Hugh Franklin (suffragist)

Hugh FranklinHugh
Winston Churchill was at that point Home Secretary, and he was widely blamed for the police excesses on display. Hugh Franklin, who was angered by what he had seen, began to follow Churchill to heckle him at public meetings. On the train back from a meeting in Bristol, Hugh met Churchill and set on him with a dog whip, shouting "Take this, you cur, for the treatment of the suffragists!" The attack was widely reported, even reaching the headlines of The Times, and for the Franklin family, it was a great embarrassment. Hugh was imprisoned for six weeks and dismissed as Sir Nathan's secretary. In March 1911, he was sentenced for another month for throwing rocks at Churchill's house.

Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

Lord KitchenerKitchenerHerbert Kitchener
Alexandretta was an area with a large Christian population and was the strategic centre of the Ottoman Empire's railway network — its capture would have cut the empire in two.Yet he was instead eventually persuaded to support Winston Churchill's disastrous Gallipoli Campaign in 1915–1916. (Churchill's responsibility for the failure of this campaign is debated; for more information see David Fromkin's A Peace to End All Peace.)

Home Secretary

Home SecretariesSecretary of State for the Home DepartmentSecretary of State
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office. It is a British Cabinet level position.

Manchester North West (UK Parliament constituency)

Manchester North WestManchester North-WestManchester
Winston Churchill won the seat at the 1906 General Election, but lost it at the 1908 by-election required at that time on his promotion to the Cabinet (he instead returned to Parliament for Dundee). In 1910, Bonar Law challenged Churchill to run against him here, and promised "he would welcome him and they would have a lively time". Bonar Law suggested that the loser should stay out of the next parliament (The Times). Churchill declined. In the event Bonar Law lost to the sitting MP, Sir George Kemp. Kemp resigned the seat in July 1912, ostensibly to concentrate on his business interests, but he was known to disagree with the Home Rule Bill (The Times).

Lord Randolph Churchill (book)

Lord Randolph Churchilla two-volume biographyChurchill's biography of his father
Lord Randolph Churchill was a two-part biography written by Winston Churchill of his father, the Victorian politician Lord Randolph Churchill. It was first published in 1906. From 1903 until 1905, Churchill was engaged in writing Lord Randolph Churchill, a two-volume biography of his father which was published in 1906 and received much critical acclaim. However, filial devotion caused him to soften some of his father's less attractive aspects. Theodore Roosevelt, who had known Lord Randolph, reviewed the book as "a clever, tactful and rather cheap and vulgar life of that clever, tactful and rather cheap and vulgar egotist".

Coal Mines Act 1911

Coal Mines Bill
The 1911 Act, sponsored by Winston Churchill, was passed by the Liberal government of H. H. Asquith. It built on earlier regulations and provided for many improvement to safety and other aspects of the coal mining industry. An important aspect was that mine owners were required to ensure there were mines rescue stations near each colliery with equipped and trained staff. Although amended several times, it was the main legislation governing coal mining for many years. In the United Kingdom a series of disasters in the 19th century brought about Royal Commissions which developed the idea of improving mine safety.

The Story of the Malakand Field Force

The Story of the Malakand Field Force: An Episode of Frontier War was an 1898 book written by Winston Churchill; it was his first published work of non-fiction. The book describes a military campaign by the British army on the North West Frontier (now western Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan) in 1897. It is dedicated to General Bindon Blood. The story of the campaign and Churchill's part in it is told in Churchill's First War: Young Winston and the Fight Against the Taliban (2013) by Con Coughlin. * The Story of the Malakand Field Force at the Internet Archive.

David Lloyd George

Lloyd GeorgeRt Hon. David Lloyd GeorgeBritish Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Winston Churchill – Minister of Munitions (appointed 17/7/17). Neville Chamberlain, and then (from 1917) Sir Auckland Geddes – Director of National Service. David Lloyd George — Prime Minister. Lord Birkenhead – Lord Chancellor. Lord Curzon of Kedleston – Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Lords. Andrew Bonar Law – Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Commons. Austen Chamberlain – Chancellor of the Exchequer. Edward Shortt – Secretary of State for the Home Department. Arthur Balfour – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Lord Milner – Secretary of State for the Colonies. Winston Churchill – Secretary of State for War and Air.

