16 mm film

16mm16 mm16mm filmSuper 16super 16mmSuper 16 mmSuper 16 mm film16Super 16mm film16 mm camera
16 mm film is a historically popular and economical gauge of film.wikipedia
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35 mm film

35 mm35mm35mm film
16 mm refers to the width of the film; other common film gauges include 8 and 35 mm.
By the early 1920s, several formats had successfully split the amateur home movies market away from 35 mm: 28 mm (1.1 in) (1912), 9.5 mm (0.37 in) (1922), 16 mm (0.63 in) (1923), and Pathe Rural, a 17.5 mm format designed for safety film (1926).

Aspect ratio (image)

4:3aspect ratio16:9
The picture taking area of standard 16 mm is 10.26 mm (0.404 in.) by 7.49 mm (0.295 in.), an aspect ratio of 1.37:1, the standard pre-widescreen Academy ratio for 35 mm. The "nominal" picture projection area (per SMPTE RP 20-2003) is 0.380 in by 0.284 in, and the maximum picture projection area (per SMPTE 233-2003) is 0.384 in by 0.286 in, each implying an aspect ratio of 1.34:1.
Super 16 mm film was frequently used for television production due to its lower cost, lack of need for soundtrack space on the film itself (as it is not projected but rather transferred to video), and aspect ratio similar to 16:9 (the native ratio of Super 16 mm is 15:9).

8 mm film

8 mm8mm8mm film
16 mm refers to the width of the film; other common film gauges include 8 and 35 mm.
Double 8 spools actually contain a 16 mm film with twice as many perforations along each edge as normal 16 mm film; on its first pass through the camera, the film is exposed only along half of its width.

Film gauge

gauge
16 mm film is a historically popular and economical gauge of film.
Traditionally the major movie film gauges in usage are 8 mm, 16 mm, 35 mm, and 65/70 mm (in this case 65 mm for the negative and 70 mm for the release print; the extra five millimeters are reserved for the magnetic soundtrack).

Rune Ericson

It was developed by Swedish cinematographer Rune Ericson in 1969, using single-sprocket film and taking advantage of the extra room for an expanded picture area of 7.41 mm by 12.52 mm.
In 1969, Ericsson invented the Super 16mm film format.

Film perforations

perforationssprocket holesKodak Standard
Two perforation pitches are available for 16 mm film.
For motion picture 35 mm film and 16 mm film, there are two different pitches—short pitch (camera stocks intended for duplication or printing, and for most intermediate applications) and long pitch (camera stocks intended for direct projection, print stocks, and special intermediate applications).

Home movies

home moviehome videoshome video
In addition to making home movies, people could buy or rent films from the library, a key selling aspect of the format.
The 16 mm format, which used only safety film, was introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1923 and became a standard in the non-professional market.

28 mm film

28 mm28mm film stock
Kodak hired Willard Beech Cook from his 28 mm Pathescope of America company to create the new 16 mm 'Kodascope Library'.
Shortly after, 9.5 mm and 16 mm would take the amateur film gauge role 28 mm had once filled.

Nitrocellulose

nitrate filmguncottoncellulose nitrate
Kodak never used nitrate film for the format, owing to the high flammability of the nitrate base.
8, 9.5, and 16 mm film stocks, intended for amateur and other nontheatrical use, were never manufactured with a nitrate base in the west, but rumors exist of 16 mm nitrate film having been produced in the former Soviet Union and/or China.

Photographic film

filmfilm camerafilms
16 mm film is a historically popular and economical gauge of film.

Super 8 film

Super 8super-8Super 8mm
It also existed as a popular amateur or home movie-making format for several decades, alongside 8 mm film and later Super 8 film.
Starting in 1971 In-flight movies (previously 16 mm) were shown in Super 8 format until video distribution became the norm.

Film base

baseNitratenitrate film
Intended for amateur use, 16 mm film was one of the first formats to use acetate safety film as a film base.
Acetate has always been used with 8 mm and 16 mm formats, as they were originally created for amateur home movie usage, and generally was used for most sub-35 mm formats to minimize risk to the general public.

Digital video

videodigitalDV
Replacing analog video devices, digital video has made significant inroads in television production use.
Standard film stocks such as 16 mm and 35 mm record at 24 frames per second.

The O.C.

The OCO.C.Cast O.C.
16 mm film is used in television, such as for the Hallmark Hall of Fame anthology (it has since been produced in 16:9 high definition) and Friday Night Lights and The O.C. as well as The Walking Dead in the US. In the UK, the format is exceedingly popular for Television series such as "Doc Martin", dramas and commercials.
The pilot was shot on 35 mm film stock, while subsequent episodes used digitally post-processed 16 mm in order to reduce the cost of production.

