Łódź Ghetto

Lodz GhettoGhetto LitzmannstadtLitzmannstadt GhettoŁódźLodzghetto in ŁódźGhettoLitzmannstadtghetto in the cityghetto of Lodz
The Łódź Ghetto or Litzmannstadt Ghetto (after the Nazi German name for Łódź) was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland.wikipedia
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Łódź

LodzŁódź, PolandLódz
The Łódź Ghetto or Litzmannstadt Ghetto (after the Nazi German name for Łódź) was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland.
The city's large Jewish population was forced into a walled zone known as the Łódź Ghetto, from which they were sent to German concentration and extermination camps.

Warsaw Ghetto

WarsawGhettothe Ghetto
It was the second-largest ghetto in all of German-occupied Europe after the Warsaw Ghetto.
Although his personality as president of the Warsaw Judenrat may not become as infamous as Chaim Rumkowski, Ältester of the Łódź Ghetto; the SS policies he had followed were systematically anti-Jewish.

Nazi ghettos

ghettoghettosNazi ghetto
The Łódź Ghetto or Litzmannstadt Ghetto (after the Nazi German name for Łódź) was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland.
The first large metropolitan ghetto known as the Łódź Ghetto (Litzmannstadt) followed them in April 1940, and the Warsaw Ghetto in October.

Hans Biebow

Initially, mayor Karol Marder separated from the provisioning and economy department the branch for the ghetto at Cegielniana street (today Jaracza 11), whose manager was first Johann Moldenhauer, and then a merchant from Bremen, Hans Biebow.
administration of the Łódź Ghetto in occupied Poland.

Judenrat

Jewish CouncilJudenräteCouncil of Elders
To organize the local population and maintain order, the German authorities established a Jewish Council commonly called the Judenrat or the Ältestenrat ("Council of Elders") in Łódź.
In some ghettos, such as the Łódź Ghetto, and in the Theresienstadt and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps, the Germans called the councils "Jewish Council of Elders" (Jüdischen Ältestenrat or Ältestenrat der Juden).

History of Poland (1939–1945)

German occupation of PolandGerman occupationPoland
After the invasion of Poland, many Jews, particularly the intellectual and political elite, had fled the advancing German army into the Soviet-occupied eastern Poland and to the area of future General Government in the hope of the Polish counter-attack which never came.
Jews were expelled from the annexed areas and placed in ghettos such as the Warsaw Ghetto or the Łódź Ghetto.

Chełmno extermination camp

ChełmnoChelmno extermination campChelmno
After the wave of deportations to Chełmno death camp beginning in early 1942, and in spite of a stark reversal of fortune, the Germans persisted in eradicating the ghetto: they transported the remaining population to Auschwitz and Chełmno extermination camps, where most were murdered upon arrival. The Chełmno extermination camp set up by SS-Sturmbannführer Herbert Lange, served as a pilot project for the secretive Operation Reinhard, the deadliest phase of the "Final Solution".
Polish Jews of the Łódź Ghetto and the local inhabitants of Reichsgau Wartheland (Warthegau) were exterminated there.

History of the Jews in Poland

Polish JewsPolish-JewishJewish
The Łódź Ghetto or Litzmannstadt Ghetto (after the Nazi German name for Łódź) was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland.
The Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000 prisoners.

Herbert Lange

Sonderkommando LangeLange CommandoSpecial Detachment (''Sonderkommando'') Lange
The Chełmno extermination camp set up by SS-Sturmbannführer Herbert Lange, served as a pilot project for the secretive Operation Reinhard, the deadliest phase of the "Final Solution".
Herbert Lange (29 September 1909 – 20 April 1945) was an SS-Sturmbannführer and the commandant of Chełmno death camp until April 1942; leader of the SS Special Detachment Lange conducting the murder of Jews from the Łódź Ghetto.

Jewish Ghetto Police

Jewish policeGhetto Guardghetto policeman
Within the Ghetto, a Jewish Police force was created to ensure that no prisoners tried to escape.
The Łódź Ghetto had about 1,200, and the Lwów Ghetto 500.

Reserve Police Battalion 101

Reserve Battalion 101Battalion 101Battalion 101 from Hamburg
To ensure no contact between the Jewish and non-Jewish populations of the city, two German Order Police formations were assigned to patrol the perimeter of the ghetto including the Battalion 101 from Hamburg.
The Łódź Ghetto was the second-largest Jewish ghetto of World War II after the Warsaw Ghetto where the policemen from Battalion 61 held victory parties on the days when a large number of desperate prisoners were shot at the ghetto fence.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
Situated in the city of Łódź, and originally intended as a preliminary step upon a more extensive plan of creating the Judenfrei province of Warthegau, the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, manufacturing war supplies for Nazi Germany and especially for the German Army. Overcrowding in the ghetto was exacerbated by the influx of some 40,000 Polish Jews forced out from the surrounding Warthegau areas, as well as by the Holocaust transports of foreign Jews resettled to Łódź from Vienna, Berlin, Cologne, Hamburg and other cities in Nazi Germany, as well as from Luxembourg, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia including the citywide Theresienstadt concentration camp.
A further 5,000 Sinti and Austrian Lalleri people were deported to the Łódź Ghetto in late 1941, where half were estimated to have died.

