Royal Air Force

In the House of Commons on 20 August, prompted by the ongoing efforts of the RAF, Prime Minister Winston Churchill eloquently made a speech to the nation, where he said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few". The largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. While RAF bombing of Germany began almost immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became increasingly devastating from 1942 onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available.

Roy Jenkins

The Lord Jenkins of HillheadLord JenkinsRoy Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead
Jenkins wrote 19 books, including a biography of Gladstone (1995), which won the 1995 Whitbread Award for Biography, and a much-acclaimed biography of Winston Churchill (2001). His official biographer, Andrew Adonis, Baron Adonis, was to have finished the Churchill biography had Jenkins not survived the heart surgery he underwent towards the end of its writing. The popular historian Paul Johnson called it the best one-volume biography on its subject. Jenkins underwent heart surgery in November 2000, and postponed his 80th birthday celebrations, by having a celebratory party on 7 March 2001.

Blood, toil, tears, and sweat

blood, toil, tears and sweatBlood, Sweat and TearsI have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat
The phrase "blood, toil, tears and sweat" became famous in a speech given by Winston Churchill to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 13 May 1940. This was Churchill's first speech on 13 May 1940 to the House of Commons after having been offered the King's commission the previous Friday, to become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the first year of World War II. Churchill had replaced Neville Chamberlain on 10 May, and in this speech he asked the House to declare its confidence in his Government. The motion passed unanimously. This was the first of three speeches which he gave during the period of the Battle of France, which commenced on 10 May.

This was their finest hour

Finest Hour" speecha speechBritain's Finest Hour
The Churchill Centre: Their Finest Hour. Link to audio file of the speech.

Never was so much owed by so many to so few

Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so fewso much owed by so many to so much owed by so many to so few
It is clear that Churchill took his inspiration from various sources, including Hall and Shakespeare. Duff Cooper had also given a speech immediately before Churchill's which captured the essence of 'the few and the many', though not as eloquently. Some historians take the view that Churchill was not referring to just the fighter pilots but that his remarks were intended to refer to all allied aircrew, specifically including Bomber Command. A version of the title of the speech appears in Benjamin Clementine's Winston Churchill`s Boy song. ;Citations * Document in the custody of The National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, United Kingdom, document reference ZHC 2 / 873 Bibliography.

Ralph Wigram

Ralph Follett Wigram
In part, he did this by providing intelligence information about German re-armament to Winston Churchill at a time when Churchill did not hold a position in the government of Stanley Baldwin. Churchill used the information to publicly attack the policies of Baldwin. Churchill's magisterial six-volume history of World War II, The Second World War, described Wigram as a "great unsung hero". The autobiography of Valentine Lawford, who worked under Wigram in the Central Department, describes him variously as "the authentic local deity" and "the departmental volcano."

Phoney War

phony warDrôle de Guerre3 September 1939 to 9 May 1940
King George VI appointed Winston Churchill, who had been a consistent opponent of Chamberlain's policy of appeasement, as Chamberlain's successor. Churchill formed a new coalition government that included members of the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Party, as well as several ministers from a non-political background. Most other major actions during the Phoney War were at sea, including the Second Battle of the Atlantic fought throughout the Phoney War. Other notable events among these were: The warring air forces also showed some activity during this period, running reconnaissance flights and several minor bombing raids.

Commandos (United Kingdom)

CommandoCommandosBritish Commando
After the events leading to the British Expeditionary Force's (BEF) evacuation from Dunkirk, after the disastrous Battle of France, Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister, called for a force to be assembled and equipped to inflict casualties on the Germans and bolster British morale. Churchill told the joint chiefs of staff to propose measures for an offensive against German-occupied Europe, and stated in a minute to General Ismay on 6 June 1940: "Enterprises must be prepared, with specially-trained troops of the hunter class, who can develop a reign of terror down these coasts, first of all on the "butcher and bolt" policy..."

Franklin D. Roosevelt

RooseveltFranklin RooseveltPresident Roosevelt
He also began a regular secret correspondence with Britain's First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, in September 1939 — the first of 1,700 letters and telegrams between them. Roosevelt forged a close personal relationship with Churchill, who became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in May 1940. The Fall of France in June 1940 shocked the American public, and isolationist sentiment declined. In July 1940, Roosevelt appointed two interventionist Republican leaders, Henry L. Stimson and Frank Knox, as Secretaries of War and the Navy, respectively.