President of the Board of Trade

First Lord of TradeBoard of TradePresident
The President of the Board of Trade is head of the Board of Trade. This is a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, first established as a temporary committee of inquiry in the 17th century, that evolved gradually into a government department with a diverse range of functions. The current holder is Liam Fox, the Secretary of State for International Trade.


federalfederalistfederal system
European federalism originated in post-war Europe; one of the more important initiatives was Winston Churchill's speech in Zürich in 1946. In the United States, federalism originally referred to belief in a stronger central government. When the U.S. Constitution was being drafted, the Federalist Party supported a stronger central government, while "Anti-Federalists" wanted a weaker central government. This is very different from the modern usage of "federalism" in Europe and the United States. The distinction stems from the fact that "federalism" is situated in the middle of the political spectrum between a confederacy and a unitary state. The U.S.

Crossing the floor

crossed the floorcross the floorcrosses the floor
A notable example of this is Winston Churchill, who crossed the floor from the Conservatives to the Liberals in 1904, before later crossing back in 1924. The term has passed into general use in other Westminster parliamentary democracies (such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa) even if many of these countries have semicircular or horseshoe-shaped debating chambers and mechanisms for voting without Members of Parliament leaving their seats.

Gallipoli Campaign

GallipoliDardanellesBattle of Gallipoli
Later that month, Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty, proposed a naval attack on the Dardanelles, based in part on erroneous reports of Ottoman troop strength. Churchill wanted to use a large number of obsolete battleships, which could not operate against the German High Seas Fleet, in a Dardanelles operation, with a small occupation force provided by the army. It was hoped that an attack on the Ottomans would also draw Bulgaria and Greece (both formerly ruled by the Ottomans) into the war on the Allied side. On 2 January 1915, Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia appealed successfully to Britain for assistance against the Ottomans, who were conducting an offensive in the Caucasus.

4th Queen's Own Hussars

4th Hussars4th Dragoons4th Light Dragoons
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, LLD, MP.

Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal

Ladysmith LadysmithEmnambithi/Ladysmith
Sir Winston Churchill, then a young war correspondent for The Morning Post (London), was present at the Relief of Ladysmith after having been taken prisoner (between Ladysmith and Colenso) and escaping earlier during the war. Mohandas Gandhi, along with the stretcher-bearing corps that he had established earlier during the war, was involved in a number of actions that took place in and around Ladysmith during the Relief. Ladysmith is located on the banks of the Klip River ("stone river"), with the central business district and a large part of the residential areas located within the flood basin of the river.

Stoke Brunswick School

Brunswick SchoolStoke Brunswick
Winston Churchill, former British Prime Minister and war-time leader. Alex Stobbs, academic and music scholar. Jonathan King, record producer, singer and songwriter.

Royal Scots Fusiliers

21st Regiment of Foot21st Foot21st
Lieutenant Colonel Winston Churchill commanded the battalion when it was located near Ploegsteert Wood during Spring 1916. The 7th (Service) Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 45th Brigade in the 15th (Scottish) Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 8th (Service) Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 77th Brigade in the 26th Division in September 1915 for service on the Western Front but soon moved to Salonika. The 1st Battalion spent the whole war as part of the 29th Independent Infantry Brigade Group.

People's Budget

budget1909 budget1909–10 budget
It was championed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George, and his young ally Winston Churchill, who was then President of the Board of Trade and a fellow Liberal; called the "Terrible Twins" by certain Conservative contemporaries. Churchill's biographer, William Manchester, called the People's Budget a "revolutionary concept" because it was the first budget in British history with the expressed intent of redistributing wealth equally amongst the British population. It was a key issue of contention between the Liberal government and the Conservative-dominated House of Lords, leading to two general elections in 1910 and the enactment of the Parliament Act 1911.

Siege of Sidney Street

Battle of Stepneygun battleHoundsditch murders
Both services came under the political control of the Home Secretary, who in 1911 was the 36-year-old rising politician Winston Churchill. While on the beat, or in the course of their normal duties, officers of the City of London and Metropolitan forces were provided with only a short wooden truncheon for protection. This tradition of de-escalating policing and avoiding guns was distinctly British, and completely foreign to Jews used to being put to the sword by the Tsar's Cossacks in Russia.

