Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough

9th Duke of MarlboroughDuke of MarlboroughThe Duke of Marlborough
He was a nephew of Lord Randolph Churchill and a first cousin of Sir Winston Churchill, with whom he had a close and lifelong friendship. He was a fourth cousin twice removed of Diana, Princess of Wales. He was educated at Winchester College and Trinity College, Cambridge. Marlborough entered the House of Lords on the early death of his father in 1892, and made his maiden speech in August 1895. In 1899, he was appointed Paymaster-General by Lord Salisbury, a post he held until 1902. He was then Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies under Arthur Balfour between 1903 and 1905. He was sworn of the Privy Council in 1899.

Liberal welfare reforms

welfare reformsliberal reformsreforms
Germany and the United States were overtaking Britain as economic powers – the success of social legislation in Bismarck's Germany made leading Liberals in the UK such as David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill want to put forward similar legislation. The emergence of public works schemes set up to improve living conditions which were often run by the Liberals raised the possibility that such schemes could occur on a national scale.

London to Ladysmith via Pretoria

London to Ladysmith via Pretoria is a book written by Winston Churchill. It is a personal record of Churchill's impressions during the first five months of the Second Boer War. It includes an account of the Relief of Ladysmith, and also the story of Churchill's capture and dramatic escape from the Boers. The book was first published in 1900, and dedicated to the staff of the Natal Government railway. In 1899 Winston Churchill, though he had left his Regiment, the 4th Hussars, in the previous March, was eager as ever to be within the sound of the guns and wasted no time in getting himself accredited to The Morning Post as war correspondent.

Duke of Marlborough (title)

Duke of MarlboroughDukes of MarlboroughDukedom of Marlborough
Lord Charles Spencer-Churchill (1940–2016). (4) Rupert Spencer-Churchill (b. 1971). (5) Dominic Spencer-Churchill (b. 1979). (6) Ivor Spencer-Churchill (b. 2014). (7) Alexander Spencer-Churchill (b. 1983). Lord Ivor Spencer-Churchill (1898–1956). (8) Robert Spencer-Churchill (b. 1954). (9) John Spencer-Churchill (b. 1984). (10) Ivor Spencer-Churchill (b. 1986). ''Lord Randolph Spencer-Churchill (1849–1895). Sir Winston Churchill (1874–1965). Randolph Spencer-Churchill (1911–1968).

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
British discontent over the Norwegian campaign led to the appointment of Winston Churchill as Prime Minister on 10May 1940. On the same day, Germany launched an offensive against France. To circumvent the strong Maginot Line fortifications on the Franco-German border, Germany directed its attack at the neutral nations of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The Germans carried out a flanking manoeuvre through the Ardennes region, which was mistakenly perceived by Allies as an impenetrable natural barrier against armoured vehicles.

Secretary of State for Air

President of the Air CouncilAirAir Minister
The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet-level British position. The person holding this position was in charge of the Air Ministry. It was created on 10 January 1919 to manage the Royal Air Force. On 1 April 1964, the Air Ministry was incorporated into the Ministry of Defence, and the position of Secretary of State for Air was abolished.

Liberal government, 1905–1915

Liberal governmentLiberal administrationCampbell-Bannerman
February 1910 – Winston Churchill succeeds Herbert Gladstone as Home Secretary. Sydney Buxton succeeds Churchill at the Board of Trade. Herbert Samuel succeeds Buxton as Postmaster-General. Joseph Pease succeeds Samuel as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. June 1910 – Lord Beauchamp succeeds Lord Wolverhampton as Lord President. November 1910 – Lord Beauchamp succeeds Lewis Vernon Harcourt as First Commissioner of Public Works. Lord Morley of Blackburn succeeds Beauchamp as Lord President. Lord Crewe succeeds Morley as India Secretary, remaining also Lord Privy Seal. Lewis Harcourt succeeds Crewe as Colonial Secretary.

Oldham (UK Parliament constituency)

OldhamOldham constituencyOldham parliamentary constituency
The Oldham constituency was where Winston Churchill began his political career. Although taking two attempts to succeed, in the 1900 general election Churchill was elected as the member of Parliament for Oldham. He held the constituency for the Conservative Party until he defected from them in defence of free trade in 1904. He then represented the Liberal Party as MP for the seat until the 1906 general election. Though centred on Oldham (the town), the constituency covered a much broader territory; Shaw and Crompton, Royton, Chadderton and Lees all formed part of this district, though these were each granted individual urban district status at a local government level in 1894.