Battle of Britain

Britainair battle with GermanyBattle of Britain Day
On 10 May, the same day Winston Churchill became British Prime Minister, the Germans initiated the Battle of France with an aggressive invasion of French territory. RAF Fighter Command was desperately short of trained pilots and aircraft, but despite the objections of its commander Hugh Dowding that the diversion of his forces would leave home defences under-strength, Churchill sent fighter squadrons, the Air Component of the British Expeditionary Force, to support operations in France, where the RAF suffered heavy losses.

The Few

fifth highest scoringhighest-scoring non-British Allied aceList of flying aces in the Battle of Britain
The term comes from Winston Churchill's phrase "Never, in the field of human conflict, was so much owed by so many to so few." It also alludes to Shakespeare's famous speech in his play, Henry V: "We few, we happy few, we band of brothers..." Nearly 3,000 men were awarded the "Battle of Britain" clasp. As of July 2018, only eight survivors of The Few are still living. By one tally, British RAF aircrew numbered 2,353 (80%) of the total of 2,927 flyers involved, with 407 Britons killed from a total of 510 losses.

Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke

Alan BrookeSir Alan BrookeLord Alanbrooke
BBC – Archive – Remembering Winston Churchill – The Alanbrooke Diaries. British Army Officers 1939–1945. Generals of World War II.

Charles Wilson, 1st Baron Moran

Lord MoranCharles Wilson1st Baron Moran
During his time as Sir Winston Churchill's private physician, which began in May 1940, two weeks into Churchill's first term as Prime Minister, Moran accompanied Churchill on most of his travels, and met several prominent figures, including Anthony Eden, Field-Marshal Montgomery (later the 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein), Lord Mountbatten of Burma and Lord Beaverbrook. He also selected appropriate consulting specialists for Churchill when necessary.

RAF Uxbridge

UxbridgeRAF Central DepotHillingdon
Prime Minister Winston Churchill visited the station on 16 August 1940, to monitor the battle from the Operations Room. He subsequently made his well-known comment, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few", to General Ismay as they got into their car to leave. Churchill repeated the quote in a speech to Parliament four days later. King George VI and Queen Elizabeth visited the station on 6 September. Churchill was again present at RAF Uxbridge on 15 September 1940, the fiercest day of fighting of the entire battle and later named Battle of Britain Day.

1935 United Kingdom general election

19351935 general election1935 election
Chamberlain in turn resigned in 1940, when the office of Prime Minister passed to Winston Churchill, who linked the three main parties in the House of Commons in an all-party unity government for the duration of the war. |colspan=12 bgcolor=#E0E0E0 align="center"|National Government |colspan=12 bgcolor=#E0E0E0 align="center"|Opposition Total votes cast: 20,991,488. Turnout: 71.1%. These are available on the Political Science Resources Elections Database, a link to which is given below.

Battle of Singapore

fall of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore fell
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called the fall of Singapore to the Japanese the "the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history". Churchill's personal physician Lord Moran wrote: "The fall of Singapore on February 15 stupefied the Prime Minister. How came 100,000 men (half of them of our own race) to hold up their hands to inferior numbers of Japanese? Though his mind had been gradually prepared for its fall, the surrender of the fortress stunned him. He felt it was a disgrace. It left a scar on his mind.

Hugh Dalton

DaltonEdward Hugh John Neale DaltonHugh Dalton, who was to become
After Chamberlain resigned early in May, and Lord Halifax had declined the position, Winston Churchill became Prime Minister. During Churchill's coalition government (1940–45) Dalton was Minister of Economic Warfare from 1940 to 1942. He established the Special Operations Executive, and was later a member of the executive committee of the Political Warfare Executive. He became President of the Board of Trade in 1942; the future Labour leader Hugh Gaitskell, drafted into the civil service during the war, was his Principal Private Secretary.

Second Boer War

Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarSouth African War
Winston Churchill – Best known as the prime minister of Britain during the main part of the Second World War, Churchill worked as a war correspondent for The Morning Post. At the age of twenty-six, he was captured and held prisoner in a camp in Pretoria from which he escaped and rejoined the British army. He received a commission in the South African Light Horse (still working as a correspondent) and witnessed the capture of Ladysmith and Pretoria. Mahatma Gandhi – Best known as the leader of the independence movement in India, he lived in South Africa 1893–1915 where he worked on behalf of Indians.

