1932 German presidential election

1932 presidential electionpresidential election1932German presidential electionpresidential electionsGerman presidential election of 1932presidential election of 19321932 election1932 presidential electionselections of March 13, 1932
The 1932 German presidential election was held on 13 March, with a runoff round on 10 April.wikipedia
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Paul von Hindenburg

HindenburgPresident Hindenburgvon Hindenburg
Independent incumbent Paul von Hindenburg won a second seven-year term against Adolf Hitler of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP).
He defeated Hitler in a runoff to win reelection in 1932.

Adolf Hitler

HitlerFührerthe leader
Independent incumbent Paul von Hindenburg won a second seven-year term against Adolf Hitler of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP).
Hitler ran against Hindenburg in the 1932 presidential elections.

President of Germany (1919–1945)

PresidentPresident of GermanyReichspräsident
This was the second and final direct election to the office of President of the Reich (Reichspräsident), Germany's head of state under the Weimar Republic.
Hindenburg served a full term and was reelected in 1932, this time nominated by the pro-republican parties who thought only he could prevent the election of Adolf Hitler to the office.

1925 German presidential election

presidential election19251925 presidential election
Hindenburg had been elected to the office in 1925 with the support of a coalition of several parties on the right who hoped that he would overturn the Weimar Republic, which was never particularly popular. The Social Democrats and Brüning's Centre Party would support Hindenburg – in contrast to the 1925 presidential election, when the non-partisan had been the candidate of the political right and had been strenuously opposed by much of the moderate left and political centre.
Hindenburg would be again returned in the 1932 election and would play an important role during the rise to power of the Nazi Party.

Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten

StahlhelmJungstahlhelmStahlhelm veteran's association
Stahlhelm leader Theodor Duesterberg ran in the first round but dropped out of the runoff.
However, the front soon broke up and in the first round of the 1932 German presidential election, Theodor Duesterberg ran as Stahlhelm candidate against incumbent Paul von Hindenburg and Adolf Hitler.

Communist Party of Germany

Communist PartyKPDCommunist
Communist Party (KPD) leader Ernst Thälmann also ran and received more than ten percent of the vote in the runoff.

German National People's Party

DNVPDeutschnationale VolksparteiGerman National People's Party (DNVP)
A fringe group for most of the 1920s, the NSDAP, whose members were colloquially known as "Nazis", was brought to public attention on the German right by a referendum against the Young Plan in 1929 where it had been associated with and aided by Alfred Hugenberg's mainstream German National People's Party (DNVP), dramatically increasing its number of seats in the Reichstag in the 1930 federal election.
In the first round of the presidential election on 13 March 1932, the DNVP supported Theodor Duesterberg, and after he withdrew from the race following his dreadful showing, endorsed no candidate for the second round on 10 April 1932.

Alfred Hugenberg

HugenbergHugenberg PressDr. Alfred Hugenberg
A fringe group for most of the 1920s, the NSDAP, whose members were colloquially known as "Nazis", was brought to public attention on the German right by a referendum against the Young Plan in 1929 where it had been associated with and aided by Alfred Hugenberg's mainstream German National People's Party (DNVP), dramatically increasing its number of seats in the Reichstag in the 1930 federal election.
The two leaders soon clashed, and Hugenberg's refusal to endorse Hitler in the 1932 German presidential election widened the gap.

Heinrich Brüning

BrüningChancellor BrüningHeinrich Bruning
The republic had been devastated by the Great Depression, to the point where rule with the consent of the Reichstag had become all but impossible by March 1930, when Chancellor Hermann Müller was replaced with Heinrich Brüning, who used the Presidential powers to rule by decree, bypassing the Reichstag.
In the 1932 presidential election, Brüning vigorously campaigned for Hindenburg along with virtually the entire German left and centre, calling him a "venerated historical personality" and "the keeper of the constitution".