Cold War

the Cold Warcold-warCold War era
Wolff and his forces were being considered to help implement Operation Unthinkable, a secret plan to invade the Soviet Union which Winston Churchill advocated during this period. In April 1945, President Roosevelt died and was succeeded by Harry S. Truman, who distrusted Stalin and turned for advice to an elite group of foreign policy intellectuals. Both Churchill and Truman opposed, among other things, the Soviets' decision to prop up the Lublin government, the Soviet-controlled rival to the Polish government-in-exile in London, whose relations with the Soviets had been severed.

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Prime MinisterBritish Prime MinisterUK Prime Minister
Several 20th century prime ministers, such as David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill, were famous for their oratorical skills. After the introduction of radio, motion pictures, television, and the internet, many used these technologies to project their public image and address the nation. Stanley Baldwin, a master of the radio broadcast in the 1920s and 1930s, reached a national audience in his talks filled with homely advice and simple expressions of national pride. Churchill also used the radio to great effect, inspiring, reassuring and informing the people with his speeches during the Second World War.

Liberal Party (UK)

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
The People's Budget of 1909, championed by David Lloyd George and fellow Liberal Winston Churchill, introduced unprecedented taxes on the wealthy in Britain and radical social welfare programmes to the country's policies. It was the first budget with the expressed intent of redistributing wealth among the public. It imposed increased taxes on luxuries, liquor, tobacco, high incomes, and land – taxation that disproportionately affected the rich. The new money was to be made available for new welfare programmes as well as new battleships.

21st Lancers

21st (Empress of India's) Lancers21st Hussars21st Lancers (Empress of India's)
Perhaps its most famous engagement was the Battle of Omdurman, where Winston Churchill (then an officer of the 4th Hussars), rode with the unit. The regiment was originally raised in Bengal by the East India Company in 1858 as the 3rd Bengal European Light Cavalry, for service in the Indian Rebellion. As with all other "European" units of the Company, it was placed under the command of the British Crown in 1858, and formally moved into the British Army in 1862, when it was designated as a hussar regiment and titled the 21st Regiment of Hussars. A detachment saw service in the 1884–5 expedition to the Sudan, with the Light Camel Regiment.

10 Downing Street

Prime Minister's OfficeDowning StreetNumber 10
Winston Churchill wrote that Number 10 was "shaky and lightly built by the profiteering contractor whose name they bear". The upper end of the Downing Street cul-de-sac closed off the access to St James's Park, making the street quiet and private. An advertisement in 1720 described it as: "... a pretty open Place, especially at the upper end, where are four or five very large and well-built Houses, fit for Persons of Honour and Quality; each House having a pleasant Prospect into St James's Park, with a Tarras Walk".

Nazi Germany

Hitler's peace overtures to the new British Prime Minister Winston Churchill were rejected in July 1940. Grand Admiral Erich Raeder had advised Hitler in June that air superiority was a pre-condition for a successful invasion of Britain, so Hitler ordered a series of aerial attacks on Royal Air Force (RAF) airbases and radar stations, as well as nightly air raids on British cities, including London, Plymouth, and Coventry. The German Luftwaffe failed to defeat the RAF in what became known as the Battle of Britain, and by the end of October, Hitler realised that air superiority would not be achieved.

H. H. Asquith

AsquithAsquithianHerbert Henry Asquith
Winston Churchill succeeded Lloyd George as President of the Board of Trade, entering the Cabinet despite his youth (aged 33) and the fact that he had crossed the floor to become a Liberal only four years previously. Asquith demoted or dismissed a number of Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet ministers. Lord Tweedmouth, the First Lord of the Admiralty, was relegated to the nominal post of Lord President of the Council. Lord Elgin was sacked from the Colonial Office and the Earl of Portsmouth (whom Asquith had tutored) was too, as undersecretary at the War Office.


suffragettessuffragistsuffragette movement
At a political meeting in Manchester in 1905, Christabel Pankhurst and millworker, Annie Kenney, disrupted speeches by prominent Liberals Winston Churchill and Sir Edward Grey, asking where Churchill and Grey stood with regards to women's political rights. At a time when political meetings were only attended by men and speakers were expected to be given the courtesy of expounding their views without interruption, the audience were outraged, and when the women unfurled a "Votes for Women" banner they were both arrested for a technical assault on a policeman.

Siege of Malakand

Malakand Frontier WarMalakandSwat
Pakistan asks tourists to Churchill's battlefield The Daily Telegraph retrieved 17 July 2007.

