National Government (United Kingdom)

National GovernmentNationalNational Independent
The all-party coalitions of Herbert Henry Asquith and David Lloyd George in the First World War and of Winston Churchill in the Second World War were sometimes referred to as National Governments at the time, but are now more commonly called Coalition Governments. The term "National Government" was chosen to dissociate itself from negative connotations of the earlier Coalitions. Churchill's brief 1945 "Caretaker Government" also called itself a National Government and in terms of party composition was very similar to the 1931–1940 entity. The Wall Street Crash heralded the global Great Depression and Britain was hit, although not as badly as most countries.

Duncan Sandys

The Right Honourable '''Duncan SandysCelia SandysLord Duncan-Sandys
He was the son-in-law of Sir Winston Churchill. Sandys, born 24 January 1908 Manor House, Sandford Orcas, Dorset, was the son of George John Sandys, a Conservative member of parliament (1910–1918) and Mildred Helen Cameron. Sandys parents divorced in January 1921 when he was 12 years old. His mother married Frederick Hamilton Lister in October the same year becoming Mildred Helen Lister. He was educated at Eton College and Magdalen College, Oxford. He entered the diplomatic service in 1930, serving at the Foreign Office in London as well as at the embassy in Berlin.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

Duke of MarlboroughMarlboroughJohn Churchill
Churchill was the son of Sir Winston Churchill (1620–1688) of Glanvilles Wootton in Dorset, by his wife Elizabeth Drake, fourth daughter of Sir John Drake (died 1636) of Ash in the parish of Musbury in Devon. The Churchill family is stated by the Devon historian William George Hoskins (1954) to have originated at the estate of Churchill, in the parish of Broadclyst in Devon, during the reign of King Henry II (1154–1189). At the end of the English Civil War Lady Drake was joined at her Devon home, Ash House in the parish of Musbury, by her fourth daughter Elizabeth Drake and her husband Winston Churchill (1620–1688), a Royalist cavalry captain.

Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin

Lord ElginThe Earl of ElginVictor Bruce
When the Liberals returned to power in 1905, Elgin became Secretary of State for the Colonies (with Winston Churchill as his Under-Secretary). As colonial secretary, he pursued a conservative policy and opposed the generous settlement of the South African question proposed by Prime Minister Campbell-Bannerman, which was enacted more in spite of the Colonial Secretary's opposition than because of his efforts. After being dropped from the next government by the next Prime Minister, Asquith, Elgin retired from public life in 1908.

British Empire

In 1951, the Conservative Party returned to power in Britain, under the leadership of Winston Churchill. Churchill and the Conservatives believed that Britain's position as a world power relied on the continued existence of the empire, with the base at the Suez Canal allowing Britain to maintain its pre-eminent position in the Middle East in spite of the loss of India. However, Churchill could not ignore Gamal Abdul Nasser's new revolutionary government of Egypt that had taken power in 1952, and the following year it was agreed that British troops would withdraw from the Suez Canal zone and that Sudan would be granted self-determination by 1955, with independence to follow.

MacCallum Scott

Winston Churchill in Peace and War (Newnes, 1916). Bits of Chelsea (Macrea Gallery, 1921) illus. by Thomas Austen Brown. Barbary: The Romance of the Nearest East (Thornton Butterworth, 1921). Clydesdale (Thornton Butterworth, 1924). Beyond the Baltic (Thornton Butterworth, 1925). Suomi: The Land of the Finns (Thornton Butterworth, 1926). From Liberalism to Labour (Deveron Press, 1927).

Harold Macmillan

MacmillanHarold Macmillan, 1st Earl of StocktonMacmillan Government
Rising to high office during the Second World War as a protégé of wartime Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Macmillan then served as Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer under Churchill's successor Sir Anthony Eden. When Eden resigned in 1957 following the Suez Crisis, Macmillan succeeded him as Prime Minister and Leader of the Conservative Party. As a One Nation Tory of the Disraelian tradition, haunted by memories of the Great Depression, he believed in the post-war settlement and the necessity of a mixed economy, championing a Keynesian strategy of public investment to maintain demand and pursuing corporatist policies to develop the domestic market as the engine of growth.

Austen Chamberlain

Sir Austen ChamberlainChamberlainAusten
From 1934 to 1937, Chamberlain was, with Winston Churchill, Roger Keyes and Leo Amery, the most prominent voice calling for British rearmament in the face of a growing threat from Nazi Germany. In addition to speaking eloquently in Parliament on the matter, he was the chairman of two Conservative parliamentary delegations in late 1936 that met with Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin to remonstrate with him about his government's delay in rearming the British defence forces. More respected than Churchill, Chamberlain became something of an icon to young Conservatives, as the last survivor of Victorian high politics.

Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom)

Leader of the OppositionOpposition LeaderLeader of Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition
The Leader of Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition (more commonly known as the Leader of the Opposition) is the politician who leads the official opposition in the United Kingdom. The Leader of the Opposition by convention leads the largest party not within the government: where one party wins outright this is the party leader of the second largest political party in the House of Commons. The current Leader of the Opposition is Jeremy Corbyn, Leader of the Labour Party, who was elected to the leadership of the Labour Party on 12 September 2015.

Bonar Law

Andrew Bonar LawLaw The Right Honourable '''Bonar Law
In January 1912, when Winston Churchill planned to deliver a speech in favor of Home Rule in at the Ulster Hall in Belfast, the Ulster Unionist Council (UUC) threatened to use violence if necessary to stop Churchill from speaking. The legal scholar A. V. Dicey, himself an opponent of Home Rule, wrote in a letter to Law that the threats of violence were “the worst mistake” that undermined “the whole moral strength” of the Unionist movement.

1924 Westminster Abbey by-election

by-election1924 by-electiona further by-election
It was notable for the challenge of Winston Churchill to the party system. The seat had become vacant when the Unionist Member of Parliament (MP) John Nicholson died on 21 February 1924. Nicholson had held the seat since a 1921 by-election. Winston Churchill quickly announced his candidature. He had lost his seat of Dundee in the 1922 general election as a National Liberal follower of David Lloyd George. In 1923 following reconciliation between Lloyd George and H. H. Asquith at the 1923 general election he had stood unsuccessfully as a Liberal candidate. He favoured the restoration of a coalition between Liberals and Unionists.

War and Peace (film series)

War and Peacefilm adaptationWar and Peace (Voyna i mir)
Viktor Stanitsyn as Ilya Rostov. Kira Golovko as Natalya Rostova. Irina Gubanova as Sonya Rostova. Eduard Martsevich as Boris Drubetskoy. Aleksandr Borisov as Uncle Rostov. Nikolai Rybnikov as Vasily Denisov. Viktor Murganov as Alexander I of Russia. Larisa Borisenko as Mlle. Bourienne. Georgy Millyar as Morel. Jean-Claude Ballard as Ramballe. Nonna Mordyukova as Anisya. Anna Timiryova as old lady. Boris Khmelnitsky as Bolkonsky's adjutant. Valeri Yeremichev as Alexander Ostermann-Tolstoy. Sergei Bondarchuk as Pierre Bezukhov. Irina Skobtseva as Hélène Kuragin. Vasily Lanovoy as Anatol Kuragin. Oleg Yefremov as Fedor Dolokhov. Boris Smirnov as Vasili Kuragin.

Marlborough: His Life and Times

four volume biography
Marlborough: His Life and Times is a panegyric biography written by Winston Churchill about John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. Churchill was a lineal descendant of the duke. The book comprises four volumes, the first of which appeared in October 1933 (557 pages, 200,000 words) with subsequent volumes in 1934, 1936 and 1938. The publisher was George G Harrup, who in 1929 agreed an advance of £10,000 for the publishing rights, topping the offer made by Churchill's customary publishers, Thornton Butterworth. The American publisher, Scribner's, paid £5000 advance for United States publishing rights.

Chanak Crisis

actions over ChanakBritish military actionChanak
The Conservatives in Britain's coalition government refused to follow Liberal Prime Minister David Lloyd George, who with Winston Churchill was calling for war. The crisis quickly ended when Turkey, having overwhelmed the Greeks, agreed to a negotiated settlement that gave it the territory it wanted. Lloyd George's mishandling of the crisis contributed to his downfall via the Carlton Club meeting. The crisis raised the issue of who decided on war for the British Empire, and was Canada's first assertion of diplomatic independence from London.


Dundee City council areaCity of DundeeDundee City
Winston Churchill served as one of two MPs for Dundee from 1908 to 1922. On 18 September 2014, Dundee was one of four council areas to vote "Yes" in the Scottish independence referendum, with 57.3% voting "Yes" on a 78.8% turnout. With the highest Yes vote for any local authority in Scotland, some in the Yes Scotland campaign nicknamed Dundee the 'Yes City', including former First Minister Alex Salmond. Dundee sits on the north bank of the Firth of Tay on the eastern, North Sea Coast of Scotland. The city lies 36.1 mi NNE of Edinburgh and 360.6 mi NNW of London.

Norwegian Campaign

NorwayGerman invasion of Norwayinvasion of Norway
Winston Churchill in particular wished to move the war into a more active phase, in contrast to Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. During this time both sides wished to open secondary fronts. For the Allies, in particular the French, this was based on a desire to avoid repeating the trench warfare of the First World War, which had occurred along the Franco-German border. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, the Norwegian government had mobilized parts of the Norwegian Army and all but two of the Royal Norwegian Navy's warships.

Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay

Hastings IsmayGeneral IsmayLord Ismay
In May 1940, when Winston Churchill became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, he selected Ismay as his chief military assistant and staff officer. In that capacity, Ismay served as the principal link between Churchill and the Chiefs of Staff Committee. Ismay also accompanied Churchill to many of the Allied war conferences. For Ismay's advice and aid, "Churchill owed more, and admitted that he owed more" to him "than to anybody else, military or civilian, in the whole of the war." After the end of the war, Ismay remained in the army for another year, and helped to reorganise the Ministry of Defence.

Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell

Frederick LindemannLord CherwellProfessor Lindemann
Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, (5 April 1886 – 3 July 1957) was a British physicist and an influential scientific adviser to the British government from the early 1940s to the early 1950s, particularly to Winston Churchill. He advocated the "area" bombing or "strategic bombing" of German cities and civilian homes during the Second World War by falsely stating data to Winston Churchill from a study on the psychological impact of Germany's Birmingham Blitz and Hull Blitz on the local populations. He also doubted the sophistication of Nazi Germany's radar technology and the existence of its "V" weapons programme.

May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis

a series of stormy meetingsbattle over the course of action within the War Cabinetearlier openness to a compromise peace
The May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis was a confrontation between Winston Churchill, newly appointed as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and Edward Wood, the Viscount Halifax and Foreign Secretary, which took place between 25 and 28 May. Halifax believed that in view of the imminent Fall of France and the encirclement of British forces at Dunkirk, the U.K. should explore the possibility of a negotiated peace settlement with Adolf Hitler, with the still-neutral Italian leader Benito Mussolini brokering the agreement.

Brendan Bracken

Brendan The Right Honourable '''Brendan BrackenBracken
Many of his early magazine stories included a political flavour and he commissioned articles from a wide range of politicians such as Churchill and Mussolini. Business and politics permanently overlapped in his life, in a similar way to the career of his occasional friend Lord Beaverbrook. He needed politicians for stories and they needed the publicity given by his publications. A supporter of Winston Churchill from 1923, when Churchill was out of Parliament and in the political wilderness, in the 1930s he was invited to join Churchill's "Other Club". Their lives changed from the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939.

Norway Debate

8a famous debateBritish discontent over the Norwegian campaign
It led directly to the downfall of the Chamberlain war ministry and to the formation of a broadly-based coalition government led by Winston Churchill, which governed the United Kingdom until the end of the war in Europe. Following on from an adjournment motion, the debate was primarily about the progress of the Norwegian Campaign but it quickly brought to a head widespread dissatisfaction with the overall conduct of the war by the Conservative-dominated National Government, led by Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister. In the debate, Chamberlain's government was criticised not only by the Opposition but also by respected members of his own party.

1926 United Kingdom general strike

General Strike1926 General StrikeGeneral Strike of 1926
The reintroduction of the gold standard in 1925 by Winston Churchill, which made the British pound too strong for effective exporting to take place from Britain and (because of the economic processes involved in maintaining a strong currency) raised interest rates, hurting some businesses. Mine owners wanted to maintain profits even during times of economic instability, which often took the form of wage reductions for miners in their employ. Coupled with the prospect of longer working hours, the industry was thrown into disarray. Miners' pay had lowered from £6.00 to £3.90 over seven years.


Mayfair, LondonMayfair, London, EnglandUpper Brook Street, Mayfair, London
Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia was born there on 17 July 1945; the Prime Minister Winston Churchill is said to have declared the suite he was born in to be Yugoslav territory. The London Marriott Hotel Grosvenor Square on the corner of Grosvenor Square and Duke Street was the first Marriott Hotel in Britain. It opened as the Europa Hotel in 1961 and was bought by Marriott in 1985. It was a popular place for visitors to the American Embassy. The Grosvenor House Hotel on Park Lane is on the former site of Gloucester House, the home of Robert Grosvenor, 2nd Earl Grosvenor (later Robert Grosvenor, 1st Marquess of Westminster).

Anglo-Irish Treaty

TreatyIrish independenceanti-Treaty
Winston Churchill, The World Crisis; the Aftermath (Thornton 1929) pp. 277–352. Tim Pat Coogan, Michael Collins (1990) (ISBN: 0-09-174106-8). Tim Pat Coogan, De Valera (1993) (ISBN: 0-09-175030-X). Anglo-Irish Treaty eBook (links to EPUB and .mobi formats) Documents on Irish Foreign Policy: Royal Irish Academy. Treaty exhibition – National Archives of Ireland. Dáil Debates on Oireachtas website. Debates online at University College Cork.