Taft in 1909
Yale College photograph of Taft
Sultan Jamalul Kiram II with William Howard Taft of the Philippine Commission in Jolo, Sulu (March 27, 1901)
The aging and balding "Boy Orator of the Platte" delivers a speech.
Roosevelt introduces Taft as his crown prince: Puck magazine cover cartoon, 1906.
Map of presidential election results by county
One of a series of candid photographs known as the Evolution of a Smile, taken just after a formal portrait session, as Taft learns by telephone from Roosevelt of his nomination for president.
Roosevelt handing over his policies to his political protégé, William H. Taft.
1908 Taft/Sherman poster
1908 electoral vote results
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1909 inauguration
William J Bryan in 1906 as Moses with new 10 commandments; Puck 19 sept 1906 by Joseph Keppler. Tablet reads: l-Thou shalt have no other leaders before me. II—Thou shalt not make unto thyself any high Protective Tariff. Ill—Eight hours, and no more, shalt thou labor and do all thy work. IV—Thou shalt not graft. V—Thou shalt not elect thy Senators save by Popular Vote. VI—Thou shalt not grant rebates unto thy neighbor. VII—Thou shalt not make combinations in restraint of trade. VIII—Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's income, but shall make him pay a tax upon it. IX—There shall be no more government by injunction. X—Remember Election Day to vote it early. P.S.— When in doubt, ask Me.
Newton McConnell cartoon showing Canadian suspicions that Taft and others were only interested in Canada when prosperous.
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Taft and Porfirio Díaz, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, 1909
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Official White House portrait of Taft by Anders Zorn, c. 1911
Map of Democratic presidential election results by county
Taft promoted Associate Justice Edward Douglass White to be Chief Justice of the United States.
Map of "other" presidential election results by county
1909 Puck magazine cover: Roosevelt departs, entrusting his policies to Taft
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Taft with Archibald Butt (second from right)
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Taft and Roosevelt – political enemies in 1912
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Campaign advertisement arguing Taft deserved a second term
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county
Electoral vote by state, 1912. States won by Taft are in red.
Taft-Sherman postcard
Taft (left) with President Warren G. Harding and Robert Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial, May 30, 1922
Collier's magazine cover
Chief Justice Taft, c. 1921
Humorous postcard
The U.S. Supreme Court in 1925. Taft is seated in the bottom row, middle.
John Johnson ribbon
Time cover, June 30, 1924
Taft-Sherman postcard with U.S. Capitol
Taft insisted that Charles Evans Hughes succeed him as chief justice.
Bryan-Kern postcard with U.S. Capitol
Taft's headstone at Arlington National Cemetery
Four-cent stamp issued for Taft (1930)

Taft was elected president in 1908, the chosen successor of Theodore Roosevelt, but was defeated for reelection in 1912 by Woodrow Wilson after Roosevelt split the Republican vote by running as a third-party candidate.

- William Howard Taft

Secretary of War and Republican Party nominee William Howard Taft defeated three-time Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan.

- 1908 United States presidential election
Taft in 1909

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Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904

Theodore Roosevelt

American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
The Roosevelt coat of arms as displayed on Theodore Roosevelt's bookplate, featuring three roses in a meadow (in reference to the family name, which means "rose field" in Dutch).
6-year-old Theodore and 5-year-old Elliott watch Lincoln's funeral procession from the second-floor window of their grandfather's mansion (at top left, facing the camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865
Roosevelt's taxidermy kit
Roosevelt's birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in Manhattan, New York City
Roosevelt as New York State Assemblyman, 1883
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
NYC Police Commissioner Roosevelt walks the beat with journalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Illustration from Riis's autobiography.
The Asiatic Squadron destroying the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill in Cuba in July 1898, along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent
Roosevelt driving through a sequoia tree tunnel
The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
1904 election results
Roosevelt family at Oyster Bay, circa 1903
Roosevelt shortly after leaving office, October 1910
Roosevelt standing next to the elephant he shot on safari
Punch depicts no-holds-barred fight between Taft and Roosevelt
Roosevelt campaigning for president, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after the assassination attempt, showing the bullet that would remain inside his body for life
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, New York City
From left to right (seated): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Grave at Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Part of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's Long Island estate
"The Man of the Hour" Roosevelt as Warrior in 1898 and Peacemaker in 1905 settling war between Russia and Japan
1910 cartoon showing Roosevelt's many roles from 1899 to 1910
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.

He groomed his close friend William Howard Taft to succeed him in the 1908 presidential election.

1912 United States presidential election

The 32nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1912.

The 32nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1912.

A Punch cartoon by Leonard Raven-Hill, depicting the perceived aggression between Taft and Roosevelt.
Progressive convention, 1912
Eugene V. Debs's popular vote results were the highest for the Socialist party.
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302x302px
Results by state
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Wilson
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Taft
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Debs
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for all others including Debs
A continuous cartogram of the 1912 United States presidential election
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for Wilson
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for Taft
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for all others

Democratic Governor Woodrow Wilson unseated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and defeated former President Theodore Roosevelt, who ran under the banner of the new Progressive or "Bull Moose" Party.

Republican President Theodore Roosevelt had declined to run for re-election in 1908 in fulfillment of a pledge to the American people not to seek a third term.

Portrait by Harris & Ewing, 1919

Woodrow Wilson

American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921.

American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921.

