In 1913, shortly before World War I, APOC managers negotiated with a new customer, Winston Churchill, who was then First Lord of the Admiralty. Churchill, as a part of a three-year expansion program, sought to modernise Britain's Royal Navy by abandoning the use of coal-fired steamships and adopting oil as fuel for its ships instead. Although Britain had large reserves of coal, oil had advantages in better energy density, allowing a longer steaming range for a ship for the same bunker capacity. Furthermore, Churchill wanted to free Britain from its reliance on the Standard Oil and Royal Dutch-Shell oil companies.
Anglo-Iranian Oil CompanyAnglo-Iranian Oil Co LtdAnglo-Iranian Oil Co.
The Budget League was a British pressure group formed in 1909 by Winston Churchill to publicly campaign in favour of David Lloyd George's People's Budget in reaction to the activities of the Budget Protest League. The foundation of the League had not been discussed in the Cabinet and when Sir Henry Norman requested Cabinet ministers to speak at its meetings, nearly all of them refused to participate. However, after Jack Pease issued a circular to all Cabinet members, the League was able to announce that many leading Liberals would speak at its meetings.
Asquith, Lawrence of Arabia, the Earl of Birkenhead, Marshal Foch, Alfonso XIII, Douglas Haig, Arthur James Balfour, Adolf Hitler, George Nathaniel Curzon, Philip Snowden, Georges Clemenceau, and George V. * The Churchill Centre List of publications by Winston Churchill
Colonial SecretaryColonial OfficeBritish Secretary of State for the Colonies
The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies.
The former National Liberal Cabinet Minister Winston Churchill was an adherent to this view of Constitutionalism. He was noted at the time for being particularly hostile to socialism. In March 1924 Churchill sought election at the Westminster Abbey by-election, 1924. He had originally sought the backing of the local Unionist association, which happened to be called the Westminster Abbey Constitutional Association, and adopted the term 'Constitutionalist' to describe himself during the by-election campaign. After the by-election Churchill continued to use the term and talked about setting up a Constitutionalist Party.
advocacy of gassingBirds of Deathconsider the use of non-lethal poison gas
Use of tear gas and lethal poison gas was considered, and was promoted by Winston Churchill, head of the War Office. However no tear gas and no poison gas was actually used in 1920-22. Historian Charles Townshend made the “first blunt assertion of British chemical weapons use in Iraq” in his 1986 essay Civilisation and “Frightfulness”: Air Control in the Middle East Between the Wars: Britain was not a free agent in the middle east, and would have to defer to the universal prejudice against all forms of gas.
CabinetBritish Cabinetcabinet minister
This centralisation enhanced the power of the Prime Minister, who moved from being the primus inter pares of the Asquith Cabinets of 1906 onwards, to the dominating figures of David Lloyd George, Stanley Baldwin and Winston Churchill. Cabinet ministers, like all ministers, are appointed and may be dismissed by the monarch without notice or reason, on the advice of the Prime Minister. The allocation and transfer of responsibilities between ministers and departments is also generally at the Prime Minister's discretion.
a major disputeRhondda coalminers' strikeTonypandy
In 2010, 99 years after the riots, a Welsh local council made objections to a street being named after Churchill in the Vale of Glamorgan, because of his sending troops into the Rhondda. Political fallout for Churchill also continued. In 1940, when Chamberlain's war-time government was faltering, Clement Attlee secretly warned that the Labour Party might not follow Churchill, because of his association with Tonypandy. In 1978, there was uproar in the House of Commons, when Churchill's grandson, also Winston Churchill, replying to a routine question on miners' pay, was warned by James Callaghan not to pursue "the vendetta of your family against the miners of Tonypandy".
Lord BeaverbrookBeaverbrookMax Aitken
Ministers at War: Winston Churchill and His War Cabinet (Basic Books, 2015). Sweet, Matthew. Shepperton Babylon: The Lost Worlds of British Cinema. London: Faber & Faber, 2005. ISBN: 978-0-571-21297-2. Lord Beaverbrook, a Week at the Office. National Film Board of Canada biography.
