gluten, it is unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. * Durum Wheat Research, Grain Research Laboratory, Canadian Grain Commission