Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
The Roosevelt coat of arms as displayed on Theodore Roosevelt's bookplate, featuring three roses in a meadow (in reference to the family name, which means "rose field" in Dutch).
Campaign poster promoting Democratic nominee William J. Bryan
6-year-old Theodore and 5-year-old Elliott watch Lincoln's funeral procession from the second-floor window of their grandfather's mansion (at top left, facing the camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865
McKinley campaigns on gold coin (gold standard) with support from soldiers, businessmen, farmers and professionals, claiming to restore prosperity at home and victory abroad
Roosevelt's taxidermy kit
The German-American vote in 1900 was in doubt since they opposed both Bryan's "repudiation" policy and overseas "expansion" under McKinley.
Roosevelt's birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in Manhattan, New York City
Map of presidential election results by county
Roosevelt as New York State Assemblyman, 1883
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
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NYC Police Commissioner Roosevelt walks the beat with journalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Illustration from Riis's autobiography.
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
The Asiatic Squadron destroying the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Map of Democratic presidential election results by county
Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill in Cuba in July 1898, along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
Map of "other" presidential election results by county
Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Roosevelt driving through a sequoia tree tunnel
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
1904 election results
Roosevelt family at Oyster Bay, circa 1903
Roosevelt shortly after leaving office, October 1910
Roosevelt standing next to the elephant he shot on safari
Punch depicts no-holds-barred fight between Taft and Roosevelt
Roosevelt campaigning for president, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after the assassination attempt, showing the bullet that would remain inside his body for life
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, New York City
From left to right (seated): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Grave at Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Part of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's Long Island estate
"The Man of the Hour" Roosevelt as Warrior in 1898 and Peacemaker in 1905 settling war between Russia and Japan
1910 cartoon showing Roosevelt's many roles from 1899 to 1910
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.

As Vice President Garret Hobart had died in 1899, the Republican convention chose New York Governor Theodore Roosevelt as McKinley's running mate.

- 1900 United States presidential election

The New York state party leadership disliked his ambitious agenda and convinced McKinley to make Roosevelt his running mate in the 1900 election.

- Theodore Roosevelt
Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904

6 related topics

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William Jennings Bryan

American lawyer, orator and politician.

American lawyer, orator and politician.

Bryan's birthplace in Salem, Illinois
Attorney Mary Baird Bryan, the wife of William Jennings Bryan
A young Bryan
"UNITED SNAKES OF AMERICA" "IN BRYAN WE TRUST" political satire token of 1896, known as "Bryan Money"
Bryan campaigning for president, October 1896
1896 electoral vote results
The United States and its colonial possessions after the Spanish–American War
Conservatives in 1900 ridiculed Bryan's eclectic platform.
1900 electoral vote results
William J Bryan in 1906 as Moses with new 10 commandments; Puck 19 sept 1906 by Joseph Keppler. Tablet reads: l-Thou shalt have no other leaders before me. II—Thou shalt not make unto thyself any high Protective Tariff. Ill—Eight hours, and no more, shalt thou labor and do all thy work. IV—Thou shalt not graft. V—Thou shalt not elect thy Senators save by Popular Vote. VI—Thou shalt not grant rebates unto thy neighbor. VII—Thou shalt not make combinations in restraint of trade. VIII—Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's income, but shall make him pay a tax upon it. IX—There shall be no more government by injunction. X—Remember Election Day to vote it early. P.S.— When in doubt, ask Me.
Bryan speaking at the 1908 Democratic National Convention
Presidential Campaign button for Bryan
1908 electoral vote results
Bryan attending the 1912 Democratic National Convention
Bryan served as Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson
Cartoon of Secretary of State Bryan reading war news in 1914
Villa Serena, Bryan's home built in 1913 at Miami, Florida
Charles W. and William J. Bryan
At the Scopes Trial, William Jennings Bryan (seated, left) being questioned by Clarence Darrow (standing, right).
Statue of Bryan on the lawn of the Rhea County courthouse in Dayton, Tennessee

Beginning in 1896, he emerged as a dominant force in the Democratic Party, running three times as the party's nominee for President of the United States in the 1896, 1900, and the 1908 elections.

Bryan regained his stature in the party after Parker's resounding defeat by Theodore Roosevelt and voters from both parties increasingly embraced some of the progressive reforms that had long been championed by Bryan.

Grover Cleveland

American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and again from 1893 to 1897.

American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and again from 1893 to 1897.