McKenna dutiesMcKennaR. McKenna
In December 1905 McKenna was appointed, in preference to Winston Churchill, as Financial Secretary to the Treasury. He then served in the Liberal Cabinets of Campbell-Bannerman and Asquith as President of the Board of Education, First Lord of the Admiralty (1908–11), and Home Secretary. He was considered methodical and efficient, but his opponents thought him priggish, prissy and lacking in charisma. McKenna's estimates were submitted to unprecedented scrutiny by the 'economists' Lloyd George and Churchill. McKenna submitted large naval estimates in December 1906 for the years 1909-10 of £36 m. This was the Dreadnought building program inspired by naval reformer Admiral Fisher.
The suggestion for the rule came from Winston Churchill, who in 1919 was Secretary of State for War and Air. Former Prime Minister Lord Balfour unsuccessfully argued to the Committee of Imperial Defence, which adopted the rule, that "nobody could say that from any one moment war was an impossibility for the next ten years ... we could not rest in a state of unpreparedness on such an assumption by anybody. To suggest that we could be nine and a half years away from preparedness would be a most dangerous suggestion." In 1928 Churchill, as Chancellor of the Exchequer, successfully urged the Cabinet to make the rule self-perpetuating, and hence it was in force unless specifically countermanded.
Alfred Duff CooperDuff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich
When Winston Churchill became prime minister in May 1940, he named Cooper as Minister of Information. From 1941, he served in numerous diplomatic roles. His most important role was representative to Charles de Gaulle's Free France (1943–44) and ambassador to France from 1944–48. Duff Cooper (he was always known as “Duff” rather than “Alfred”) was born at Cavendish Square on 22 February 1890. He was the only son of fashionable society doctor Sir Alfred Cooper (1843–1908), a surgeon and specialist in the sexual problems of the upper classes, and Lady Agnes Duff, daughter of James Duff, 5th Earl Fife.
County of OxfordCounty of OxfordshireOxford
Blenheim Palace close to Woodstock was built by the great architect John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, after he had won the battle of Blenheim. The gardens, which can be visited, were designed by the landscape gardener "Capability Brown", who planted the trees in the battle formation of the victorious army. In the palace, which can also be visited by the public, Sir Winston Churchill was born in 1874. Chastleton House, on the Gloucestershire and Warwickshire borders, is a great country mansion built on property bought from Robert Catesby, who was one of the men involved in the Gunpowder Plot with Guy Fawkes.
Ministry of MunitionsDisposal and Liquidation CommissionJoint Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Munitions
Churchill, Munitions and Mechanical Warfare (NY: Peter Lang, 1997) ISBN: 0820433144. On Churchill role heading the Ministry. Burk, Kathleen. Britain, America and the Sinews of War, 1914–1918 (NY: Allen & Unwin, 1985) ISBN: 0049400762. Clegg, Hugh Armstrong. A History of British Trade Unions since 1889: Volume II 1911-1931 (1985) pp 118-212. Gilbert, Bentley. David Lloyd George: Organizer of Victory 1912–1916 (Batsford, 1992), pp. 209–250. Grigg, John. Lloyd George: From Peace to War 1912–1916 (Eyre Methuen, 1985) pp. 223–256. Hay, Denys. "IV. The Official History Of The Ministry Of Munitions." Economic History Review (1944) 14#2 pp. 185–190. in JSTOR ISSN 0013-0117. Hill, L. Brooks.
British PetroleumBP plcBP Australia
In 1923, Burmah employed Winston Churchill as a paid consultant to lobby the British government to allow APOC have exclusive rights to Persian oil resources, which were subsequently granted by the Iranian monarchy. APOC and the Armenian businessman Calouste Gulbenkian were the driving forces behind the creation of Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC) in 1912 to explore oil in Mesopotamia (now Iraq); and by 1914, APOC held 50% of TPC shares. In 1925, TPC received concession in the Mesopotamian oil resources from the Iraqi government under British mandate. TPC finally struck oil in Iraq on 14 October 1927.
As the result of an approach by Royal Naval Air Service officers who had been operating armoured cars on the Western Front, the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill formed the Landship Committee, on 20 February 1915. The Director of Naval Construction for the Royal Navy, Eustace Tennyson d'Eyncourt, was appointed to head the Committee in view of his experience with the engineering methods it was felt might be required; the two other members were naval officers, and a number of industrialists were engaged as consultants. So many played a part in its long and complicated development that it is not possible to name any individual as the sole inventor of the tank.
