Élie Metchnikoff

Ilya Ilyich MechnikovIlya MechnikovElie MetchnikoffMetchnikoffMechnikovEli MetchnikoffElias MetchnikoffI. I. MechnikovIlya Ilyich MetchnikoffIlya Ilyich Metchnikov
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 May 1845 – 15 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.wikipedia
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Immunology

immunologistimmunologicalimmunobiology
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 May 1845 – 15 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.
The term was coined by Russian biologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, who advanced studies on immunology and received the Nobel Prize for his work in 1908.

Gerontology

gerontologistbiogerontologybiogerontologist
He is also credited by some sources with coining the term gerontology in 1903, for the emerging study of aging and longevity.
The word was coined by Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov in 1903, from the Greek γέρων, geron, "old man" and -λογία, -logia, "study of".

Macrophage

macrophagesM2 macrophagesTissue macrophages
In particular, he is credited with the discovery of phagocytes (macrophages) in 1882.
Macrophages were first discovered by Élie Metchnikoff, a Russian zoologist, in 1884.

Odessa University

University of OdessaOdessa State UniversityNovorossiysk University
Mechnikov was appointed docent at the newly established Imperial Novorossiya University (now Odessa University).
Odesa I. I. Mechnikov National University, located in Odessa, Ukraine, is one of the country's major universities, named after the scientist Élie Metchnikoff (who studied immunology, microbiology, and evolutionary embryology), a Nobel prizewinner in 1908.

Paul Ehrlich

EhrlichEhrlich, Paulmagic bullet
He and Paul Ehrlich were jointly awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "in recognition of their work on immunity".
For providing a theoretical basis for immunology as well as for his work on serum valency, Ehrlich was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1908 together with Élie Metchnikoff.

Pasteur Institute

Institut PasteurInstitute PasteurHellenic Pasteur Institute
Pasteur gave him an appointment at the Pasteur Institute, where he remained for the rest of his life.
The first five departments were directed by two normaliens (graduates of the École Normale Supérieure), Émile Duclaux (general microbiology research) and Charles Chamberland (microbes research applied to hygiene), a biologist, Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (morphological microbe research), and two physicians, Jacques-Joseph Grancher (rabies) and Emile Roux (technical microbe research).

National University of Kharkiv

Kharkiv UniversityKharkov UniversityUniversity of Kharkiv
So he enrolled at Kharkiv University for natural sciences, completing his four-year degree in two years.

Phagocytosis

phagocyticphagocytosedphagocytose
At Messina he discovered phagocytosis after experimenting on the larvae of starfish.
Phagocytosis was first noted by Canadian physician William Osler (1876), and later studied and named by Élie Metchnikoff (1880, 1883).

Phagocyte

phagocytesphagocytic cellsphagocytic
In particular, he is credited with the discovery of phagocytes (macrophages) in 1882.
They were discovered in 1882 by Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov while he was studying starfish larvae.

Saint Petersburg State University

Leningrad State UniversitySaint Petersburg UniversitySt. Petersburg University
In 1867 he returned to Russia to get his doctorate with Alexander Kovalevsky from the University of St. Petersburg.
Eight of the graduates of the university are Nobel Prize recipients: Ivan Pavlov (Physiology and Medicine, 1904), Ilya Mechnikov (Physiology and Medicine, 1908), Nikolay Semyonov (Chemistry, 1956), Lev Landau (Physics, 1962), Aleksandr Prokhorov (Physics, 1964), Wassily Leontief (Economics, 1973), Leonid Kantorovich (Economics, 1975) and Joseph Brodsky (Literature, 1987).

Löb Nevakhovich

Leo Nevakhovich
His mother, Emilia Lvovna (Nevakhovich), the daughter of the Jewish writer Leo Nevakhovich, largely influenced him on his education, especially in science.

Odessa

OdesaOdessa, UkraineOdessa, Russia
In 1870 he returned to Odessa to take up the appointment of Titular Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy.
They include: Illya Mechnikov (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1908), Igor Tamm (Nobel Prize in Physics 1958), Selman Waksman (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1952), Dmitri Mendeleev, Nikolay Pirogov, Ivan Sechenov, Vladimir Filatov, Nikolay Umov, Leonid Mandelstam, Aleksandr Lyapunov, Mark Krein, Alexander Smakula, Waldemar Haffkine, Valentin Glushko, and George Gamow.

N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine

fMLPn-formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalaninechemotactic dipeptide
Some 85 years after this seminal observation, laboratory studies showed that these elements were low molecular weight (between 150 and 1500 Dalton (unit)s) N-formylated oligopeptides, including the most prominent member of this group, N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine, that are made by a variety of replicating gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria.
In 1887, Élie Metchnikoff observed that leukocytes isolated from the blood of various animals were attracted towards certain bacteria.

Yogurt

yoghurtdahicurd
Based on this theory, he drank sour milk every day.
The Russian Nobel laureate and biologist Ilya Mechnikov, from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, was influenced by Grigorov's work and hypothesized that regular consumption of yogurt was responsible for the unusually long lifespans of Bulgarian peasants.

Louis Pasteur

PasteurPasteur, LouisPasteurian
He returned to Odessa as director of an institute set up to carry out Louis Pasteur's vaccine against rabies; due to some difficulties, he left in 1888 and went to Paris to seek Pasteur's advice.
The first five departments were directed by two graduates of the École Normale Supérieure: Émile Duclaux (general microbiology research) and Charles Chamberland (microbe research applied to hygiene), as well as a biologist, Élie Metchnikoff (morphological microbe research) and two physicians, Jacques-Joseph Grancher (rabies) and Émile Roux (technical microbe research).

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus

Lactobacillus bulgaricusLactobacillus delbrueckii'' subsp. ''bulgaricusLactobacillus delbrueckii
He wrote The Prolongation of Life: Optimistic Studies, in which he espoused the potential life-lengthening properties of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus).
Ilya Metchnikoff, a professor at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, researched the relationship between the longevity of Bulgarians and their consumption of yogurt.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
Mechnikov became interested in the study of microbes, and especially the immune system.
Particularly important was the work of Paul Ehrlich, who proposed the side-chain theory to explain the specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction; his contributions to the understanding of humoral immunity were recognized by the award of a Nobel Prize in 1908, which was jointly awarded to the founder of cellular immunology, Elie Metchnikoff.

Copley Medal

Copley Gold MedalCopleyCopley medallist
He was awarded honorary degree from the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, UK, and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1906.

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Nobel PrizeNobel Prize in MedicineMedicine
He and Paul Ehrlich were jointly awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "in recognition of their work on immunity".

Cell-mediated immunity

cellular immunitycell-mediatedcellular immune response
He established the concept of cell-mediated immunity, while Ehrlich established the concept of humoral immunity.

Humoral immunity

humoralhumoral immune responsehumoral response
He established the concept of cell-mediated immunity, while Ehrlich established the concept of humoral immunity.

Kharkov Governorate

Sloboda Ukraine GovernorateKharkovKharkov Viceroyalty
Mechnikov was born in the village Ivanovka, Kharkov Governorate, now Dvorichna Raion, Ukraine.

Dvorichna Raion

DvorichnaDvorichans'kyi raion
Mechnikov was born in the village Ivanovka, Kharkov Governorate, now Dvorichna Raion, Ukraine.

Ukraine

UkrainianUKRUkrainia
Mechnikov was born in the village Ivanovka, Kharkov Governorate, now Dvorichna Raion, Ukraine.