Portrait by Harris & Ewing, 1919
Wilson, c. undefined mid-1870s
Ellen Wilson in 1912
Wilson in 1902
Prospect House, Wilson's home on Princeton's campus
Governor Wilson, 1911
Results of the 1910 gubernatorial election in New Jersey. Wilson won the counties in blue.
1912 electoral vote map
Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet (1918)
Wilson giving his first State of the Union address, the first such address since 1801
Map of Federal Reserve Districts–black circles, Federal Reserve Banks–black squares, District branches–red circles and Washington HQ–star/black circle
In a 1913 cartoon, Wilson primes the economic pump with tariff, currency and antitrust laws
Official presidential portrait of Woodrow Wilson (1913)
Uncle Sam entering Mexico in 1916 to punish Pancho Villa. Uncle Sam says "I've had about enough of this."
Wilson and "Jingo", the American War Dog. The editorial cartoon ridicules jingoes baying for war.
The Wilson family
Wilson accepts the Democratic Party nomination, 1916
1916 electoral vote map
Map of the great powers and their empires in 1914
Liberty Loan drive in front of City Hall, New Orleans. On City Hall is a banner reading "Food will win the war—don't waste it".
Women workers in ordnance shops, Pennsylvania, 1918
The "Big Four" at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, following the end of World War I. Wilson is standing next to Georges Clemenceau at right.
Several new European states were established at the Paris Peace Conference
Wilson returning from the Versailles Peace Conference, 1919.
June 3, 1919, Newspapers of the 1919 bombings
Republican nominee Warren G. Harding defeated Democratic nominee James Cox in the 1920 election
The final resting place of Woodrow Wilson at the Washington National Cathedral
Quotation from Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People as reproduced in the film The Birth of a Nation.
World War I draft card, the lower left corner to be removed by men of African background to help keep the military segregated
Political cartoon published in New York Evening Mail about the East St. Louis riots of 1917. Original caption reads "Mr. President, why not make America safe for democracy?"
1934 $100,000 gold certificate depicting Wilson.
Stamps memorializing Wilson
Woodrow Wilson Monument in Prague

Wilson defeated incumbent Republican William Howard Taft and third-party nominee Theodore Roosevelt to easily win the 1912 United States presidential election, becoming the first Southerner to do so since 1848.

Though Republican William Howard Taft had carried New Jersey in the 1908 presidential election by more than 82,000 votes, Wilson soundly defeated Republican gubernatorial nominee Vivian M. Lewis by a margin of more than 65,000 votes.

William Jennings Bryan

American lawyer, orator and politician.

American lawyer, orator and politician.

Bryan's birthplace in Salem, Illinois
Attorney Mary Baird Bryan, the wife of William Jennings Bryan
A young Bryan
"UNITED SNAKES OF AMERICA" "IN BRYAN WE TRUST" political satire token of 1896, known as "Bryan Money"
Bryan campaigning for president, October 1896
1896 electoral vote results
The United States and its colonial possessions after the Spanish–American War
Conservatives in 1900 ridiculed Bryan's eclectic platform.
1900 electoral vote results
William J Bryan in 1906 as Moses with new 10 commandments; Puck 19 sept 1906 by Joseph Keppler. Tablet reads: l-Thou shalt have no other leaders before me. II—Thou shalt not make unto thyself any high Protective Tariff. Ill—Eight hours, and no more, shalt thou labor and do all thy work. IV—Thou shalt not graft. V—Thou shalt not elect thy Senators save by Popular Vote. VI—Thou shalt not grant rebates unto thy neighbor. VII—Thou shalt not make combinations in restraint of trade. VIII—Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's income, but shall make him pay a tax upon it. IX—There shall be no more government by injunction. X—Remember Election Day to vote it early. P.S.— When in doubt, ask Me.
Bryan speaking at the 1908 Democratic National Convention
Presidential Campaign button for Bryan
1908 electoral vote results
Bryan attending the 1912 Democratic National Convention
Bryan served as Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson
Cartoon of Secretary of State Bryan reading war news in 1914
Villa Serena, Bryan's home built in 1913 at Miami, Florida
Charles W. and William J. Bryan
At the Scopes Trial, William Jennings Bryan (seated, left) being questioned by Clarence Darrow (standing, right).
Statue of Bryan on the lawn of the Rhea County courthouse in Dayton, Tennessee

Beginning in 1896, he emerged as a dominant force in the Democratic Party, running three times as the party's nominee for President of the United States in the 1896, 1900, and the 1908 elections.

Bryan won his party's nomination in the 1908 presidential election, but he was defeated by Roosevelt's chosen successor, William Howard Taft.

Philander C. Knox

American lawyer, bank director and politician.

American lawyer, bank director and politician.

Knox's house in Brownsville
Philander Knox and his wife in 1911
Philander Knox in 1919
Philander Knox in 1911
Philander Knox in 1917
Woodrow Wilson, Warren G. Harding, Joseph Gurney Cannon, and Knox on March 4, 1921
Exterior of home of Senator Philander Knox, 1527 K Street, NW, Washington, DC
Office in Senator Philander Knox house in Washington, DC
Staircase in home of Senator Philander Knox
Dining hall in home of Senator Philander Knox

In 1909, President William Howard Taft appointed Knox to the position of United States Secretary of State.

Knox made an unsuccessful bid for the Republican Party nomination in the 1908 U.S. presidential election.

James S. Sherman

Bust of Sherman by Bessie Potter Vonnoh, 1911

James Schoolcraft Sherman (October 24, 1855 – October 30, 1912) was an American politician who was a United States representative from New York from 1887 to 1891 and 1893 to 1909, and the 27th vice president of the United States under President William Howard Taft from 1909 until his death in 1912.

In 1908, Sherman was nominated as the Republican candidate for Vice President on the ticket with William Howard Taft.