Caldwell Presbyterian parsonage, birthplace of Grover Cleveland in Caldwell, New Jersey
An early, undated photograph of Grover Cleveland
Statue of Grover Cleveland outside City Hall in Buffalo, New York
Gubernatorial portrait of Grover Cleveland
An anti-Blaine cartoon presents him as the "tattooed man", with many indelible scandals.
An anti-Cleveland cartoon highlights the Halpin scandal.
Results of the 1884 election
Cleveland portrayed as a tariff reformer
Henry L. Dawes wrote the Dawes Act, which Cleveland signed into law.
Frances Folsom Cleveland circa 1886
Cleveland's first Cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Thomas F. Bayard, Cleveland, Daniel Manning, Lucius Q. C. Lamar
Back row, left to right: William F. Vilas, William C. Whitney, William C. Endicott, Augustus H. Garland
Chief Justice Melville Fuller
Poster President Cleveland and Vice-President of the United States, Allen G. Thurman of Ohio (1888).
Results of the 1888 Election
Results of the 1892 election
Caricature of Cleveland as anti-silver.
Cleveland's humiliation by Gorman and the sugar trust
John T. Morgan, Senator from Alabama, opposed Cleveland on Free Silver, the tariff, and the Hawaii treaty, saying of Cleveland that "I hate the ground that man walks on."
His Little Hawaiian Game Checkmated, 1894
Official portrait of President Cleveland by Eastman Johnson, c. 1891
Cleveland's last Cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Daniel S. Lamont, Richard Olney, Cleveland, John G. Carlisle, Judson Harmon
Back row, left to right: David R. Francis, William Lyne Wilson, Hilary A. Herbert, Julius S. Morton
Cleveland in 1903 at age 66 by Frederick Gutekunst
Outgoing President Grover Cleveland, at right, stands nearby as William McKinley is sworn in as president by Chief Justice Melville Fuller.
$1000 Gold Certificate (1934) depicting Grover Cleveland
Cleveland postage stamp issued in 1923

Theodore Roosevelt, then a member of the Assembly, had reluctantly voted for the bill to which Cleveland objected, in a desire to punish the unscrupulous railroad barons.

Agrarians nominated Bryan again in 1900.

William McKinley

The 25th president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his assassination in 1901.

The 25th president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his assassination in 1901.

McKinley, aged 15
Rutherford B. Hayes was McKinley's mentor during and after the Civil War.
McKinley in 1865, just after the war, photograph by Mathew Brady
Ida Saxton McKinley
Katherine McKinley
Representative McKinley
'Judge' magazine cover from September 1890, showing McKinley (left) having helped dispatch Speaker Reed's opponent in early-voting Maine, hurrying off with the victor to McKinley's "jerrymandered" Ohio district
Even after his final run for president in 1884, James G. Blaine was still seen as a possible candidate for the Republican nomination. In this 1890 Puck cartoon, he is startling Reed and McKinley (right) as they make their plans for 1892.
McKinley's close friend and adviser, Mark Hanna
Louis Dalrymple cartoon from Puck magazine, June 24, 1896, showing McKinley about to crown himself with the Republican nomination. The "priests" are Hanna (in green) and Representative Charles H. Grosvenor (red); H. H. Kohlsaat is the page holding the robe.
Before the 1896 convention, McKinley tried to avoid coming down on one side or the other of the currency question. William Allen Rogers's cartoon from Harper's Weekly, June 1896, showing McKinley riding the rail of the currency question.
William and Ida McKinley (to her husband's left) pose with members of the "Flower Delegation" from Oil City, Pennsylvania, before the McKinley home. Although women could not vote in most states, they might influence male relatives and were encouraged to visit Canton.
A Man of Mark 1896 Homer Davenport cartoon of McKinley as Hanna's creature, from William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal
1896 Electoral vote results
Editorial cartoon intervention in Cuba. Columbia (the American people) reaches out to help oppressed Cuba in 1897 while Uncle Sam (the U.S. government) is blind to the crisis and will not use its powerful guns to help. Judge magazine, February 6, 1897.
Signing of the Treaty of Paris
Annexation of the Republic of Hawaii in 1898
American soldiers scale the walls of Beijing to relieve the siege of the International Legations, August 1900
1900 reelection poster with the theme that McKinley has returned prosperity to America
McKinley, (right of center) flanked by Georgia Governor Allen D. Candler (front row to McKinley's right) and Gen. William Rufus Shafter, reviewing the Atlanta Peace Jubilee parade, December 15, 1898
McKinley ran on his record of prosperity and victory in 1900, winning easy re-election over William Jennings Bryan.
McKinley entering the Temple of Music on September 6, 1901, shortly before the shots were fired
Artist's conception of the shooting of McKinley
The official Presidential portrait of William McKinley, by Harriet Anderson Stubbs Murphy
Chief Justice Melville Fuller swears in William McKinley as president; outgoing President Grover Cleveland at right
McKinley's tomb in Canton, Ohio
William McKinley Monument by Hermon MacNeil in front of the Ohio Statehouse, Columbus
McKinley Monument by Alexander Phimister Proctor in front of Buffalo City Hall, Buffalo
McKinley on the $500 bill
Louisiana Purchase Exposition stamp (1904) honoring McKinley, who had signed a bill authorizing a subsidy for that upcoming event
McKinley Monument in front of Lucas County Courthouse, Toledo

McKinley defeated Bryan again in the 1900 presidential election in a campaign focused on imperialism, protectionism, and free silver.