Reginald Barnes

Reginald Walter Ralph BarnesR. BarnesReginald W.R. Barnes
His first experience of war came in November 1895, when he was attached as an observer of guerrilla warfare to the Spanish Army during the Cuban War of Independence, together with his fellow 4th Hussars officer, a twenty-one-year-old Winston Churchill. Churchill was an accredited journalist for the London Daily Graphic newspaper, sending them dispatches from the front. But both officers were also under orders from Colonel Edward Chapman, the British Director of Military Intelligence to "collect information and statistics on various points and particularly as to the effect of the new bullet its penetration and striking power".

1899 Oldham by-election

by-election1899 by-electionby-election held the previous year
The election resulted in the Liberal Party winning both seats from the Conservatives who had previously held them, but the election is notable mainly for being the first to be fought by future Conservative Prime Minister, Winston Churchill. At the beginning of 1899, the two members of parliament for Oldham were Robert Ascroft and James Oswald. However, Oswald had been chronically ill for many months and had been absent from his Parliamentary duties and his constituency. He had indicated that he would not seek re-election and left a resignation note with the Conservative Party and instructed them to use it if they thought it to be expedient.

South African Light Horse

The future Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill served as a lieutenant in the SALH from January to July 1900. The regiment was formed in November 1899, just one month after the start of the Second Boer War, and by December of that year 8 squadrons had been raised from Uitlanders. They were largely financed by Wernher-Beit & co. and together with the Imperial Light Horse they effectively formed a Uitlander army.


Aldershot Military TownAldershot TattooAldershot Stadium
Many famous people have been associated with the Military Town, including Charlie Chaplin, who made his first stage appearance in The Canteen theatre aged 5 in 1894, and Winston Churchill, who was based there in the late 19th century during his time in the Army. The area also houses various military and regimental museums, including the Aldershot Military Museum, housed in a red-brick Victorian barracks. Until December 2007 the Parachute Regiment and Airborne Forces Museum was in Aldershot. It has since moved to the Imperial War Museum Duxford.

1908 Dundee by-election

1908 by-electionDundee1908 Dundee by election
However, James Caird, a prominent local jute proprietor actively supported the free-trader, Churchill, by funding his pro-Free Trade propaganda. On 14 May (after the poll), Churchill gave a significant speech at Kinnaird Hall [see external links, below]. Despite Stuart not being officially endorsed by the Labour party, the party leader, Keir Hardie sent him a letter of support in which condemned Churchill for "shameless prevarication" over the Right to Work Bill. He also spoke on Stuart's platform, and the Dundee Courier enthusiastically reported his criticisms of the Liberal Party candidate, Winston Churchill.

Diana Churchill

Diana Spencer-Churchill (11 July 1909 – 20 October 1963) was the eldest daughter of British statesman Sir Winston Churchill and Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill (née Hozier). She attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, where she spent five terms, without any real intention to become an actress. On 12 December 1932, she married John Milner Bailey (15 June 1900 East Grinstead – 13 February 1946 Cape Town, South Africa) (became the Bailey baronet Sir John Milner Bailey, 2nd Bt), but the marriage was unsuccessful and they divorced in 1935. On 16 September 1935, she married the Conservative politician, Duncan Sandys (later life peer Lord Duncan-Sandys).

Daily Mail

The Daily MailMail on SundayThe Mail on Sunday
Winston Churchill was the chief guest at the banquet and toasted it with a speech. Newsprint rationing in the Second World War had forced the Daily Mail to cut its size to four pages, but the size gradually increased through the 1950s. The Daily Mail was transformed by its editor during the 1970s and 1980s, David English. He had been editor of the Daily Sketch from 1969 to 1971, when it closed. Part of the same group from 1953, the Sketch was absorbed by its sister title, and English became editor of the Mail, a post in which he remained for more than 20 years.

Randolph Churchill

RandolphRandolph Spencer-ChurchillChurchill
This article is about the son of the British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill. For the former prime minister's father, see Lord Randolph Churchill. Randolph Frederick Edward Spencer-Churchill (28 May 1911 – 6 June 1968) was a British journalist, writer and a Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) for Preston from 1940 to 1945. He was the only son of British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill and his wife, Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill. He wrote the first two volumes of the official life of his father, complemented by an extensive archive of materials. His first wife (1939–46) was Pamela Digby; their son, Winston, followed his father into Parliament.