1838 Mormon War

Mormon WarMissouri Mormon WarMormon War (1838)Gallatin Election Day Battle1838 Missouri Mormon WarMormon War of 1838violent conflicts1838 Mormon War: Backgroundanimosityburned and looted Davies County
The 1838 Mormon War, also known as the Missouri Mormon War, was a conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons in Missouri from August to November 1838, the first of the three "Mormon Wars".wikipedia
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Gallatin, Missouri

GallatinGallatin †Gallatin, MO
On August 6, 1838, the war began following a brawl at an election in Gallatin, resulting in increased organized violence between Mormons and non-Mormons backed by the Missouri Volunteer Militia in northwestern Missouri.
The Gallatin Election Day Battle took place on 6 August 1838.

Missouri

MOState of MissouriMissouri, USA
The 1838 Mormon War, also known as the Missouri Mormon War, was a conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons in Missouri from August to November 1838, the first of the three "Mormon Wars".
The Mormon War erupted in 1838.

Jackson County, Missouri

Jackson CountyJacksonMissouri
Members of the Latter Day Saint movement, founded by Joseph Smith, had gradually migrated from New York to northwestern Missouri since 1831, mainly settling in Jackson County, where tensions with non-Mormon residents led to episodes of anti-Mormon violence. Shortly after what Mormons consider to be the restoration of the gospel in 1830, Smith stated he had received a revelation that the Second Coming of Christ was near, that the City of Zion would be near the town of Independence in Jackson County, Missouri, and that his followers were destined to inherit the land held by the current settlers.
By mid-1839, following the Missouri Mormon War, Mormons were driven from the state altogether, not to return to Jackson County or Missouri in significant numbers until 1867.

Battle of Crooked River

at Crooked Creekattacked and killed members of the Missouri state militiaBattle of Crooked Creek
The Battle of Crooked River in late October led to Lilburn Boggs, the Governor of Missouri, issuing the Missouri Executive Order 44 ordering the Mormons to leave Missouri or be killed.
The battle was one of the principal points of conflict in the 1838 Missouri Mormon War.

Missouri Executive Order 44

Extermination Orderan executive orderExecutive Order 44
The Battle of Crooked River in late October led to Lilburn Boggs, the Governor of Missouri, issuing the Missouri Executive Order 44 ordering the Mormons to leave Missouri or be killed.
The order was issued in the aftermath of the Battle of Crooked River, a clash between Mormons and a unit of the Missouri State Militia in northern Ray County, Missouri, during the 1838 Mormon War.

Caldwell County, Missouri

Caldwell CountyCaldwell Caldwell County, Missouri
In an effort to keep the peace, Alexander William Doniphan of Clay County pushed a law through the Missouri legislature that created Caldwell County, Missouri, specifically for Mormon settlement in 1836.
The county was one of the principal settings of the 1838 Missouri Mormon War, which led to the expulsion of all Latter Day Saints from Missouri, following the issuance of an "extermination order" by then–Governor Lilburn Boggs.

Joseph Smith

Joseph Smith, Jr.Joseph Smith Jr.Joseph
Members of the Latter Day Saint movement, founded by Joseph Smith, had gradually migrated from New York to northwestern Missouri since 1831, mainly settling in Jackson County, where tensions with non-Mormon residents led to episodes of anti-Mormon violence.
On August 6, 1838, non-Mormons in Gallatin tried to prevent Mormons from voting, and the election-day scuffles initiated the 1838 Mormon War.

Independence, Missouri

IndependenceIndependence, MOIndependence †
Shortly after what Mormons consider to be the restoration of the gospel in 1830, Smith stated he had received a revelation that the Second Coming of Christ was near, that the City of Zion would be near the town of Independence in Jackson County, Missouri, and that his followers were destined to inherit the land held by the current settlers.
Tension grew with local Missourians until the Latter Day Saints were driven from the area in 1833, the beginning of a conflict which culminated in the 1838 Mormon War.

Nauvoo, Illinois

NauvooCommerce, IllinoisCommerce
Smith was charged for treason but escaped in custody and fled to Illinois with the remainder of the estimated 10,000 Missouri Mormons, establishing the new settlement of Nauvoo.
In late 1839, arriving Latter Day Saints bought the small town of Commerce and in April 1840 it was renamed Nauvoo by Joseph Smith, who led the Latter Day Saints to Nauvoo to escape conflict with the state government in Missouri.

Lilburn Boggs

Lilburn W. BoggsGovernor BoggsGovernor Bogg
The Battle of Crooked River in late October led to Lilburn Boggs, the Governor of Missouri, issuing the Missouri Executive Order 44 ordering the Mormons to leave Missouri or be killed.
A response to the escalating threats and violence in what came to be known as the Missouri 1838 Mormon War, this executive order was issued on October 27, 1838 and called for Latter Day Saints (Mormons) to be driven from the state, by dint of what he termed their

Alexander William Doniphan

Alexander DoniphanAlexander W. DoniphanDoniphan
In an effort to keep the peace, Alexander William Doniphan of Clay County pushed a law through the Missouri legislature that created Caldwell County, Missouri, specifically for Mormon settlement in 1836.
Alexander William Doniphan (July 9, 1808 – August 8, 1887 ) was a 19th-century American attorney, soldier and politician from Missouri who is best known today as the man who prevented the summary execution of Joseph Smith, founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, at the close of the 1838 Mormon War in that state.