Reichsgau Wartheland

WarthegauWarthelandReichsgau Posen
Situated in the city of Łódź, and originally intended as a preliminary step upon a more extensive plan of creating the Judenfrei province of Warthegau, the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, manufacturing war supplies for Nazi Germany and especially for the German Army. Overcrowding in the ghetto was exacerbated by the influx of some 40,000 Polish Jews forced out from the surrounding Warthegau areas, as well as by the Holocaust transports of foreign Jews resettled to Łódź from Vienna, Berlin, Cologne, Hamburg and other cities in Nazi Germany, as well as from Luxembourg, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia including the citywide Theresienstadt concentration camp.
The territory was inhabited predominantly by the ethnic Poles with a German minority of 16.7% in 1921, and the Polish Jews, most of whom were imprisoned at the Łódź Ghetto eventually, and exterminated at Chełmno extermination camp (Vernichtungslager Kulmhof) within the next two years.

Hans Bothmann

Bothmann
In February, Himmler brought back Bothmann to reinstate operations at Chełmno.
SS-Hauptsturmführer Hans Bothmann or Hans Johann Bothmann (November 11, 1911 – April 4, 1946) was the last commandant of the Chełmno extermination camp from 1942 on (SS card number 117630); leader of the SS Special Detachment Bothmann conducting the extermination of Jews from the Łódź Ghetto and other places.

Friedrich Uebelhoer

Friedrich Übelhör
The first known record of an order for the establishment of the ghetto, dated 10 December 1939, came from the new Nazi governor Friedrich Übelhör, who called on for the cooperation of major policing bodies in the confinement and mass transfer of the local Jews.
In Łódź he ordered the construction of the Jewish ghetto on December 10, 1939, a measure he described as only temporary, adding that ultimately the Nazis intended to "burn out this plague dump".

Survivors' Park in Łódź

Survivors' Park
On their and their families initiative, a Survivors' Park adorned with monuments was built in Łódź, measuring 3660 m2.
Survivors' Park (Park Ocalałych) is a park in Łódź commemorating people who went through the Ghetto Litzmannstadt existing during World War II, being one of the elements of the plan to exterminate Jews of the Third Reich.

Holocaust trains

Holocaust trainHolocaust transportsfreight trains
Overcrowding in the ghetto was exacerbated by the influx of some 40,000 Polish Jews forced out from the surrounding Warthegau areas, as well as by the Holocaust transports of foreign Jews resettled to Łódź from Vienna, Berlin, Cologne, Hamburg and other cities in Nazi Germany, as well as from Luxembourg, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia including the citywide Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Neither of these two camps had international rail connections; therefore, the trains stopped at the nearby ghettos in Łódź and in Minsk, respectively.

Lucjan Dobroszycki

DobroszyckiDobroszycki, Lucjan
Much information about the Jewish day-to-day life in that period can be found in the ghetto archive of Lucjan Dobroszycki from YIVO.
A survivor of the Łódź Ghetto and Nazi concentration camps including Auschwitz, Dobroszycki lived in Poland after World War II where he obtained his education and worked as a historian.

Operation Reinhard

Aktion ReinhardAktion ReinhardtOperation Reinhardt
The Chełmno extermination camp set up by SS-Sturmbannführer Herbert Lange, served as a pilot project for the secretive Operation Reinhard, the deadliest phase of the "Final Solution".
Between early December 1941 and mid-April 1943, 160,000 Jews were sent to Chełmno from the General Government via the Ghetto in Łódź.

Heda Margolius Kovály

Heda Margolius KovalyHeda Kovaly
She survived the Łódź ghetto and Auschwitz where her parents died.

Heinrich Himmler

HimmlerAlfred HimmlerH Himmler
Heinrich Himmler visited the ghetto for the first time on 7 June 1941.
Children who passed muster at first but were later rejected were taken to Kinder KZ in Łódź Ghetto, where most of them eventually died.

Chaim Rumkowski

Mordechai Chaim RumkowskiM. C. Rumkowski
The chairman of the Judenrat appointed by the Nazi administration was Chaim Rumkowski (age 62 in 1939).
Chaim Mordechaj Rumkowski (February 27, 1877 – August 28, 1944) was the head of the Jewish Council of Elders in the Łódź Ghetto appointed by Nazi Germany during the German occupation of Poland.

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
About 10,000 Jewish residents of Łódź, who used to live there before the invasion of Poland, survived the Holocaust elsewhere.
The only exception was Lodz Ghetto, which was not liquidated until mid-1944.

Rudolf Margolius

Imprisoned by the Nazis in the Lodz ghetto and several concentration camps, he survived the Holocaust and joined the Czechoslovak Communist Party, working as an economist.

Radegast train station

Radegast stationRadogoszcz station
Between 23 June and 14 July 1944, the first 10 transports of about 7,000 Jews were sent by Arthur Greiser from the Radegast train station to Chełmno.
It served as the Umschlagplatz for transporting Jews from the Łódź Ghetto to the extermination camps during Operation Reinhard.