McKinley died eight days later and was succeeded by Vice President Theodore Roosevelt.

1896 United States presidential election

The 28th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1896.

The 28th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1896.

McKinley/Hobart campaign poster
Bryan's famous "cross of gold" speech gave him the presidential nomination and swung the party to the silver cause
The National "Gold" Democratic Convention
Palmer/Buckner campaign button
Conservatives said that Bryan (the Populist snake) was taking over (swallowing) the Democratic Party (the mule). Cartoon from "Judge" magazine, 1896.
Bryan's imposing voice and height made a deep impression on many who thronged to hear him.
Bryan traveled 18,000 miles in 3 months, concentrating on the critical states of the Midwest.
The National "Gold" Democratic Party undercut Bryan by dividing the Democratic vote and denouncing his platform.
Map of presidential election results by county
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Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Map of Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of "other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county
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To ensure victory, Hanna paid large numbers of Republican orators (including Theodore Roosevelt) to travel around the nation denouncing Bryan as a dangerous radical.

It was larger than the Democratic Party was to poll in 1900, 1904, or 1912.

George Dewey

Admiral of the Navy, the only person in United States history to have attained that rank.

Admiral of the Navy, the only person in United States history to have attained that rank.

Admiral Dewey as he appears at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
George Dewey
Detail of a painting in the Vermont State House depicting Dewey on the USS Olympia (C-6) during the Battle of Manila Bay
Dewey on the cover of an 1899 souvenir calendar
Mildred Hazen Dewey
Dewey in 1899 art from Puck, which was the first successful humor magazine in the United States
Dewey in special full dress uniform as Admiral of the Navy.

Dewey explored a run for the 1900 Democratic presidential nomination, but he withdrew from the race and endorsed President William McKinley.

Although Dewey was a long shot for the position, his friend Theodore Roosevelt arranged for President William McKinley to select Dewey over a more senior officer.

A late 19th century photograph of Filipino Katipuneros

Philippine–American War

Armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902.

Armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902.

A late 19th century photograph of Filipino Katipuneros
Emilio Aguinaldo in the field
Personifying the United States, Uncle Sam chases a bee representing Emilio Aguinaldo.
1899 political cartoon by Winsor McCay
1898 US political cartoon. U.S. President William McKinley is shown holding the Philippines, depicted as a native child, as the world looks on. The implied options for McKinley are to keep the Philippines, or give it back to Spain, which the cartoon compares to throwing a child off a cliff.
Philippines, Manila, 1899– U.S. soldiers and insurrecto prisoners
Filipino soldiers outside Manila in 1899
Wounded American soldiers at Santa Mesa, Manila in 1899
The Battle of Caloocan, February 10, 1899. Major General Arthur MacArthur with binoculars.
Utah Light Artillery in action in the Philippines, 1899
20th Kansas Volunteers marching through Caloocan at night, 1899
Photograph of Young's Scouts in the Philippines, including Medal of Honor recipients Marcus W. Robertson (2nd from right, front row squating) and Richard M. Longfellow (4th from right, front row squating)
Attack on the barracks of Company C of the 13th Minnesota Volunteers by Filipino forces during the Tondo Fire in Manila, 1899
Remnants of rifles used by Filipino soldiers during the war on display at the museum on Clark Air Base
A group of Filipino combatants laying down their weapons during their surrender, c. 1900
The 24th U.S. Infantry (primarily made up of African-American soldiers) at drill in Camp Walker, Cebu, 1902
Governor General William Howard Taft addressing the audience at the Philippine Assembly in the Manila Grand Opera House, October 16, 1907
Captain Cornelius C. Smith, a Medal of Honor recipient, with members of the 14th Cavalry Regiment in 1904
General Jacob H. Smith's infamous order "KILL EVERY ONE OVER TEN" became the caption in the New York Journal cartoon on May 5, 1902. The Old Glory draped an American shield on which a vulture replaced the bald eagle. The caption at the bottom proclaimed, "Criminals Because They Were Born Ten Years Before We Took the Philippines".
1902 Life magazine cover, depicting water curing by U.S. Army troops in the Philippines
Emilio Aguinaldo's quarters in Manila following his capture by the Americans.
American troops guarding the bridge over the Pasig River
Aguinaldo (seated 3d from right) and other insurgent leaders., ca. 1900
Manuel L. Quezón, the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines (from 1935 to 1944) and former revolutionary military commander

The hope was to inflict enough American casualties to result in McKinley's defeat by William Jennings Bryan in the 1900 presidential election.

On July 4, Theodore Roosevelt, who had succeeded to the U.S. presidency after the assassination of President McKinley on September 5, 1901, proclaimed a full and complete pardon and amnesty to all persons in the Philippine archipelago who had participated in the conflict.