Daviess County, Missouri

Daviess CountyDaviessDaviess Counties
Mormons established new colonies outside of Caldwell County, including Adam-ondi-Ahman in Daviess County and De Witt in Carroll County.
Non-Mormon residents feared they were going to lose control of the county and attempted to prevent Mormons from voting in the Gallatin Election Day Battle.

Adam-ondi-Ahman

Adam-ondi-Ahman, Missouriholy place of the same name
Mormons established new colonies outside of Caldwell County, including Adam-ondi-Ahman in Daviess County and De Witt in Carroll County.
Such efforts were halted in the 19th century as a result of the 1838 Mormon War to evict the Latter Day Saints from Missouri.

Anti-Mormonism

anti-Mormonanti-MormonsAnti-Mormon sentiment
Members of the Latter Day Saint movement, founded by Joseph Smith, had gradually migrated from New York to northwestern Missouri since 1831, mainly settling in Jackson County, where tensions with non-Mormon residents led to episodes of anti-Mormon violence.
These differences culminated in the Missouri Mormon War and the eventual issuing of an executive order (since called the extermination order within the LDS community) by Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs, which declared that "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State."

Sampson Avard

At the same time Mormons, including Sampson Avard, began to organize a secret society known as the Danites, whose purposes included obeying the church presidency "right or wrong" and expelling the dissenters from Caldwell County.
Sampson Avard (October 23, 1800 – April 15, 1869) was one of the founders and leaders of the Mormon vigilantes known as the Danites, which existed in Missouri during the Missouri Mormon War in 1838.

Elders' Journal

Liahona The Elders' JournalThe Elders' Journal
According to an article in the Elders' Journal – a Latter Day Saint newspaper published in Far West – "The Saints here are at perfect peace with all the surrounding inhabitants, and persecution is not so much as once named among them..."
Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon relocated to a new headquarters in Far West and continued to publish the Elders' Journal until the events of the 1838 Mormon War in Missouri prevented further operations in the state.

Danite

DanitesDanite Manifestoan 1857 speech
At the same time Mormons, including Sampson Avard, began to organize a secret society known as the Danites, whose purposes included obeying the church presidency "right or wrong" and expelling the dissenters from Caldwell County.
During their period of organization in Missouri, the Danites operated as a vigilante group and took a central role in the events of the 1838 Mormon War.

David Rice Atchison

David R. AtchisonDavid AtchisonAtchison
Parks wrote his superior, General David Rice Atchison, that "a word from his Excellency would have more power to quell this affair than a regiment."
Atchison served as a major general in the Missouri State Militia in 1838 during Missouri's Mormon War and as a Confederate brigadier general during the American Civil War under Major General Sterling Price in the Missouri Home Guard.

W. Claude Jones

William C. JonesWilliam Claude Jones
On August 19, 1838, Mormon settler Smith Humphrey reports that 100 armed men led by Colonel William Claude Jones took him prisoner for two hours and threatened him and the rest of the Mormon community.
He also became a colonel in the local militia, seeing limited service related to the aftermath of the 1838 Mormon War.

Zion (Latter Day Saints)

ZionCity of ZionPlat of Zion
Shortly after what Mormons consider to be the restoration of the gospel in 1830, Smith stated he had received a revelation that the Second Coming of Christ was near, that the City of Zion would be near the town of Independence in Jackson County, Missouri, and that his followers were destined to inherit the land held by the current settlers.
The Latter Day Saints were finally driven from Missouri in 1838 as a consequence of the Mormon War and Governor Lilburn Boggs' Extermination Order.

David Whitmer

David
At the same time, a leadership struggle between the church presidency and Missouri leaders led to the excommunication of several high-placed Mormon leaders, including Oliver Cowdery (one of the Three Witnesses and the church's original "second elder"), David Whitmer (another of the Three Witnesses and Stake President of the Missouri Church), as well as John Whitmer, Hiram Page, William Wines Phelps and others.
Tensions escalated, bringing about the 1838 Mormon War after which Governor Boggs issued Missouri Executive Order 44 (AKA Extermination Order) in October 1838 authorizing deadly force in the removal of Mormons.

Mormons

MormonLDSMormon community
The 1838 Mormon War, also known as the Missouri Mormon War, was a conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons in Missouri from August to November 1838, the first of the three "Mormon Wars".
During the fall of 1838, tensions escalated into the Mormon War with the old Missouri settlers.

Samuel Bogart

A Militia under the command of Samuel Bogart was authorized by General Atchison to patrol the no-man's land between Ray and Caldwell Counties known as "Bunkham's Strip" – an unincorporated territory 6 mi east to west and 1 mi north to south.
Samuel Bogart (2 April 1797 – 11 March 1861) was an itinerant Methodist minister and militia captain from Ray County, Missouri who played a prominent role in the 1838 Missouri Mormon War before later moving to Collin County, Texas, where he became a Texas Ranger and a member of the Texas State Legislature.

De Witt, Missouri

De Witt
Mormons established new colonies outside of Caldwell County, including Adam-ondi-Ahman in Daviess County and De Witt in Carroll County.
* Mormon War (1838): Mormons expelled from De Witt

Oliver Cowdery

Oliver H. P. Cowdery
At the same time, a leadership struggle between the church presidency and Missouri leaders led to the excommunication of several high-placed Mormon leaders, including Oliver Cowdery (one of the Three Witnesses and the church's original "second elder"), David Whitmer (another of the Three Witnesses and Stake President of the Missouri Church), as well as John Whitmer, Hiram Page, William Wines Phelps and others.
Reports about their treatment circulated in nearby non-Mormon communities and increased the tension that led to the 1838 Mormon War.