.NET Framework

.NETMicrosoft .NET FrameworkMicrosoft .NET.NET platform.NET Framework 3.5Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0Microsoft.NET.NET 2.0 Framework.NET 3.0.NET 4.0
.NET Framework (pronounced as "dot net") is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.wikipedia
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Framework Class Library

FCL
It includes a large class library named as Framework Class Library (FCL) and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages.
The Framework Class Library (FCL) is a component of Microsoft's .NET Framework, the first implementation of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI).

Common Language Runtime

CLR.NET CLR.NET CLR paradigm
Programs written for .NET Framework execute in a software environment (in contrast to a hardware environment) named the Common Language Runtime (CLR).
The Common Language Runtime (CLR), the virtual machine component of Microsoft .NET framework, manages the execution of .NET programs.

Managed code

managed.NETmanaged and unmanaged code
As such, computer code written using .NET Framework is called "managed code".
Managed code is computer program code that requires and will execute only under the management of a Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) Virtual Execution System (VES) virtual machine, e.g. .NET Core CoreFX, .NET Framework Common Language Runtime (CLR), or Mono.

.NET Compact Framework

Compact Framework
A reduced version of the framework, .NET Compact Framework, is available on Windows CE platforms, including Windows Mobile devices such as smartphones.
The Microsoft .NET Compact Framework (.NET CF) is a version of the .NET Framework that is designed to run on resource constrained mobile/embedded devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), mobile phones, factory controllers, set-top boxes, etc. The .NET Compact Framework uses some of the same class libraries as the full .NET Framework and also a few libraries designed specifically for mobile devices such as .NET Compact Framework controls.

.NET Micro Framework

.NET Micro Framework is targeted at very resource-constrained embedded devices.
The .NET Micro Framework (NETMF) is a .NET Framework platform for resource-constrained devices with at least 256 KB of flash and 64 KB of random-access memory (RAM).

Virtual machine

virtual machinesVMvirtual server
The CLR is an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling.
Other examples include the Parrot virtual machine and the .NET Framework, which runs on a VM called the Common Language Runtime.

Mono (software)

MonoMonoTouchMono Framework
Mono is available for many operating systems and is customized into popular smartphone operating systems (Android and iOS) and game engines.
Mono is a free and open-source project to create an Ecma standard-compliant .NET Framework-compatible software framework, including a C# compiler and a Common Language Runtime.

C Sharp (programming language)

C#Visual C#C# programming language
In August 2000, Microsoft, and Intel worked to standardize Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) and C#.
It was developed around 2000 by Microsoft as part of its .NET initiative, and later approved as an international standard by Ecma (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2018).

Common Language Infrastructure

CLICommon Language SpecificationECMA-335
In August 2000, Microsoft, and Intel worked to standardize Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) and C#.
The .NET Framework, .NET Core, Mono, DotGNU and Portable.NET are implementations of the CLI.

Cross-platform software

Cross-platformPlatform independentmulti-platform
.NET Core targets the Universal Windows Platform (UWP), and cross-platform and cloud computing workloads.
That is, a script written in Python for a Unix-like system will likely run with little or no modification on Windows, because Python also runs on Windows; there is also more than one implementation of Python that will run the same scripts (e.g., IronPython for .NET Framework).

Exception handling

exceptionexceptionserror handling
The CLR is an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling.
This includes ActionScript, Ada, BlitzMax, C++, C#, COBOL, D, ECMAScript, Eiffel, Java, ML, Next Generation Shell, Object Pascal (e.g. Delphi, Free Pascal, and the like), PowerBuilder, Objective-C, OCaml, PHP (as of version 5), PL/I, PL/SQL, Prolog, Python, REALbasic, Ruby, Scala, Seed7, Smalltalk, Tcl, Visual Prolog and most .NET languages.

.NET Foundation

On November 12, 2014, Microsoft announced .NET Core, in an effort to include cross-platform support for .NET, the source release of Microsoft's CoreCLR implementation, source for the "entire […] library stack" for .NET Core, and the adoption of a conventional ("bazaar"-like) open-source development model under the consolation stewardship of the .NET Foundation.
The .NET Foundation is an organization incorporated on March 31, 2014, by Microsoft to improve open-source software development and collaboration around the .NET Framework.

