West Indies

West IndianWest IndiansWest India
The West Indies is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagos: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.

American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican RevolutionAmerican War of Independence
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies (allied with France) which declared independence as the United States of America.

Master (naval)

mastersailing mastership's master
The master, or sailing master, was a historical rank for a naval officer trained in and responsible for the navigation of a sailing vessel. The rank can be equated to a professional seaman and specialist in navigation, rather than as a military commander.

Kingdom of Great Britain

Great BritainBritishBritain
In 1770, British explorer James Cook had discovered the eastern coast of Australia whilst on a scientific voyage to the South Pacific. In 1778, Joseph Banks, Cook's botanist on the voyage, presented evidence to the government on the suitability of Botany Bay for the establishment of a penal settlement. Australia marks the beginning of the Second British Empire. It was planned by the government in London and designed as a replacement for the lost American colonies.

Mutiny on the Bounty

mutiny on the ''BountymutinyBounty
With Banks' agreement, command of the expedition was given to Lieutenant William Bligh, whose experiences included Captain James Cook's third and final voyage (1776–80) in which he had served as sailing master, or chief navigator, on HMS Resolution. Bligh was born in Plymouth in 1754 into a family of naval and military tradition—Admiral Sir Richard Rodney Bligh was his third cousin. Appointment to Cook's ship at the age of 21 had been a considerable honour, although Bligh believed that his contribution was not properly acknowledged in the expedition's official account.


TahitianOtaheitehistory of Tahiti
On 26 October 1788, under the command of Captain William Bligh, landed in Tahiti with the mission of carrying Tahitian breadfruit trees (Tahitian: uru) to the Caribbean. Sir Joseph Banks, the botanist from James Cook's first expedition, had concluded that this plant would be ideal to feed the African slaves working in the Caribbean plantations at very little cost. The crew remained in Tahiti for about five months, the time needed to transplant the seedlings of the trees. Three weeks after leaving Tahiti, on 28 April 1789, the crew mutinied on the initiative of Fletcher Christian.

Joseph Banks

Sir Joseph BanksBanksBanksian
William Bligh's letters to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the first Breadfruit Expedition.

Able seaman (rank)

Able Seamanableable seamen
Michael Byrne, signed as an able seaman by Captain Bligh on the Bounty primarily to play the fiddle. Matthew Quintal, able seaman and mutineer on HMS Bounty. Kate Nesbitt, first female recipient of the Military Cross in the Royal Navy. Sean Connery, actor. James Cook. N.A.M. Roger. The Wooden World: An Anatomy of the Georgian Navy. W.W. Norton and Company, 1986. N.A.M. Roger. The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649–1815 W.W. Norton and Company, 2004.


Bread fruitbreadfruit treeArtocarpus altilis
Sir Joseph Banks and others saw the value of breadfruit as a highly productive food in 1769, when stationed in Tahiti as part of the expedition commanded by Captain James Cook. The late-18th-century quest for cheap, high-energy food sources for slaves in British colonies prompted colonial administrators and plantation owners to call for the plant to be brought to the Caribbean. As president of the Royal Society, Banks provided a cash bounty and gold medal for success in this endeavor, and successfully lobbied his friends in government and the Admiralty for a British Naval expedition.

State Library of New South Wales

Mitchell LibraryState LibraryState Library of NSW
all six issues of the Australian Abo Call. journals including that kept by Joseph Banks on board ' (during the first voyage undertaken by James Cook to the Pacific Ocean), Harold Lasseter's diary documenting his expedition in 1930 searching for gold, William Bligh's log and journal kept on board ' and documenting the 1789 mutiny, and George Augustus Robinson's journal from 1832 recording his activities in Tasmania, notable for the detailed information he recorded about the local Aboriginal people he encountered. large photographic collections, including the UNESCO-listed collection of negatives, known as The Holtermann Collection, a collection of Frank Hurley's photographs (including images from

