Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
The Roosevelt coat of arms as displayed on Theodore Roosevelt's bookplate, featuring three roses in a meadow (in reference to the family name, which means "rose field" in Dutch).
A Punch cartoon by Leonard Raven-Hill, depicting the perceived aggression between Taft and Roosevelt.
6-year-old Theodore and 5-year-old Elliott watch Lincoln's funeral procession from the second-floor window of their grandfather's mansion (at top left, facing the camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865
Progressive convention, 1912
Roosevelt's taxidermy kit
Eugene V. Debs's popular vote results were the highest for the Socialist party.
Roosevelt's birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in Manhattan, New York City
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Roosevelt as New York State Assemblyman, 1883
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Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
NYC Police Commissioner Roosevelt walks the beat with journalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Illustration from Riis's autobiography.
Results by state
The Asiatic Squadron destroying the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Wilson
Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill in Cuba in July 1898, along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Taft
Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Debs
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for all others including Debs
Roosevelt driving through a sequoia tree tunnel
A continuous cartogram of the 1912 United States presidential election
The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for Wilson
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for Taft
1904 election results
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for all others
Roosevelt family at Oyster Bay, circa 1903
Roosevelt shortly after leaving office, October 1910
Roosevelt standing next to the elephant he shot on safari
Punch depicts no-holds-barred fight between Taft and Roosevelt
Roosevelt campaigning for president, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after the assassination attempt, showing the bullet that would remain inside his body for life
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, New York City
From left to right (seated): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Grave at Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Part of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's Long Island estate
"The Man of the Hour" Roosevelt as Warrior in 1898 and Peacemaker in 1905 settling war between Russia and Japan
1910 cartoon showing Roosevelt's many roles from 1899 to 1910
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.

Democratic Governor Woodrow Wilson unseated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and defeated former President Theodore Roosevelt, who ran under the banner of the new Progressive or "Bull Moose" Party.

- 1912 United States presidential election

He ran in the 1912 presidential election and the split allowed the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson to win the election.

- Theodore Roosevelt
Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904

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The bull moose was the party's official mascot

Progressive Party (United States, 1912)

10 links

The bull moose was the party's official mascot
The 1912 Progressive National Convention at the Chicago Coliseum
Theodore Roosevelt was the founder of the Progressive Party and thus is often associated with the party
16-page campaign booklet with the platform of the new Progressive Party
Roosevelt mixing ideologies in his speeches in this 1912 editorial cartoon by Karl K. Knecht (1883–1972) in the Evansville Courier
Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson after nomination
Pro-Roosevelt cartoon contrasts the Republican Party bosses in back row and Progressive Party reformers in front

The Progressive Party was a third party in the United States formed in 1912 by former president Theodore Roosevelt after he lost the presidential nomination of the Republican Party to his former protégé rival, incumbent president William Howard Taft.

After the party's defeat in the 1912 presidential election, it went into rapid decline in elections until 1918, disappearing by 1920.

Taft in 1909

William Howard Taft

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The 27th president of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth chief justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.

The 27th president of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth chief justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.

Taft in 1909
Yale College photograph of Taft
Sultan Jamalul Kiram II with William Howard Taft of the Philippine Commission in Jolo, Sulu (March 27, 1901)
Roosevelt introduces Taft as his crown prince: Puck magazine cover cartoon, 1906.
One of a series of candid photographs known as the Evolution of a Smile, taken just after a formal portrait session, as Taft learns by telephone from Roosevelt of his nomination for president.
1908 Taft/Sherman poster
1908 electoral vote results
1909 inauguration
Newton McConnell cartoon showing Canadian suspicions that Taft and others were only interested in Canada when prosperous.
Taft and Porfirio Díaz, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, 1909
Official White House portrait of Taft by Anders Zorn, c. 1911
Taft promoted Associate Justice Edward Douglass White to be Chief Justice of the United States.
1909 Puck magazine cover: Roosevelt departs, entrusting his policies to Taft
Taft with Archibald Butt (second from right)
Taft and Roosevelt – political enemies in 1912
Campaign advertisement arguing Taft deserved a second term
Electoral vote by state, 1912. States won by Taft are in red.
Taft (left) with President Warren G. Harding and Robert Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial, May 30, 1922
Chief Justice Taft, c. 1921
The U.S. Supreme Court in 1925. Taft is seated in the bottom row, middle.
Time cover, June 30, 1924
Taft insisted that Charles Evans Hughes succeed him as chief justice.
Taft's headstone at Arlington National Cemetery
Four-cent stamp issued for Taft (1930)