Leaving Las Vegas

a film of the same name
The Academy Award winning Leaving Las Vegas (1995) was shot on 16 mm.
Leaving Las Vegas was filmed in super 16mm instead of 35 mm film; while 16 mm is common for art house films, 35 mm is most commonly used for mainstream film.

The Ascent of Man

ascentAscent of Man
Many drama shows and documentaries were made entirely on 16 mm, notably Brideshead Revisited, The Jewel in the Crown, The Ascent of Man and Life on Earth.
The 13-part series was shot on 16 mm film.

Kodak

Eastman KodakEastman Kodak CompanyEastman
Eastman Kodak released the first 16 mm "outfit" in 1923, consisting of a camera, projector, tripod, screen and splicer, for $335.
The company helped set the standard of 35mm film, and introduced the 16mm film format for home movie use and lower budget film productions.

Arriflex 16SR

ArriArri SR3Arriflex 16SR2
Today, the professional industry tends to use 16 mm cameras from Aaton and Arri, most notably the Aaton Xtera, Aaton XTRprod, Arriflex 16SR3, and Arriflex 416.
This 16SR camera series is designed for 16 mm filmmaking in Standard 16 format.

Aaton Digital

AatonAaton CantarAaton Xtera Super 16
Today, the professional industry tends to use 16 mm cameras from Aaton and Arri, most notably the Aaton Xtera, Aaton XTRprod, Arriflex 16SR3, and Arriflex 416. In particular, Scrubs has been shot on Super16 from the start and is aired either as 4:3 SD (first 7 seasons) or as 16:9 HD (seasons 8 and 9). John Inwood, the cinematographer of the series, believed that footage from his Aaton XTR Prod camera was not only sufficient to air in high definition, it "looked terrific." The 2009 Academy Award winner for Best Picture, The Hurt Locker, was shot using Aaton Super 16 mm cameras and Fujifilm 16 mm film stocks.
After several initial prototypes, the Aaton LTR 16 mm movie camera became available on the market in the late 1970s.

The Hurt Locker

Hurt LockerHurt Locker, The
The 2009 Academy Award winner for Best Picture, The Hurt Locker, was shot using Aaton Super 16 mm cameras and Fujifilm 16 mm film stocks.
While the film was independently produced and filmed on a low budget, Bigelow used four Super 16 mm cameras to capture multiple perspectives, saying,

The Walking Dead (TV series)

The Walking Deadtelevision series of the same nameWalking Dead
16 mm film is used in television, such as for the Hallmark Hall of Fame anthology (it has since been produced in 16:9 high definition) and Friday Night Lights and The O.C. as well as The Walking Dead in the US. In the UK, the format is exceedingly popular for Television series such as "Doc Martin", dramas and commercials.
The series is completely shot on 16 mm film.

CP-16

Cinema Products
For amateur, hobbyist, and student use, it is more economical to use older models from Arri, Aaton, Auricon, Beaulieu, Bell and Howell, Bolex, Canon, Cinema Products, Eclair, Keystone, Krasnogorsk, Mitchell, and others.
The CP-16, CP-16A, CP-16R, CP-16R/A and CP-16R/DS cameras are 16mm motion picture cameras manufactured by the Cinema Products Corporation of Hollywood California.

Krasnogorsk (camera)

KrasnogorskKrasnogorsk camera
For amateur, hobbyist, and student use, it is more economical to use older models from Arri, Aaton, Auricon, Beaulieu, Bell and Howell, Bolex, Canon, Cinema Products, Eclair, Keystone, Krasnogorsk, Mitchell, and others.
The Krasnogorsk-3 (Красногорск-3) is a spring-wound 16mm mirror-reflex movie camera designed and manufactured in the USSR by KMZ.

Auricon

Auricon synchronous motor driveBach-Auricon
For amateur, hobbyist, and student use, it is more economical to use older models from Arri, Aaton, Auricon, Beaulieu, Bell and Howell, Bolex, Canon, Cinema Products, Eclair, Keystone, Krasnogorsk, Mitchell, and others.
Auricon cameras were 16 mm film Single System sound-on-film motion picture cameras manufactured in the 1940s through the early 1980s.

Bolex

Bolex 16mmIenso Canada (an engineering company)Paillard Bolex
For amateur, hobbyist, and student use, it is more economical to use older models from Arri, Aaton, Auricon, Beaulieu, Bell and Howell, Bolex, Canon, Cinema Products, Eclair, Keystone, Krasnogorsk, Mitchell, and others.
The actual company Bolex International S. A. of Yverdon is a Swiss follow manufacturer of motion picture cameras, the most notable products of which are in the 16 mm and Super 16 mm formats.