July 1932 German federal election

July 1932July 1932 electionsJuly 1932 election
The NSDAP emerged from the Reichstag elections in July as the largest party even seen in the Reichstag and having over a third of the vote, while Papen's position was undermined.
In March 1932, presidential elections pitted the incumbent Hindenburg, supported by pro-democratic parties, against Hitler and communist Ernst Thälmann.

Centre Party (Germany)

Centre PartyZentrumCentre
The Social Democrats and Brüning's Centre Party would support Hindenburg – in contrast to the 1925 presidential election, when the non-partisan had been the candidate of the political right and had been strenuously opposed by much of the moderate left and political centre.
Hindenburg was re-elected against Adolf Hitler, but his moving further to the right shortly afterwards resulted in Brüning's resignation on 30 May 1932.

August von Mackensen

Mackensenvon MackensenAnton Ludwig August von Mackensen
Among those who had voted for Hindenburg in 1925 and refused to sign his petition were banker Walter Bernhard, Leipzig mayor Carl Goerdeler, and war hero August von Mackensen.
During the German presidential election of 1932, Mackensen supported Paul von Hindenburg against Adolf Hitler, whose political skills he nevertheless admired; after Hitler gained power in January 1933, Mackensen became a visible, if only symbolic, supporter of the Nazi regime.

Franz von Papen

Papenvon PapenCabinet of Barons
Brüning's successor was Franz von Papen, an ally of Schleicher's who had no political experience or support in the Reichstag.
In the March–April 1932 German presidential election, Papen voted for Hindenburg on the grounds he was the best man to unite the right, while in the Prussian Landtag's election of speaker of the Landtag, Papen voted for the Nazi Hans Kerrl.

Adolf Hitler's rise to power

MachtergreifungNazi seizure of powertook power
Hitler was appointed chancellor on 30 January 1933, an event known as the Machtergreifung.
Street fights and beer hall battles resulting in deaths occurred throughout February and April 1932, all against the backdrop of Adolf Hitler's competition in the presidential election which pitted him against the monumentally popular Hindenburg.

Nazi Party

NSDAPNazisNazi
Independent incumbent Paul von Hindenburg won a second seven-year term against Adolf Hitler of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP).

Ernst Thälmann

Ernst ThaelmannErnst ThalmannThälmann
Communist Party (KPD) leader Ernst Thälmann also ran and received more than ten percent of the vote in the runoff.

Theodor Duesterberg

DUESTERBURG, Theodor
Stahlhelm leader Theodor Duesterberg ran in the first round but dropped out of the runoff.

Weimar Republic

GermanyWeimar GermanyWeimar
This was the second and final direct election to the office of President of the Reich (Reichspräsident), Germany's head of state under the Weimar Republic.

Weimar Constitution

constitutionGerman constitutiona new constitution
Although the Weimar Constitution had provided for a semi-presidential republic, structural weaknesses had resulted in a paralyzed Reichstag and this combined with the Great Depression resulted in a government that had governed exclusively via presidential decrees since March 1930, giving the President much power.

Great Depression

DepressionThe Great DepressionDepression era
The republic had been devastated by the Great Depression, to the point where rule with the consent of the Reichstag had become all but impossible by March 1930, when Chancellor Hermann Müller was replaced with Heinrich Brüning, who used the Presidential powers to rule by decree, bypassing the Reichstag. Although the Weimar Constitution had provided for a semi-presidential republic, structural weaknesses had resulted in a paralyzed Reichstag and this combined with the Great Depression resulted in a government that had governed exclusively via presidential decrees since March 1930, giving the President much power.

Chancellor of Germany

ChancellorGerman ChancellorReichskanzler
Under this political climate, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany in January 1933.

Führer

FuhrerFührer und ReichskanzlerEin Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer
Upon Hindenburg's death in 1934 Hitler de facto assumed the presidency, which he combined with the chancellorship to become the Führer und Reichskanzler.

West Germany

West GermanFederal Republic of GermanyGermany
This would be the last presidential election in what would become West Germany until 1949.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
World War I had resulted in the collapse of the monarchical German Empire.

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial Germany
World War I had resulted in the collapse of the monarchical German Empire.