1755 Lisbon earthquake

1755 earthquakeLisbon earthquakeearthquakeearthquake of 1755Great Lisbon earthquakeGreat earthquake of 1755Lisbon earthquake of 1755earthquake in 1755an earthquakeearthquake in Lisbon, Portugal
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, Feast of All Saints, at around 09:40 local time.wikipedia
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Tsunami

tsunamistidal waveseaquake
In combination with subsequent fires and a tsunami, the earthquake almost totally destroyed Lisbon and adjoining areas. Approximately 40 minutes after the earthquake, a tsunami engulfed the harbour and downtown area, rushing up the Tagus river "so fast that several people riding on horseback ... were forced to gallop as fast as possible to the upper grounds for fear of being carried away."
Of historical and current (with regard to risk assumptions) importance are the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami (which was caused by the Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault), the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes, each causing several tens of thousands of deaths and the 1908 Messina earthquake and tsunami.

Portugal

Portuguese🇵🇹POR
Lisbon was not the only Portuguese city affected by the catastrophe.
However, events such as the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, the Industrial Revolution, the Seven Years' War, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822), erased to an extent Portugal's prior opulence.

Lisbon

LisboaLisbon, Portugalcapital
In combination with subsequent fires and a tsunami, the earthquake almost totally destroyed Lisbon and adjoining areas.
The Muslim influence is still visible present in the Alfama district, an old quarter of Lisbon that survived the 1755 Lisbon earthquake: many place-names are derived from Arabic and the Alfama (the oldest existing district of Lisbon) was derived from the Arabic "al-hamma.

Seismology

seismicseismologistseismologists
Seismologists today estimate the Lisbon earthquake had a magnitude in the range 8.5–9.0 on the moment magnitude scale, with its epicentre in the Atlantic Ocean about 200 km (120 mi) west-southwest of Cape St. Vincent.
The Lisbon earthquake of 1755, coinciding with the general flowering of science in Europe, set in motion intensified scientific attempts to understand the behaviour and causation of earthquakes.

Covilhã

Other towns of different Portuguese regions, such as Peniche, Cascais, and even Covilhã, which is located near the Serra da Estrela mountain range in central inland Portugal, were affected.
On November 1, 1755, Covilhã was shaken by the forces of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake that destroyed part of Covilhã's castle walls and its large towers.

Lists of earthquakes

most powerfullargestlargest earthquakes
Estimates place the death toll in Lisbon alone between 10,000 and 100,000 people, making it one of the deadliest earthquakes in history.

Cape St. Vincent

Cape St VincentCabo de São VicenteSagres Point
Seismologists today estimate the Lisbon earthquake had a magnitude in the range 8.5–9.0 on the moment magnitude scale, with its epicentre in the Atlantic Ocean about 200 km (120 mi) west-southwest of Cape St. Vincent. A seismic reflection survey of the ocean floor along the Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault has revealed a 50 km-long thrust structure southwest of Cape St. Vincent, with a dip-slip throw of more than 1 km. This structure may have created the primary tectonic event.
All existing buildings—including the Vila do Infante of Henry the Navigator—fell into ruins because of the Lisbon earthquake of 1755.

Algarve

Algarve regionAlgarvianCyneticum
Throughout the south of the country, in particular the Algarve, destruction was rampant. Sections of other Portuguese cities, such as the Vila Real de Santo António in Algarve, were also rebuilt along Pombaline principles.
Trade flourished and Lagos became the capital of the historical province of Algarve in 1577 and remained so until the fabled 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

Theodicy

theodiciesjustifiestheodical
The event was widely discussed and dwelt upon by European Enlightenment philosophers, and inspired major developments in theodicy.
French philosopher Voltaire criticised Leibniz's concept of theodicy in his Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne (Poem on the Lisbon disaster), suggesting that the massive destruction of innocent lives caused by the Lisbon earthquake demonstrated that God was not providing the "best of all possible worlds".

Cascais

Cascais, PortugalEstorilMunicipality of Cascais
Other towns of different Portuguese regions, such as Peniche, Cascais, and even Covilhã, which is located near the Serra da Estrela mountain range in central inland Portugal, were affected.
In 1755, the great Lisbon earthquake destroyed a large portion of the city.

Lagos, Portugal

LagosLagos BayLagos municipality
In Lagos, the waves reached the top of the city walls.
From 1576 to 1755, Lagos was a high-profile capital of the Algarve, until the old Portuguese town was destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami of 1755.