Dundee (UK Parliament constituency)

DundeeDundee burgh constituencyDundee constituency
Winston Churchill became Member of Parliament for Dundee in a by-election of 1908 soon after losing his Manchester North West seat and retained the seat until 1922. In 1906, the explorer Ernest Shackleton unsuccessfully ran as a candidate for the Liberal Unionist Party. From its creation in 1832 the seat did not return a Conservative member until 1931 when Florence Horsbrugh was elected. Originally a Liberal stronghold, the seat was one of the first in Scotland to return a Labour candidate, Alexander Wilkie, who was elected in 1906. At the 1918 general election both Churchill, still then a Liberal, and Wilkie were supported by the local Unionists, as well as their own party organisations.

Black and Tans

Black and TanBritishBritish forces
The force was the brainchild of Winston Churchill, then British Secretary of State for War. Recruitment began in Great Britain in late 1919. Thousands, many of them British Army veterans of World War I, answered the British government's call for recruits. Most of the recruits came from Britain, although it also had some members from Ireland. Their role was to help the RIC maintain control and fight the Irish Republican Army (IRA), the army of the Irish Republic. The nickname "Black and Tans" arose from the colours of the improvised uniforms they initially wore, composed of mixed khaki British Army and rifle green RIC uniform parts.

Battle of Omdurman

OmdurmanKhartoumcampaign at the Sudan in 1898
Winston Churchill privately agreed with Bennett that Kitchener was too brutal in his killing of the wounded. This opinion was reflected in his own account of the battle when it was first published in 1899. However, mindful of the effect that patriotic public opinion could have on his political career, Churchill significantly moderated criticism of Kitchener in his book's second edition in 1902. The Khalifa, Abdullah al-Taashi, escaped and survived until 1899, when he was killed in the Battle of Umm Diwaykarat. Several days after the battle, Kitchener was sent to Fashoda, due to the developing Fashoda Incident. Kitchener was ennobled as a baron, Kitchener of Khartoum, for his victory.

Secretary of State for War

War SecretarySecretaries of State for WarWar Minister
The position of Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, was a British cabinet-level position, first held by Henry Dundas (appointed in 1794). In 1801 the post became that of Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. The position was re-instated in 1854.

Trade Boards Act 1909

Trade Boards ActTrade BoardsTrade Boards Bill
Winston Churchill MP, put the argument for the legislation as follows. It is a serious national evil that any class of His Majesty's subjects should receive less than a living wage in return for their utmost exertions. It was formerly supposed that the working of the laws of supply and demand would naturally regulate or eliminate that evil. The first clear division which we make on the question to-day is between healthy and unhealthy conditions of bargaining. That is the first broad division which we make in the general statement that the laws of supply and demand will ultimately produce a fair price.

1908 Manchester North West by-election

Manchester North West1908 by-electionlost Manchester North
However, Churchill still received endorsement from the Free Trade League. Suffragettes harassed Churchill, over his refusal to support legislation that would give women the vote. This local opposition was led by suffragetes Constance Markievicz, Eva Gore-Booth, and Esther Roper. There was Jewish hostility to Joynson-Hicks over his support for the controversial Aliens Act. A number of Roman Catholic priests urged their congregation to vote Conservative after Joynson-Hicks attacked Liberal education policy for undermining the autonomy of Roman Catholic Schools. The Conservatives re gained the seat. The following day, the Daily Telegraph ran a front page headline "Winston Churchill is OUT!

Liberal Unionist Party

Liberal UnionistLiberal UnionistsUnionist
As for Devonshire and his allies, they put their political efforts into the Unionist Free Trade League (also called the Free Food League) which included a sizeable minority of Conservative Members of Parliament (MPs) (and, for a few months, Conservative MP Winston Churchill before he too defected to the Liberals in 1904). Most of them eventually left the party while Devonshire ended his political career estranged from both main parties and appears to have sat in the House of Lords as a crossbencher.