European and American voyages of scientific exploration

Magenta'' circumnavigation of the globeChallenger'' Expeditioncolonial voyages of scientific exploration
Captains: James Cook (1728–1779) (Resolution) and Charles Clerke (1741–1779) (Discovery). Surgeon-naturalists: William Anderson (1750–1788) and William Ellis (1747–1810). Astronomer: Joseph Billings (1758–1806). Illustrater: John Webber (1750–1793). Crew members: George Vancouver (1757–1798) was to become a celebrated explorer himself and William Bligh (1754–1817) who would later command HMS Bounty. Captain: Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse (1741–1788) (La Boussole) and Paul Antoine Fleuriot de Langle (1744–1787) (L'Astrolabe). Chief Engineer: Paul Mérault Monneron (1748–1788). Geologist: Robert de Lamanon (1752–1787). Artists: the uncle and nephew Prevost, Duché De Vancy.


In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. With the loss of its American colonies in 1783, the British Government sent a fleet of ships, the "First Fleet", under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, to establish a new penal colony in New South Wales. A camp was set up and the flag raised at Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, on 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day, Australia Day. A British settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825.

Rum Rebellion

1808 RebellionrebellionAustralian rebellion of the same name
On 26 January 1808, 20 years after Arthur Phillip founded the first European settlement in Australia, the New South Wales Corps under the command of Major George Johnston, working closely with John Macarthur, deposed the Governor of New South Wales, William Bligh. Afterwards, the military ruled the colony, with the senior military officer stationed in Sydney acting as the lieutenant-governor of New South Wales until the arrival from Britain of Major-General Lachlan Macquarie as the new governor at the beginning of 1810. William Bligh, well known for his overthrow in the mutiny on the Bounty, was a naval officer and the fourth Governor of New South Wales.

Cutter (boat)

cuttercuttersrevenue cutter
HMS Bounty was classed as a cutter under the command of Lieutenant William Bligh despite being a true ship with three square-rigged masts. The pilot cutter developed from the need for a fast boat to take maritime pilots from harbour to incoming large trading vessels. As most early pilots were local fisherman who undertook both jobs, although licensed by the harbour to operate within their jurisdiction, pilots were generally self-employed, and the quickest transport meant greater income.

Governor of New South Wales

GovernorGovernor of NSWNew South Wales Governor
The Governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the Governor-General of Australia at the national level, the Governors of the Australian states perform constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level. The governor is appointed by the queen on the advice of the premier of New South Wales, for an unfixed period of time—known as serving At Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the norm. The current governor is retired General David Hurley, who succeeded Dame Marie Bashir on 2 October 2014.

Cape Horn

Hornthe HornCabo de Hornos, or "Cape Horn", the southern tip of South America.
This abortive Horn voyage has been portrayed (with varying historical accuracy) in three major motion pictures about Captain William Bligh's mission to transport breadfruit plants from Tahiti to Jamaica. The Bounty made only 85 miles of headway in 31 days of east-to-west sailing, before giving up by reversing course and going around Africa. Although the 1984 movie portrayed another decision to go round the Horn as a precipitating factor in the mutiny (this time west-to-east after collecting the breadfruits in the South Pacific), in fact that was never contemplated out of concern for the effect of the low temperatures near the Horn on the plants.


Bath Botanical Gardens was the site for planting breadfruit, brought to Jamaica from the Pacific by Captain William Bligh. It became a staple in island diets. Other gardens were the Cinchona Plantation, founded in 1868, and the Hope Botanical Gardens founded in 1874. In 1872, Kingston was designated as the island's capital. In 1945, Sir Horace Hector Hearne became Chief Justice and Keeper of the Records in Jamaica. He headed the Supreme Court, Kingston between 1945 and 1950/1951. After Kenya achieved independence, its government appointed him as Chief Justice and he moved there. Jamaica slowly gained increasing independence from the United Kingdom.

