1755 Lisbon earthquake

Lisbon earthquake1755 earthquakeearthquake of 1755Lisbon earthquake of 1755Great Lisbon earthquakeearthquakeearthquake in 1755Great earthquake of 17551755an earthquake
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, Feast of All Saints, at around 09:40 local time.wikipedia
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Tsunami

tsunamistidal waveseaquake
In combination with subsequent fires and a tsunami, the earthquake almost totally destroyed Lisbon and adjoining areas. Approximately 40 minutes after the earthquake, a tsunami engulfed the harbor and downtown area, rushing up the Tagus river "so fast that several people riding on horseback ... were forced to gallop as fast as possible to the upper grounds for fear of being carried away."
Of historical and current (with regard to risk assumptions) importance are the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami (which was caused by the Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault), the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes, each causing several tens of thousands of deaths and the 1908 Messina earthquake and tsunami.

Lisbon

Lisbon, PortugalLisboaLissabon
In combination with subsequent fires and a tsunami, the earthquake almost totally destroyed Lisbon and adjoining areas.
The Muslim influence is still visible in the Alfama district, an old quarter of Lisbon that survived the 1755 Lisbon earthquake: many place-names are derived from Arabic and the Alfama (the oldest existing district of Lisbon) was derived from the Arabic "al-hamma.

Portugal

PortuguesePortuguese RepublicPOR
Lisbon was not the only Portuguese city affected by the catastrophe.
However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil (1822), and a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence.

Seismology

seismicseismologistseismologists
Seismologists today estimate the Lisbon earthquake had a magnitude in the range 8.5–9.0 on the moment magnitude scale, with its epicenter in the Atlantic Ocean about 200 km (120 mi) west-southwest of Cape St. Vincent.
The Lisbon earthquake of 1755, coinciding with the general flowering of science in Europe, set in motion intensified scientific attempts to understand the behaviour and causation of earthquakes.

Covilhã

Covilhã MunicipalityCovilhaCovilhã, Portugal
Other towns of different Portuguese regions, such as Peniche, Cascais, and even Covilhã, which is located near the Serra da Estrela mountain range in central inland Portugal, were affected.
On November 1, 1755, Covilhã was shaken by the forces of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake that destroyed part of Covilhã's castle walls and its large towers.

1531 Lisbon earthquake

earthquake15311531 earthquake
Chronologically it was the third known large scale earthquake to hit the city (one in 1321 and another in 1531).
The events that followed are closely compared to those following the 1755 earthquake, from the King taking refuge in tents, in Palmela, to the religious and civil repercussions and the response of the State.

Cape St. Vincent

Cape St VincentCabo de São VicenteCape Saint Vincent
Seismologists today estimate the Lisbon earthquake had a magnitude in the range 8.5–9.0 on the moment magnitude scale, with its epicenter in the Atlantic Ocean about 200 km (120 mi) west-southwest of Cape St. Vincent. A 1992 seismic reflection survey of the ocean floor along the Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault detected a 50 km-long thrust fault southwest of Cape St. Vincent, with a dip-slip throw of more than 1 km.
All existing buildings—including the Vila do Infante of Henry the Navigator—fell into ruins because of the Lisbon earthquake of 1755.

Lists of earthquakes

most powerfullargestlargest earthquakes
Estimates place the death toll in Lisbon alone between 10,000 and 100,000 people, making it one of the deadliest earthquakes in history.

Algarve

Algarve regionAlgarvesThe Algarve
Throughout the south of the country, in particular the Algarve, destruction was rampant.
Trade flourished and Lagos became the capital of the historical province of Algarve in 1577 and remained so until the fabled 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

Theodicy

theodiciesdivine justicejustifies
The event was widely discussed and dwelt upon by European Enlightenment philosophers, and inspired major developments in theodicy.
French philosopher Voltaire criticised Leibniz's concept of theodicy in his Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne (Poem on the Lisbon disaster), suggesting that the massive destruction of innocent lives caused by the Lisbon earthquake demonstrated that God was not providing the "best of all possible worlds".

Firestorm

fire stormfirestormscyclone of fire
Candles lit in homes and churches all around the city for All Saints' Day were knocked over, starting a fire that developed into a firestorm which burned for hours in the city, asphyxiating people up to 30 meters (100 feet) from the blaze.
Firestorms are thought to have been part of the mechanism of large urban fires, such as accompanied the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake.

