1796 United States presidential election

17961796 presidential election1796 electionelection of 1796election as PresidentU.S. presidential election1796 electoral collegebecomes the second Presidentcast their votesdefeated
The United States presidential election of 1796 was the third quadrennial presidential election.wikipedia
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John Adams

AdamsJohnJ. Adams
Incumbent Vice President John Adams of the Federalist Party defeated former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party.
He was then elected President in 1796; during his single term, he encountered fierce criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans and from some in his own Federalist Party, led by his rival Alexander Hamilton.

United States presidential election

presidential electionpresidential electionsElectoral College votes
The United States presidential election of 1796 was the third quadrennial presidential election.
Since the election of his successor, John Adams, in 1796, all winners of U.S. presidential elections have represented one of two major parties.

Vice President of the United States

Vice Presidentvice presidentialU.S. Vice President
Incumbent Vice President John Adams of the Federalist Party defeated former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party.
In the election of 1796, Federalist John Adams won the presidency, but his bitter rival, Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson came second and became vice president.

United States Electoral College

Electoral Collegepresidential electorelectoral votes
Under the electoral rules in place prior to the 1804 ratification of the Twelfth Amendment, the members of the Electoral College each cast two votes, with no distinction made between electoral votes for president and electoral votes for vice president.
The emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated election campaigns soon complicated matters in the elections of 1796 and 1800.

Democratic-Republican Party

Democratic-RepublicanDemocratic-RepublicansRepublican
Incumbent Vice President John Adams of the Federalist Party defeated former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party.
They included Thomas Jefferson (nominated 1796; elected 1800–1801, 1804), James Madison (1808, 1812) and James Monroe (1816, 1820).

Thomas Pinckney

General Thomas PinckneyPinckney, ThomasThomas
Former Governor Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina, a Federalist, finished with 59 electoral votes, while Senator Aaron Burr, a Democratic-Republican from New York, won 30 electoral votes.
He was also the Federalist candidate for vice president in the 1796 election.

Federalist Party

FederalistFederalistsF
Incumbent Vice President John Adams of the Federalist Party defeated former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party.
The election of 1796 was the first partisan affair in the nation's history and one of the more scurrilous in terms of newspaper attacks.

Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Twelfth Amendment12th Amendment12th Amendment to the US Constitution
Under the electoral rules in place prior to the 1804 ratification of the Twelfth Amendment, the members of the Electoral College each cast two votes, with no distinction made between electoral votes for president and electoral votes for vice president.
The experiences of the 1796 and 1800 presidential elections spurred legislators to amend the presidential election process, requiring each member of the Electoral College to cast one electoral vote for president and one electoral vote for vice president.

Mid-Atlantic (United States)

Mid-AtlanticMid-Atlantic regionmid-Atlantic states
Adams won by sweeping the electoral votes of New England and winning votes from several other swing states, especially the states of the Mid-Atlantic region.

Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
Republicans sought to associate Adams with the policies developed by fellow Federalist Alexander Hamilton during the Washington administration, which they declaimed were too much in favor of Great Britain and a centralized national government.
In the election of 1796, under the Constitution as it stood then, each of the presidential electors had two votes, which they were to cast for different men.

Oliver Ellsworth

EllsworthEllsworth, OliverJemima (Leavitt) Ellsworth
Pinckney won the second votes from a majority of the electors who voted for Adams, but 21 electors from New England and Maryland cast their second votes for other candidates, including Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth.
Additionally, Ellsworth received 11 electoral votes in the 1796 presidential election.

Jay Treaty

Jay's Treatytreatyagreed
In foreign policy, Republicans denounced the Federalists over the Jay Treaty, which had established a temporary peace with Great Britain.
After defeat on the treaty in Congress, the Jeffersonian Republicans lost the 1796 presidential election on the issue.

James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James Madison
The Democratic-Republicans united behind former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, who had co-founded the party with James Madison and others in opposition to the policies of Hamilton.
In advance of the 1796 presidential election, Madison helped convince Jefferson to run for the presidency.

John Quincy Adams

AdamsJohn QuincyJ. Q. Adams
The following four years would be the only time that the president and vice-president were from different parties (John Quincy Adams and John C. Calhoun would later be elected president and vice-president as political opponents, but they were both Democratic-Republican party candidates; Andrew Johnson, Abraham Lincoln's second vice-president, was a Democrat, but Lincoln ran on a combined National Union Party ticket in 1864, not as a strict Republican).
Later in that same year, John Adams defeated Jefferson in the 1796 presidential election.

1800 United States presidential election

18001800 presidential electionelection of 1800
However, no action was taken on his proposal, setting the stage for the deadlocked election of 1800.
Adams had narrowly defeated Jefferson in the 1796 election.

1796 and 1797 United States Senate elections

1796elected1796 (Special)
United States Senate elections, 1796 and 1797
The United States Senate elections of 1796 and 1797 were elections for the United States Senate which, coinciding with John Adams's election as President, had the ruling Federalist Party gain one seat.

George Clinton (vice president)

George ClintonGovernor George ClintonClinton
Popular choices included Senator Pierce Butler of South Carolina and three New Yorkers: Senator Aaron Burr, Chancellor Robert R. Livingston, and former Governor George Clinton, the party's 1792 candidate for vice president.
Some Democratic-Republican party leaders attempted to recruit him to run for vice president in 1796 election, but Clinton refused to run and party leaders instead turned to another New Yorker, Aaron Burr.

History of the United States (1789–1849)

antebellumantebellum periodAntebellum Era
History of the United States (1789-1849)
Adams defeated Jefferson in the 1796 presidential election, who as the runner-up became Vice President under the operation of the Electoral College of that time.

First Party System

first political partiesparty politicsparty system
The election marked the formation of the First Party System, and established a rivalry between Federalist New England and Democratic-Republican South, with the middle states holding the balance of power (New York and Maryland were the crucial swing states, and between them only voted for a loser once between 1789 and 1820).

Samuel Adams

Sam AdamsSamuelAdams
In Virginia, most electors voted for Jefferson and Governor Samuel Adams of Massachusetts.
In that year's U. S. presidential election, Republicans in Virginia cast 15 electoral votes for Adams in an effort to make him Jefferson's vice-president, but Federalist John Adams won the election, with Jefferson becoming vice-president.

Inauguration of John Adams

sworn ininauguration of President John AdamsJohn Adams's inauguration
Inauguration of John Adams
United States presidential election, 1796

Thomas Jefferson

JeffersonPresident JeffersonJeffersonian
Incumbent Vice President John Adams of the Federalist Party defeated former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party. The Democratic-Republicans united behind former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, who had co-founded the party with James Madison and others in opposition to the policies of Hamilton.
Previously, he had been elected the second vice president of the United States, serving under John Adams from 1797 to 1801.

George Washington

WashingtonGeneral WashingtonPresident Washington
With incumbent President George Washington having refused a third term in office, the 1796 election became the first U.S. presidential election in which political parties competed for the presidency.

United States House of Representatives

U.S. RepresentativeHouse of RepresentativesU.S. House of Representatives
In order to be elected president, the winning candidate had to win the votes of a majority of electors; should no individual win a majority, the House of Representatives would hold a contingent election.