Great Barrier Reef

Barrier Reefthe Great Barrier ReefGreat Barrier Reef World Heritage Area
On 11 June 1770, captained by explorer James Cook, ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef, sustaining considerable damage. Lightening the ship and re-floating it during an incoming tide eventually saved it. One of the most famous wrecks was, which sank on 29 August 1791, killing 35 men. The Queensland Museum has led archaeological digs to wreck of Pandora since 1983. Because the reef had no atolls, it was largely unstudied in the 19th century. During this time, some of the reef's islands were mined for deposits of guano, and lighthouses were built as beacons throughout the system. as in Raine Island, the earliest example.

Battle of Dogger Bank (1781)

Battle of Dogger BankDogger Bankbattle
Her flag, which was kept flying, was taken away by the Belle Poule, and carried to Admiral Parker. Although the Dutch celebrated the battle as victory, their fleet did not leave harbour again during the war and their merchant trade remained crippled. At least one convoy did make it to the Baltic, but it flew under Swedish flags and was accompanied by a Swedish frigate. Parker claimed victory but considered that he had not been properly equipped for his task, and on arrival at the Nore, met King George telling him "I wish Your Majesty better ships and younger officers. As for myself, I am now too old for the service". He then resigned his command.

HMS Bounty

HMS ''BountyBountyHMAV ''Bounty
Sir Joseph Banks had proposed the experiment and had recommended William Bligh as commander. Bligh in turn was promoted through a prize offered by the Royal Society of Arts. In June 1787, the Bounty was refitted at Deptford. The great cabin was converted to house the potted breadfruit plants, and gratings were fitted to the upper deck. William Bligh was appointed Commanding Lieutenant of the Bounty on 16 August 1787 at the age of 33, after a career that included a tour as sailing master of James Cook's during Cook's third and final voyage (1776–80). The ship's complement was 46 men: a single commissioned officer (Bligh), 43 other Royal Navy personnel, and two civilian botanists.

New South Wales

NSWColony of New South Waleslocal government
The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia. In his original journal(s) covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales". The first British settlement was made by what is known in Australian history as the First Fleet; this was led by Captain Arthur Phillip, who assumed the role of governor of the settlement on arrival in 1788 until 1792.

Kidnapping of Kalaniʻōpuʻu by Captain James Cook

killed1779 deatha violent struggle
Captain James Cook's 1779 attempted kidnapping of Kalaniʻōpuʻu, the ruling chief of the island of Hawaii and the decision to hold him in exchange for a stolen long boat (lifeboat) was the fatal error of Cook's final voyage, ultimately leading to Cook's death. Cook's arrival in Hawaii was followed by mass migrations of Europeans and Americans to the islands that ended with the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, the aboriginal monarchy of the islands. James Cook led three separate voyages to chart unknown areas of the globe for the British Empire. It was on his third and final voyage that he encountered what is known today as the Islands of Hawaii.

Georg Forster

Both Forsters also published descriptions of their South Pacific travels in the Berlin-based Magazin von merkwürdigen neuen Reisebeschreibungen ("Magazine of strange new travel accounts"), and Georg published a translation of "A Voyage to the South Sea, by Lieutenant William Bligh, London 1792" in 1791–93. The publication of A Voyage Round the World brought Forster scientific recognition all over Europe. The respectable Royal Society made him a member on January 9, 1777, though he was not even 23 years old. He was granted similar titles from academies ranging from Berlin to Madrid. These appointments, however, were unpaid.


🇫🇯Fiji IslandsRepublic of Fiji
James Cook, the British navigator, visited one of the southern Lau islands in 1774. It was not until 1789, however, that the islands were charted and plotted, when William Bligh, the castaway captain of, passed Ovalau and sailed between the main islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu en route to Batavia, in what is now Indonesia. Bligh Water, the strait between the two main islands, is named after him, and for a time, the Fiji Islands were known as the Bligh Islands. The first Europeans to maintain substantial contact with the Fijians were sandalwood merchants, whalers and "beche-de-mer" (sea cucumber) traders.