Ājīvika

AjivikaAjivikasAjivakaAjivakasAjivikismAjiviksimĀjīvikism
Ajivika (IAST: ) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.wikipedia
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Śramaṇa

SramanaShramanaSramanic
Purportedly founded in the 5th century BCE by Makkhali Gosala, it was a śramaṇa movement and a major rival of vedic religion, early Buddhism and Jainism.
The śramaṇa tradition includes Jainism, Buddhism, and others such as the Ājīvikas, Ajñanas and Cārvākas.

Indian philosophy

philosophyIndianIndian philosopher
Ajivika (IAST: ) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.
There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Charvaka.

Āstika and nāstika

AstikaĀstikaNastika
Ajivika (IAST: ) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.
The most studied Nāstika schools of Indian philosophies, sometimes referred to as heterodox schools, are four: Buddhism, Jainism, Cārvāka, and Ājīvika.

Makkhali Gosala

GosalaMakkhali Gosāla
Purportedly founded in the 5th century BCE by Makkhali Gosala, it was a śramaṇa movement and a major rival of vedic religion, early Buddhism and Jainism. Ājīvika philosophy is cited in ancient texts of Buddhism and Jainism to Makkhali Gosala, a contemporary of the Buddha and Mahavira.
All of the available information about Gosala and about the Ājīvika movement generally comes from Buddhist and Jain sources.

Gautama Buddha

BuddhaSakyamuniShakyamuni
Ājīvika philosophy is cited in ancient texts of Buddhism and Jainism to Makkhali Gosala, a contemporary of the Buddha and Mahavira.
Apart from the Vedic Brahmins, the Buddha's lifetime coincided with the flourishing of influential Śramaṇa schools of thought like Ājīvika, Cārvāka, Jainism, and Ajñana.

Vaisheshika

VaiśeṣikaVaisesikaVaiseshika
Ajivika metaphysics included a theory of atoms which was later adapted in Vaisheshika school, where everything was composed of atoms, qualities emerged from aggregates of atoms, but the aggregation and nature of these atoms was predetermined by cosmic forces.
Ajivika metaphysics included a theory of atoms which was later adapted in Vaiśeṣika school.

Charvaka

CārvākaCarvakaLokayata
The Ājīvika philosophy, along with the Cārvāka philosophy, appealed most to the warrior, industrial and mercantile classes of ancient Indian society.
Though there is evidence of its development in Vedic era, Charvaka school of philosophy predated the Āstika schools as well as a philosophical predecessor to subsequent or contemporaneous philosophies such as Ajñana, Ājīvika, Jainism and Buddhism in the classical period of Indian philosophy.

Maurya Empire

Mauryan EmpireMauryanMaurya
Ājīvika philosophy reached the height of its popularity during the rule of the Mauryan emperor Bindusara, around the 4th century BCE.
Unlike his father Chandragupta (who at a later stage converted to Jainism), Bindusara believed in the Ajivika sect.

Destiny

fatedestinedfated
The Ājīvika school is known for its Niyati ("Fate") doctrine of absolute determinism, the premise that there is no free will, that everything that has happened, is happening and will happen is entirely preordained and a function of cosmic principles.

Bindusara

Bindusara AmitraghataAmitrochatesDurdhara
Ājīvika philosophy reached the height of its popularity during the rule of the Mauryan emperor Bindusara, around the 4th century BCE. According to the 2nd century CE text Ashokavadana, the Mauryan emperor Bindusara and his chief queen Shubhadrangi were believers of this philosophy, that reached its peak of popularity during this time.
Some Buddhist texts mention that an Ajivika astrologer or priest at Bindusara's court prophesied the future greatness of the prince Ashoka.

Barabar Caves

Barabar caves groupBarabar hillsBarabar
These are the oldest surviving cave temples of ancient India, and are called the Barabar Caves in Jehanabad district of Bihar.
The caves were used by ascetics from the Ajivika sect, founded by Makkhali Gosala, a contemporary of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, and of Mahavira, the last and 24th Tirthankara of Jainism.