Taft was elected president in 1908, the chosen successor of Theodore Roosevelt, but was defeated for reelection in 1912 by Woodrow Wilson after Roosevelt split the Republican vote by running as a third-party candidate.

Portrait by Harris & Ewing, 1919

Woodrow Wilson

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American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921.

American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921.

Portrait by Harris & Ewing, 1919
Wilson, c. undefined mid-1870s
Ellen Wilson in 1912
Wilson in 1902
Prospect House, Wilson's home on Princeton's campus
Governor Wilson, 1911
Results of the 1910 gubernatorial election in New Jersey. Wilson won the counties in blue.
1912 electoral vote map
Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet (1918)
Wilson giving his first State of the Union address, the first such address since 1801
Map of Federal Reserve Districts–black circles, Federal Reserve Banks–black squares, District branches–red circles and Washington HQ–star/black circle
In a 1913 cartoon, Wilson primes the economic pump with tariff, currency and antitrust laws
Official presidential portrait of Woodrow Wilson (1913)
Uncle Sam entering Mexico in 1916 to punish Pancho Villa. Uncle Sam says "I've had about enough of this."
Wilson and "Jingo", the American War Dog. The editorial cartoon ridicules jingoes baying for war.
The Wilson family
Wilson accepts the Democratic Party nomination, 1916
1916 electoral vote map
Map of the great powers and their empires in 1914
Liberty Loan drive in front of City Hall, New Orleans. On City Hall is a banner reading "Food will win the war—don't waste it".
Women workers in ordnance shops, Pennsylvania, 1918
The "Big Four" at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, following the end of World War I. Wilson is standing next to Georges Clemenceau at right.
Several new European states were established at the Paris Peace Conference
Wilson returning from the Versailles Peace Conference, 1919.
June 3, 1919, Newspapers of the 1919 bombings
Republican nominee Warren G. Harding defeated Democratic nominee James Cox in the 1920 election
The final resting place of Woodrow Wilson at the Washington National Cathedral
Quotation from Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People as reproduced in the film The Birth of a Nation.
World War I draft card, the lower left corner to be removed by men of African background to help keep the military segregated
Political cartoon published in New York Evening Mail about the East St. Louis riots of 1917. Original caption reads "Mr. President, why not make America safe for democracy?"
1934 $100,000 gold certificate depicting Wilson.
Stamps memorializing Wilson
Woodrow Wilson Monument in Prague

A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election.

Wilson defeated incumbent Republican William Howard Taft and third-party nominee Theodore Roosevelt to easily win the 1912 United States presidential election, becoming the first Southerner to do so since 1848.

William Jennings Bryan

6 links

American lawyer, orator and politician.

American lawyer, orator and politician.

