Β-lactam antibiotic

beta-lactam antibioticbeta-lactam antibioticsβ-lactam antibioticsbeta-lactambeta-lactamsβ-lactamβ-lactam antibioticsamp resistancebeta lactam antibioticbeta lactam antibiotics
β-lactam antibiotics (beta-lactam antibiotics) are the antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.wikipedia
209 Related Articles

Cephalosporin

cephalosporinsthird-generation cephalosporincefalosporin
This includes penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, carbapenems and carbacephems.
) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".

Penicillin

penicillinspenicillin Gpenicillin allergy
This includes penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, carbapenems and carbacephems. The first β-lactam antibiotic discovered, penicillin, was isolated from a rare variant of Penicillium notatum (since renamed Penicillium chrysogenum).
All penicillins are β-lactam antibiotics, which are some of the most powerful and successful achievements in modern science.

Monobactam

monobactams
This includes penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, carbapenems and carbacephems.
Monobactams are monocyclic and bacterially-produced β-lactam antibiotics.

Clavulanic acid

clavulanateclavulanic acid biosynthesisclavulanate potassium
To overcome this resistance, β-lactam antibiotics are often given with β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid. For example, Augmentin (FGP) is made of amoxicillin (a β-lactam antibiotic) and clavulanic acid (a β-lactamase inhibitor).
Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam drug that functions as a mechanism-based β-lactamase inhibitor.

Penicillium chrysogenum

Penicillium notatumPenicillium rubensP. chrysogenum
The first β-lactam antibiotic discovered, penicillin, was isolated from a rare variant of Penicillium notatum (since renamed Penicillium chrysogenum).
It is the source of several β-lactam antibiotics, most significantly penicillin.

Cephem

This includes penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, carbapenems and carbacephems.
Cephems are a sub-group of β-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins and cephamycins.

Antibiotic

antibioticsantibacterialtopical antibiotic
β-lactam antibiotics (beta-lactam antibiotics) are the antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.
These include, for example, the beta-lactam antibiotics, which include the penicillins (produced by fungi in the genus Penicillium), the cephalosporins, and the carbapenems.

Interstitial nephritis

tubulointerstitial nephritisacute interstitial nephritisTubulo-interstitial nephritis
Nevertheless, the risk of cross-reactivity is sufficient to warrant the contraindication of all β-lactam antibiotics in patients with a history of severe allergic reactions (urticaria, anaphylaxis, interstitial nephritis) to any β-lactam antibiotic.
The medications that are known to cause this sort of reaction are β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin

Amoxicillin

amoxycillinAmoxilAmohexal
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to any β-lactam antibiotic may occur in up to 10% of patients receiving that agent (a small fraction of which are truly IgE-mediated allergic reactions, see amoxicillin rash). For example, Augmentin (FGP) is made of amoxicillin (a β-lactam antibiotic) and clavulanic acid (a β-lactamase inhibitor).
It is a moderate-spectrum, bacteriolytic, β-lactam antibiotic in the aminopenicillin family used to treat susceptible Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Anaphylaxis

anaphylactic shockanaphylacticanaphylactic reaction
Anaphylaxis will occur in approximately 0.01% of patients.
The most common are β-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillin) followed by aspirin and NSAIDs.

Beta-lactamase

β-lactamasepenicillinasecarbapenemase
Bacteria often develop resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by synthesizing a β-lactamase, an enzyme that attacks the β-lactam ring.
Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by bacteria that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase.

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1

NDM-1New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamaseNew Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1
(An example of such an enzyme is New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1, discovered in 2009.) The genes encoding these enzymes may be inherently present on the bacterial chromosome or may be acquired via plasmid transfer (plasmid-mediated resistance), and β-lactamase gene expression may be induced by exposure to β-lactams.
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics.

Β-Lactamase inhibitor

beta-lactamase inhibitorβ-lactamase inhibitorB-lactamase inhibitor
To overcome this resistance, β-lactam antibiotics are often given with β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid.
Beta-lactamases are a family of enzymes involved in bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics.

Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid

co-amoxiclavAugmentinamoxicillin-clavulanate
For example, Augmentin (FGP) is made of amoxicillin (a β-lactam antibiotic) and clavulanic acid (a β-lactamase inhibitor).
It is a combination consisting of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic, and potassium clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MRSAmethicillin-resistant ''Staphylococcus aureusmethicillin-resistant ''S. aureus
Notable examples of this mode of resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.
aureus'' that has developed, through horizontal gene transfer and natural selection, multiple drug resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics.

Methicillin

meticillinStaphcillin
Notable examples of this mode of resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Methicillin, also known as meticillin, is a narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class.

Bactericide

bactericidalbacteriocidalbacterial death
β-lactam antibiotics are bacteriocidal, and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Bactericidal antibiotics that inhibit cell wall synthesis: the beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems) and vancomycin.

DD-transpeptidase

transpeptidaseSerine-type D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidasetranspeptidases
The final transpeptidation step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan is facilitated by DD-transpeptidases, also known as penicillin binding proteins (PBPs).
DD-transpeptidase is the target protein of β-lactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin) This is because the structure of the β-lactam closely resembles the D-ala-D-ala residue.

Plasmid-mediated resistance

plasmid-borneplasmid-mediatedplasmids
(An example of such an enzyme is New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1, discovered in 2009.) The genes encoding these enzymes may be inherently present on the bacterial chromosome or may be acquired via plasmid transfer (plasmid-mediated resistance), and β-lactamase gene expression may be induced by exposure to β-lactams.
The antibiotic resistance genes found on the plasmids confer resistance to most of the antibiotic classes used nowadays, for example, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides.

List of β-lactam antibiotics

This is a list of common β-lactam antibiotics—both administered drugs and those not in clinical use—organized by structural class.

Penicillin binding proteins

penicillin-binding proteinpenicillin-binding proteinsPBP
The final transpeptidation step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan is facilitated by DD-transpeptidases, also known as penicillin binding proteins (PBPs).
All β-lactam antibiotics (except for tabtoxinine-β-lactam, which inhibits glutamine synthetase) bind to PBPs, which are essential for bacterial cell wall synthesis.

Beta-lactam

β-lactamβ-lactamsbeta lactam
β-lactam antibiotics (beta-lactam antibiotics) are the antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.
The β-lactam ring is part of the core structure of several antibiotic families, the principal ones being the penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams, which are, therefore, also called β-lactam antibiotics.

Isopenicillin N synthase

isopenicillin N synthetaseisopenicillin-N synthase
ACV is oxidatively cyclized (two cyclizations by a single enzyme) to bicyclic intermediate isopenicillin N by isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) to form the penam core structure.
This shows how IPNS occupies an early and key role in the biosynthetic pathway of all of the penicillins and cephalosporins, which are different types of β-lactam antibiotics.

Penam

This includes penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, carbapenems and carbacephems.