John Maynard Keynes

KeynesKeynesianKeynes, John Maynard
After the war, Winston Churchill attempted to check the rise of Keynesian policy-making in the United Kingdom and used rhetoric critical of the mixed economy in his 1945 election campaign. Despite his popularity as a war hero, Churchill suffered a landslide defeat to Clement Attlee whose government's economic policy continued to be influenced by Keynes's ideas. In the late 1930s and 1940s, economists (notably John Hicks, Franco Modigliani, and Paul Samuelson) attempted to interpret and formalise Keynes's writings in terms of formal mathematical models.

Benjamin Disraeli

DisraeliLord BeaconsfieldBeaconsfield
Protocol forbade her attending Disraeli's funeral (this would not be changed until 1965, when Elizabeth II attended the rites for the former Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill) but she sent primroses ("his favourite flowers") to the funeral, and visited the burial vault to place a wreath of china blooms four days later. The Prime Minister of Canada, Sir John A. Macdonald, held a strong facial resemblance to Disraeli and was styled “the Canadian Disraeli” by the Times; legend held that Macdonald's visit to England shortly after Disraeli's death had caused a British woman to faint having mistaken Macdonald for Disraeli.

William Winwood Reade

Winwood Reade
Wells, Winston Churchill, Harry Johnston, George Orwell, Susan Isaacs, A. A. Milne and his son Christopher Robin, and Michael Foot. Reade's other secularist work, The Outcast (1875), is a short novel about a young man who must deal with being rejected by his religious father and the death of his wife. Reade is quoted in one of Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes adventures, The Sign of the Four. In the second chapter Holmes recommends The Martyrdom of Man to Dr. Watson as 'one of the most remarkable [books] ever penned.' He subsequently remarks: "Winwood Reade is good upon the subject," said Holmes.

Primrose League

{{sfn|Wolff|1911|p=341}} Sir Winston Churchill, in his book on his father, Lord Randolph Churchill published in 1906, stated that the Primrose League had one million paid up members "determined to promote the cause of Toryism". Membership of the League was said to be "well over a million by the early 1890s", and at that time enjoyed more support than the British trade union movement. 6,000 people were members of the League in Bolton in 1900, which was as large as the national membership of the Independent Labour Party during the same time.

Victor Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton

The Earl of LyttonLord LyttonEarl of Lytton
She had been an early flame of Winston Churchill, but that relationship was amicably broken off when she decided to marry Lytton instead. The couple had two sons, both of whom predeceased Lytton. The elder son, Antony Bulwer-Lytton, Viscount Knebworth, MP, died aged 30 in an air crash while serving with the Auxiliary Air Force. The younger son, Alexander Edward John Bulwer-Lytton, Viscount Knebworth, MBE, was killed in the Second Battle of El Alamein during World War II. As neither of his sons had left a son, Lytton's titles were inherited upon his death by his younger brother Neville Bulwer-Lytton.

Percentages agreement

agreedagreementan agreement
"The Meaning of TOLSTOY: Churchill, Stalin, And The Balkans Moscow, October 1944." Diplomatic History 3#4 (1979): 443-444. includes British minutes; online. Siracusa, Joseph M. "The Night Stalin and Churchill Divided Europe: The View from Washington." Review of Politics 43#3 (1981): 381-409. online. The division of Europe, according to Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin (1944) (Scan of the napkin in question). Geoffrey Roberts, Beware Greek Gifts: The Churchill-Stalin «Percentages» Agreement of October 1944. Excerpt from the book STALIN.

Edward Gibbon

GibbonGibbon, EdwardGibbon, E.
Winston Churchill memorably noted, "I set out upon...Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire [and] was immediately dominated both by the story and the style. ...I devoured Gibbon. I rode triumphantly through it from end to end and enjoyed it all." Churchill modelled much of his own literary style on Gibbon's. Like Gibbon, he dedicated himself to producing a "vivid historical narrative, ranging widely over period and place and enriched by analysis and reflection." Unusually for the 18th century, Gibbon was never content with secondhand accounts when the primary sources were accessible (though most of these were drawn from well-known printed editions).