Library (computing)

librarylibrariessoftware library
It includes a large class library named as Framework Class Library (FCL) and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages.
Applications written for the .NET Framework framework (since 2002), also check the Global Assembly Cache as the primary store of shared dll files to remove the issue of DLL hell.

Windows Embedded Compact

Windows CEWinCEWindows CE 3.0
A reduced version of the framework, .NET Compact Framework, is available on Windows CE platforms, including Windows Mobile devices such as smartphones.
The .NET Compact Framework supports a subset of the .NET Framework with projects in C#, and Visual Basic .NET, but not Managed C++.

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
In August 2000, Microsoft, and Intel worked to standardize Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) and C#. .NET Framework (pronounced as "dot net") is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
As part of the "Get the Facts" campaign, Microsoft highlighted the .NET Framework trading platform that it had developed in partnership with Accenture for the London Stock Exchange, claiming that it provided "five nines" reliability.

List of CLI languages

CLI languages.NET languages.NET language
The class libraries are available for all CLI compliant languages.
With some notable exceptions, most CLI languages compile entirely to the Common Intermediate Language (CIL), an intermediate language that can be executed using the Common Language Runtime, implemented by .NET Framework, .NET Core, and Mono.

Software

Computer softwareSoftware & Programmingsoftware technology
Programs written for .NET Framework execute in a software environment (in contrast to a hardware environment) named the Common Language Runtime (CLR).
For instance, a Microsoft Windows desktop application might call API functions in the .NET Windows Forms library like Form1.Close and Form1.Show to close or open the application.

Microsoft .NET strategy

Microsoft .NET.NET.NET Framework
Microsoft began developing .NET Framework in the late 1990s, originally under the name of Next Generation Windows Services (NGWS), as part of the .NET strategy.
In support of this strategy, between 2000 and 2002, Microsoft released ".NET" branded updates to its works, including Visual Studio .NET, Visual Basic .NET, .NET Passport, .NET My Services, .NET Framework, ASP.NET and ADO.NET.

Language Integrated Query

LINQLINQ to SQLLanguage Integrated Query (LINQ)
It includes an expanded set of libraries, including BCL, Windows Forms, ASP.NET, and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) but also extensions to the base class libraries ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), and Workflow Foundation (WF).
Language Integrated Query (LINQ, pronounced "link") is a Microsoft .NET Framework component that adds native data querying capabilities to .NET languages, originally released as a major part of .NET Framework 3.5 in 2007.

Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure

codename RotorRotor (software project)Shared Source CLI
Landwerth acknowledged the disadvantages of the formerly selected shared license, explaining that it made codename Rotor "a non-starter" as a community-developed open source project because it did not meet the criteria of an Open Source Initiative (OSI) approved license.
Beginning in 2001, Microsoft announced they would release part of the .NET framework infrastructure source code in Shared source through ECMA, as part of the C# and CLI standardization process.

Windows Forms

WinFormsWindows.Forms
It includes an expanded set of libraries, including BCL, Windows Forms, ASP.NET, and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) but also extensions to the base class libraries ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), and Workflow Foundation (WF).
Windows Forms (WinForms) is a graphical (GUI) class library included as a part of Microsoft .NET Framework or Mono Framework, providing a platform to write rich client applications for desktop, laptop, and tablet PCs.

User interface

UIinterfaceweb interface
FCL provides user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications.

Miguel de Icaza

Miguel de '''Icaza
Miguel de Icaza describes .NET Core as a "redesigned version of .NET that is based on the simplified version of the class libraries", and Microsoft's Immo Landwerth explained that .NET Core would be "the foundation of all future .NET platforms".
In 2001, Helix Code, later renamed Ximian, announced the Mono Project, to be led by de Icaza, with the goal to implement Microsoft's new .NET development platform on Linux and Unix-like platforms.

Windows Communication Foundation

WCFWindows Communications FoundationIndigo (messaging system)
It includes an expanded set of libraries, including BCL, Windows Forms, ASP.NET, and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) but also extensions to the base class libraries ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), and Workflow Foundation (WF).
The Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), previously known as Indigo, is a runtime and a set of APIs in the .NET Framework for building connected, service-oriented applications.

ASP.NET

code-behindASPX.asp
It includes an expanded set of libraries, including BCL, Windows Forms, ASP.NET, and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) but also extensions to the base class libraries ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), and Workflow Foundation (WF).
It was first released in January 2002 with version 1.0 of the .NET Framework, and is the successor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages (ASP) technology.