TimesTimes Newspapers LtdTimes Online
In December 1944, when fighting broke out in Athens between the Greek Communist ELAS and the British Army, Carr in a Times leader sided with the Communists, leading Winston Churchill to condemn him and the article in a speech to the House of Commons. As a result of Carr's editorial, The Times became popularly known during that stage of World War II as "the threepenny Daily Worker" (the price of the Communist Party's Daily Worker being one penny). On 3 May 1966 it resumed printing news on the front page – previously the front page had been given over to small advertisements, usually of interest to the moneyed classes in British society.
The following day, on the afternoon of the 28 February 1900 Captain Gough led the relief column into Ladysmith, followed by, amongst others, Winston Churchill. Two Victoria Crosses were awarded during the Battle of the Tugela Heights - to Edgar Thomas Inkson for bravery on Harts Hill on 24 February and to Conwyn Mansel-Jones for bravery on Terrace Hill on 27 February. For many years the town's principal industry was the power station, originally built for South African Railways and opened in June 1926 and finally decommissioned in 1985.
Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
When Neville Chamberlain resigned in the spring of 1940, incoming Prime Minister Winston Churchill decided to bring the other main parties into a coalition similar to that of the First World War. Clement Attlee was appointed Lord Privy Seal and a member of the war cabinet, eventually becoming the United Kingdom's first Deputy Prime Minister.
Civil Warcivil war in Russiapro-czarist Russian North-Western Army
Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle". The British and French had supported Russia during World War I on a massive scale with war materials. After the treaty, it looked like much of that material would fall into the hands of the Germans. Under this pretext began the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War with the United Kingdom and France sending troops into Russian ports. There were violent clashes with troops loyal to the Bolsheviks.
Sir Anthony EdenEdenAnthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon
Meanwhile the leading anti-appeaser Winston Churchill, led a similar group, called "The Old Guard". They were not yet allies and did not see eye-to-eye until Churchill became Prime Minister in 1940. There was much speculation that Eden would become a rallying point for all the disparate opponents of Neville Chamberlain, but his position declined heavily amongst politicians as he maintained a low profile, avoiding confrontation, though he opposed the Munich Agreement and abstained in the vote on it in the House of Commons.
MacaulayLord MacaulayThomas Macaulay
On 7 February 1954, Lord Moran, doctor to the Prime Minister, Sir Winston Churchill, recorded in his diary: "Randolph, who is writing a life of the late Lord Derby for Longman's, brought to luncheon a young man of that name. His talk interested the P.M. ... Macaulay, Longman went on, was not read now; there was no demand for his books. The P.M. grunted that he was very sorry to hear this. Macaulay had been a great influence in his young days." George Richard Potter, Professor and Head of the Department of History at the University of Sheffield from 1931 to 1965, claimed "In an age of long letters ... Macaulay's hold their own with the best".
AttleeEarl AttleeAttlee government
Consequently, Chamberlain tendered his resignation, and Labour and the Conservatives entered a coalition government led by Winston Churchill on 10 May 1940. Attlee and Churchill quickly agreed that the War Cabinet would consist of three Conservatives (initially Churchill, Chamberlain and Lord Halifax) and two Labour members (initially himself and Arthur Greenwood) and that Labour should have slightly more than one third of the posts in the coalition government.
AuxiliariesAuxiliary Forces Auxiliary Division of the Royal Irish Constabulary (ADRIC)
During a Cabinet meeting on 11 May 1920, the Secretary of State for War, Winston Churchill, suggested the formation of a "Special Emergency Gendarmerie, which would become a branch of the Royal Irish Constabulary". Churchill's proposal was referred to a committee chaired by General Sir Nevil Macready, Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in Ireland. Macready's committee rejected Churchill's proposal, but it was revived two months later, in July, by the Police Adviser to the Dublin Castle administration in Ireland, Major-General H H Tudor.
19001900 general electiongeneral election of 1900
This was the first occasion when Winston Churchill was elected to the House of Commons. He had stood in the same seat, Oldham, at a by-election held the previous year, but had lost. It was also the final general election of the Victorian era and the 19th century. Total votes cast: 3,514,592. MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1900. Parliamentary franchise in the United Kingdom 1885–1918. Spartacus: Political Parties and Election Results. United Kingdom election results—summary results 1885–1979. 1900 Conservative manifesto. 1900 Labour manifesto. 1900 Liberal manifesto.