Bryan's birthplace in Salem, Illinois
Attorney Mary Baird Bryan, the wife of William Jennings Bryan
A young Bryan
"UNITED SNAKES OF AMERICA" "IN BRYAN WE TRUST" political satire token of 1896, known as "Bryan Money"
Bryan campaigning for president, October 1896
1896 electoral vote results
The United States and its colonial possessions after the Spanish–American War
Conservatives in 1900 ridiculed Bryan's eclectic platform.
1900 electoral vote results
William J Bryan in 1906 as Moses with new 10 commandments; Puck 19 sept 1906 by Joseph Keppler. Tablet reads: l-Thou shalt have no other leaders before me. II—Thou shalt not make unto thyself any high Protective Tariff. Ill—Eight hours, and no more, shalt thou labor and do all thy work. IV—Thou shalt not graft. V—Thou shalt not elect thy Senators save by Popular Vote. VI—Thou shalt not grant rebates unto thy neighbor. VII—Thou shalt not make combinations in restraint of trade. VIII—Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's income, but shall make him pay a tax upon it. IX—There shall be no more government by injunction. X—Remember Election Day to vote it early. P.S.— When in doubt, ask Me.
Bryan speaking at the 1908 Democratic National Convention
Presidential Campaign button for Bryan
1908 electoral vote results
Bryan attending the 1912 Democratic National Convention
Bryan served as Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson
Cartoon of Secretary of State Bryan reading war news in 1914
Villa Serena, Bryan's home built in 1913 at Miami, Florida
Charles W. and William J. Bryan
At the Scopes Trial, William Jennings Bryan (seated, left) being questioned by Clarence Darrow (standing, right).
Statue of Bryan on the lawn of the Rhea County courthouse in Dayton, Tennessee

Bryan regained his stature in the party after Parker's resounding defeat by Theodore Roosevelt and voters from both parties increasingly embraced some of the progressive reforms that had long been championed by Bryan.

After the Democrats won the presidency in the 1912 election, Woodrow Wilson rewarded Bryan's support with the important cabinet position of Secretary of State.

Robert M. La Follette

5 links

American lawyer and politician.

American lawyer and politician.

Robert M. La Follette's college yearbook photo, 1879
Portrait from History of the Bench and Bar of Wisconsin, vol. 2, 1898
La Follette addressing a large Chautauqua assembly in Decatur, Illinois, 1905
La Follette in 1908
La Follette in 1912
Time cover, December 3, 1923
La Follette recording a radio speech in 1924, shortly before his death
1924 presidential election results by county. Counties won by La Follette are marked green.
La Follette with his wife and daughter in February 1924

He challenged Taft for the Republican presidential nomination in the 1912 presidential election, but his candidacy was overshadowed by that of former President Theodore Roosevelt.

Women marching for the right to vote, 1912

Progressivism in the United States

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Political philosophy and reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century.

Political philosophy and reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century.

Women marching for the right to vote, 1912
"The Bosses of the Senate", a cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicting corporate interests–from steel, copper, oil, iron, sugar, tin, and coal to paper bags, envelopes and salt–as giant money bags looming over the tiny senators at their desks in the Chamber of the United States Senate
A poster highlighting the situation of child labor in the United States in the early 20th century
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle exposed Americans to the horrors of the Chicago meatpacking plants.
Senator Bernie Sanders, an advocate of single-payer healthcare
Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez from New York, an advocate of action on climate change and author of the Green New Deal

Presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft supported trust-busting.

The first political party named the Progressive Party was formed for the 1912 presidential election to elect Theodore Roosevelt.

Nominees Taft and Sherman

1912 Republican National Convention

4 links

Held at the Chicago Coliseum, Chicago, Illinois, from June 18 to June 22, 1912.

Held at the Chicago Coliseum, Chicago, Illinois, from June 18 to June 22, 1912.

Nominees Taft and Sherman
The 1912 Republican National Convention in session
Crowd outside the convention hall

The party nominated President William H. Taft and Vice President James S. Sherman for re-election for the 1912 United States presidential election.

The ticket went on to place 3rd in the November election behind former president Theodore Roosevelt, who ran under the banner of the new Progressive or "Bull Moose" Party, and Democratic Governor Woodrow Wilson.

History of the Democratic Party (United States)

3 links

Oldest voter-based political party in the world and the oldest existing political party in the United States.

Oldest voter-based political party in the world and the oldest existing political party in the United States.