Cascais

Municipality of CascaisCascais MunicipalityCascais, Portugal
Other towns of different Portuguese regions, such as Peniche, Cascais, and even Covilhã, which is located near the Serra da Estrela mountain range in central inland Portugal, were affected.
In 1755, the great Lisbon earthquake destroyed a large portion of the city.

Lagos, Portugal

LagosLagos BayLagos municipality
In Lagos, the waves reached the top of the city walls.
From 1576 to 1755, Lagos was a high-profile capital of the Algarve, until the old Portuguese town was destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami of 1755.

Faro, Portugal

FaroOssonobaFaro, Algarve
Almost all the coastal towns and villages of the Algarve were heavily damaged, except Faro, which was protected by the sandy banks of Ria Formosa.
The western city of Lagos had become the capital of the historical province of Algarve in 1577, but this all changed with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
The event was widely discussed and dwelt upon by European Enlightenment philosophers, and inspired major developments in theodicy.
Following the 1755 Lisbon earthquake which destroyed great part of Lisbon, the Marquis of Pombal implemented important economic policies to regulate commercial activity (in particular with Brazil and England), and to standardise quality throughout the country (for example by introducing the first integrated industries in Portugal).

Portuguese Empire

PortuguesePortugalPortuguese colonies
The earthquake accentuated political tensions in the Kingdom of Portugal and profoundly disrupted the country's colonial ambitions.
In 1755 Lisbon suffered a catastrophic earthquake, which together with a subsequent tsunami killed between 40,000–60,000 people out of a population of 275,000.

Tagus

Tagus RiverRiver TagusTajo
Approximately 40 minutes after the earthquake, a tsunami engulfed the harbor and downtown area, rushing up the Tagus river "so fast that several people riding on horseback ... were forced to gallop as fast as possible to the upper grounds for fear of being carried away." The Royal Ribeira Palace, which stood just beside the Tagus river in the modern square of Terreiro do Paço, was destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami.
Slippage along it has caused numerous earthquakes, the major ones being those of 1309, 1531 and 1755.

All Saints' Day

All SaintsAll Saints DayAll Saint's Day
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, Feast of All Saints, at around 09:40 local time.

Ribeira Palace

Paço da RibeiraRoyal PalaceMusic Royal Library
The Royal Ribeira Palace, which stood just beside the Tagus river in the modern square of Terreiro do Paço, was destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami.
The Ribeira Palace, as well as most of the city of Lisbon, was destroyed in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

Praça do Comércio

Terreiro do PaçoCommerce SquareComercio Square
The Royal Ribeira Palace, which stood just beside the Tagus river in the modern square of Terreiro do Paço, was destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami.
Situated near the Tagus river, the square is still commonly known as Terreiro do Paço (English: Palace Yard), because it was the location of the Paços da Ribeira (Royal Ribeira Palace) until it was destroyed by the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault

Azores–Gibraltar Fault ZoneAzores-Gibraltar fault zoneAzores-Gibraltar Ridge
A 1992 seismic reflection survey of the ocean floor along the Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault detected a 50 km-long thrust fault southwest of Cape St. Vincent, with a dip-slip throw of more than 1 km.
The AGFZ produced the large-magnitude 1755 Lisbon and 1969 Horseshoe earthquakes and, consequently, a number of large tsunamis.

Hospital Real de Todos-os-Santos

Hospital Real de Todos os SantosAll Saints' Royal HospitalHospital de Todos os Santos
The Royal Hospital of All Saints (the largest public hospital at the time) in the Rossio square was consumed by fire and hundreds of patients burned to death.
The hospital was built between 1492 and 1504 and was destroyed in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, along with most of the city.

Manueline

Manueline styleManueline architecturecolonial architectural styles
Eighty-five percent of Lisbon's buildings were destroyed, including famous palaces and libraries, as well as most examples of Portugal's distinctive 16th-century Manueline architecture.
However, much original Manueline architecture in Portugal was lost or damaged beyond restoration in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and subsequent tsunami.

Carmo Convent

Carmo Convent (Lisbon)Carmo Archaeological MuseumConvento do Carmo
Visitors to Lisbon may still walk the ruins of the Carmo Convent, which were preserved to remind Lisboners of the destruction.
The medieval convent was ruined during the sequence of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, and the destroyed Gothic Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Igreja do Carmo) on the southern facade of the convent is the main trace of the great earthquake still visible in the old city.

Aughinish, County Clare

AughinishAughinish IslandAughnish
In County Clare there was the creation of Aughinish Island when a low lying connection to the mainland was washed away.
The island was originally connected to County Clare, but in 1755 that connection was lost due to the tsunami effect of the massive Portuguese earthquake.