Faro, Portugal

FaroOssonobaFaro (Portugal)
Almost all the coastal towns and villages of the Algarve were heavily damaged, except Faro, which was protected by the sandy banks of Ria Formosa.
The western city of Lagos had become the capital of the historical province of Algarve in 1577, but this all changed with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe Enlightenment18th-century philosophy
The event was widely discussed and dwelt upon by European Enlightenment philosophers, and inspired major developments in theodicy.
Following the 1755 Lisbon earthquake which destroyed great part of Lisbon, the Marquis of Pombal implemented important economic policies to regulate commercial activity (in particular with Brazil and England), and to standardise quality throughout the country (for example by introducing the first integrated industries in Portugal).

All Saints' Day

All SaintsAll HallowsFeast of All Saints
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, Feast of All Saints, at around 09:40 local time.
1755 Lisbon earthquake which occurred on this day and had a great effect on society and philosophy

Portuguese Empire

PortuguesePortugalPortuguese colony
The earthquake accentuated political tensions in the Kingdom of Portugal and profoundly disrupted the country's colonial ambitions.
In 1755 Lisbon suffered a catastrophic earthquake, which together with a subsequent tsunami killed between 40,000–60,000 people out of a population of 275,000.

Tagus

Tagus RiverTejoRiver Tagus
Approximately 40 minutes after the earthquake, a tsunami engulfed the harbour and downtown area, rushing up the Tagus river "so fast that several people riding on horseback ... were forced to gallop as fast as possible to the upper grounds for fear of being carried away." The Royal Ribeira Palace, which stood just beside the Tagus river in the modern square of Terreiro do Paço, was destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami.
Slippage along it has caused numerous earthquakes, the major ones being those of 1309, 1531 and 1755.

Ribeira Palace

Music Royal LibraryRoyal Palacenew royal palace
The Royal Ribeira Palace, which stood just beside the Tagus river in the modern square of Terreiro do Paço, was destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami.
The Ribeira Palace, as well as most of the city of Lisbon, was destroyed in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

Praça do Comércio

Terreiro do PaçoCommerce SquareComercio Square
The Royal Ribeira Palace, which stood just beside the Tagus river in the modern square of Terreiro do Paço, was destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami.
Situated near the Tagus river, the square is still commonly known as Terreiro do Paço (English: Palace Yard), because it was the location of the Paços da Ribeira (Royal Ribeira Palace) until it was destroyed by the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault

Azores–Gibraltar Fault ZoneAzores-Gibraltar fault zoneAzores-Gibraltar Ridge
A seismic reflection survey of the ocean floor along the Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault has revealed a 50 km-long thrust structure southwest of Cape St. Vincent, with a dip-slip throw of more than 1 km. This structure may have created the primary tectonic event.
The AGFZ produced the large-magnitude 1755 Lisbon and 1969 Horseshoe earthquakes and, consequently, a number of large tsunamis.

Manueline

Manueline architecturecolonial architectural stylesPortuguese Gothic
Eighty-five percent of Lisbon's buildings were destroyed, including famous palaces and libraries, as well as most examples of Portugal's distinctive 16th-century Manueline architecture.
However, much original Manueline architecture in Portugal was lost or damaged beyond restoration in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and subsequent tsunami.

Hospital Real de Todos os Santos

Hospital de Todos os SantosRoyal Hospital of All Saints
The Royal Hospital of All Saints (the largest public hospital at the time) in the Rossio square was consumed by fire and hundreds of patients burned to death.
The hospital was built between 1492 and 1504 and was destroyed in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, along with most of the city.

Ópera do Tejo

The new Lisbon opera house (the "Ópera do Tejo"), opened just six months before, burned to the ground.
It was inaugurated on March 31, 1755, and destroyed by the major earthquake on November 1 of the same year.

Carmo Convent (Lisbon)

Carmo ConventCarmo Archaeological Museumruins of Carmo Convent
Visitors to Lisbon may still walk the ruins of the Carmo Convent, which were preserved to remind Lisboners of the destruction.
The medieval convent was ruined during the sequence of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, and the destroyed Gothic Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Igreja do Carmo) on the southern facade of the convent is the main trace of the great earthquake still visible in the old city.

Palace of Ajuda

Royal Palace of AjudaAjuda PalaceNational Palace of Ajuda
The king's claustrophobia never waned, and it was only after Joseph's death that his daughter Maria I of Portugal began building the royal Ajuda Palace, which still stands on the site of the old tented camp.
On 1 November 1755, the day of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the Royal Family was in Belém, and escaped the destruction of Lisbon by the earthquake and tsunami.

Vila Real de Santo António

Santo AntonioSanto AntónioVila Real
Sections of other Portuguese cities, such as the Vila Real de Santo António in Algarve, were also rebuilt along Pombaline principles.
Vila Real de Santo António was founded after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, and largely expanded in 1774 using the same architectural and construction techniques employed in the reconstruction of Lisbon after the disaster.