Andrew Jackson, founder of the Democratic Party and the first president it elected.
1837 cartoon shows the Democratic Party as donkey
Martin Van Buren
August Belmont: DNC Chair for 12 years during and after the Civil war
To vote for Stephen A. Douglas in Virginia, a man deposited the ticket issued by the party in the official ballot box
Thomas Nast's January 1870 depiction of the Democratic donkey
Typewriters were new in 1893 and this Gillam cartoon from Puck shows that Grover Cleveland can not get the Democratic "machine" to work as the keys (key politicians) will not respond to his efforts
William Jennings Bryan at age 36 was the youngest candidate, October 1896
Thomas Woodrow Wilson
Franklin D. Roosevelt, the longest-serving president of the United States (1933–1945)
Adlai Stevenson warns against a return of the Republican policies of Herbert Hoover, 1952 campaign poster
President John F. Kennedy with his brothers, Attorney General and later New York Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy
President Lyndon Johnson foresaw the end of the Solid South when he signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964
President Jimmy Carter was elected in 1976 and defeated in 1980
Representative Thomas "Tip" O'Neill was Speaker of the House (1977–1987) and was the highest ranking Democrat in Washington, D.C. during most of Reagan's term
During Bill Clinton's presidency, the Democratic Party moved ideologically toward the center
Nancy Pelosi of California was the first woman to serve as Speaker of the House of Representatives
On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama was elected as the first African American president of the United States
Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Senator Bernie Sanders
Nancy Pelosi, the current House Speaker (2019–present), was highly visible adversary for President Trump.
Joe Biden defeated incumbent President Donald Trump on November 3, 2020.

Theodore Roosevelt dominated the first decade of the century and to the annoyance of Democrats "stole" the trust issue by crusading against trusts.

Taking advantage of a deep split in the Republican Party, the Democrats took control of the House in 1910 and elected the intellectual reformer Woodrow Wilson in 1912 and 1916.

1908 United States presidential election

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The 31st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1908.

The 31st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1908.

The aging and balding "Boy Orator of the Platte" delivers a speech.
Map of presidential election results by county
Roosevelt handing over his policies to his political protégé, William H. Taft.
650px
William J Bryan in 1906 as Moses with new 10 commandments; Puck 19 sept 1906 by Joseph Keppler. Tablet reads: l-Thou shalt have no other leaders before me. II—Thou shalt not make unto thyself any high Protective Tariff. Ill—Eight hours, and no more, shalt thou labor and do all thy work. IV—Thou shalt not graft. V—Thou shalt not elect thy Senators save by Popular Vote. VI—Thou shalt not grant rebates unto thy neighbor. VII—Thou shalt not make combinations in restraint of trade. VIII—Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's income, but shall make him pay a tax upon it. IX—There shall be no more government by injunction. X—Remember Election Day to vote it early. P.S.— When in doubt, ask Me.
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Map of Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of "other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county
Taft-Sherman postcard
Collier's magazine cover
Humorous postcard
John Johnson ribbon
Taft-Sherman postcard with U.S. Capitol
Bryan-Kern postcard with U.S. Capitol

Popular incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt honored his promise not to seek a third term, and persuaded his close friend, Taft, to become his successor.

He doubled the number of Democratic counties in Wisconsin and won more counties in Indiana than were carried by plurality vote by the Democrats in any election in the Fourth Party System except 1912.

Gifford Pinchot portrait by Pirie MacDonald, 1909

Gifford Pinchot

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American forester and politician.

American forester and politician.

Gifford Pinchot portrait by Pirie MacDonald, 1909
Portrait of Gifford Pinchot by Benjamin Johnston, c. 1901
Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot on the steamer Mississippi, 1907
Pinchot visiting summer campers attending the School of Forestry camp at Grey Towers (Pinchot is with the dog), 1910
Time cover, November 23, 1925
Grey Towers near Milford, Pennsylvania, a National Historic Site

Pinchot enjoyed a close relationship with President Theodore Roosevelt, who shared Pinchot's views regarding the importance of conservation.

The controversy contributed to the split of the Republican Party and the formation of the Progressive Party prior to the 1912 presidential election.