Ashoka

AsokaAshoka the GreatEmperor Ashoka
Epigraphical evidence suggests that emperor Ashoka, in the 3rd century BCE, considered Ājīvikas to be more closely related to the schools of Hinduism than to Buddhists, Jainas or other Indian schools of thought. Ashokavadana also mentions that after his conversion to Buddhism, Bindusara's son Ashoka issued an order to kill all the Ajivikas in Pundravardhana, enraged at a picture that depicted Gautama Buddha in a negative light.
According to Sri Lankan tradition, Ashoka's father Bindusara was a devotee of Brahmanism, and his mother Dharma was a devotee of Ajivikas.

Mahavira

MahavirMahāvīraMahaveer
Ājīvika philosophy is cited in ancient texts of Buddhism and Jainism to Makkhali Gosala, a contemporary of the Buddha and Mahavira.
A version of this doctrine is also found in the Ajivika school of ancient Indian philosophy.

Moksha

liberationmuktimoksa
The name Ajivika for an entire philosophy resonates with its core belief in "no free will" and complete niyati, literally "inner order of things, self-command, predeterminism", leading to the premise that good simple living is not a means to salvation or moksha, just a means to true livelihood, predetermined profession and way of life.
The Abhavya state of soul is entered after an intentional and shockingly evil act, but Jaina texts also polemically applied Abhavya condition to those who belonged to a competing ancient Indian tradition called Ājīvika.

Ajñana

Ajnana''' (ancient Indian philosophy)AjnaninsAjñanins
It was a Śramaṇa movement and a major rival of early Buddhism, Jainism and the Ājīvika school.

Pundravardhana

PundraPundrabardhanaPundra Bardhan
Ashokavadana also mentions that after his conversion to Buddhism, Bindusara's son Ashoka issued an order to kill all the Ajivikas in Pundravardhana, enraged at a picture that depicted Gautama Buddha in a negative light.
According to Ashokavadana, the Mauryan empire Ashoka issued an order to kill all the Ajivikas in Pundravardhana after a non-Buddhist there drew a picture showing the Gautama Buddha bowing at the feet of Nirgrantha Jnatiputra.

Atomism

atomistsatomistatomistic
Later, the Charvaka, Jain, and Ajivika schools of atomism originated as early as the 7th century BCE.

Mother of Ashoka

SubhadrangiShubhadrangiAshoka's mother
According to the 2nd century CE text Ashokavadana, the Mauryan emperor Bindusara and his chief queen Shubhadrangi were believers of this philosophy, that reached its peak of popularity during this time.
According to the Mahavamsa-tika, Ashoka's mother - named Dhamma - was a devotee of the Ajivika sect.

Gymnosophists

gymnosophistGymnosophists''' (nickname)
The Ājīvika went without clothes.

Ashokavadana

AsokavadanaAśokavadānaAśokāvadāna
Ashokavadana also mentions that after his conversion to Buddhism, Bindusara's son Ashoka issued an order to kill all the Ajivikas in Pundravardhana, enraged at a picture that depicted Gautama Buddha in a negative light. According to the 2nd century CE text Ashokavadana, the Mauryan emperor Bindusara and his chief queen Shubhadrangi were believers of this philosophy, that reached its peak of popularity during this time.
On complaint from a Buddhist devotee, Ashoka issued an order to arrest him, and subsequently, another order to kill all the Ajivikas in Pundravardhana.

International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration

IASTStandard Indic transliterationtransliterated
Ajivika (IAST: ) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.

Historical Vedic religion

BrahmanismVedicVedic religion
Purportedly founded in the 5th century BCE by Makkhali Gosala, it was a śramaṇa movement and a major rival of vedic religion, early Buddhism and Jainism.

Early Buddhism

early BuddhistEarlyBuddhism
Purportedly founded in the 5th century BCE by Makkhali Gosala, it was a śramaṇa movement and a major rival of vedic religion, early Buddhism and Jainism.

Jainism

JainJainsJaina
Purportedly founded in the 5th century BCE by Makkhali Gosala, it was a śramaṇa movement and a major rival of vedic religion, early Buddhism and Jainism.

Determinism

deterministicdeterministcausal determinism
The Ājīvika school is known for its Niyati ("Fate") doctrine of absolute determinism, the premise that there is no free will, that everything that has happened, is happening and will happen is entirely preordained and a function of cosmic principles.