1953 Iranian coup d'état

coup d'état1953 coupcoup1953 coup d'étatOperation AjaxIranoverthrowIran in 195319531953 Coup in Iran
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état, was the overthrow of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax"), and the first United States covert action to overthrow a foreign government during peacetime.wikipedia
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Iran

🇮🇷PersiaIranian
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état, was the overthrow of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax"), and the first United States covert action to overthrow a foreign government during peacetime.
A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence.

Winston Churchill

ChurchillSir Winston ChurchillChurchill, Winston
Judging Mosaddegh to be unreliable and fearing a Communist takeover in Iran, UK prime minister Winston Churchill and the Eisenhower administration decided to overthrow Iran's government, though the predecessor Truman administration had opposed a coup, fearing the precedent that Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) involvement would set.
Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951 election|1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, and a UK-backed Iranian coup.

Fazlollah Zahedi

General Fazlollah ZahediFazlollah [ZahediGeneral Zahedi
Following the coup in 1953, a government under General Fazlollah Zahedi was formed which allowed Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran (Persian for an Iranian king), to rule more firmly as monarch.
Fazlollah Zahedi (, pronounced ; c. 1892 – 2 September 1963) was an Iranian general and statesman who replaced the democratically elected Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh through a coup d'état, in which he played a major role.

BP

British PetroleumBP plcBP Australia
Mosaddegh had sought to audit the documents of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC), a British corporation (now part of BP) and to limit the company's control over Iranian oil reserves.
The anti-Mossadeq plan was orchestrated under the code-name 'Operation Ajax' by CIA, and 'Operation Boot' by SIS (MI6).

Mohammad Mosaddegh

MosaddeghMossadeghMossadeq
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état, was the overthrow of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax"), and the first United States covert action to overthrow a foreign government during peacetime.
Mohammad Mosaddegh (16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6.

Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower

Eisenhower administrationEisenhoweradministration
Judging Mosaddegh to be unreliable and fearing a Communist takeover in Iran, UK prime minister Winston Churchill and the Eisenhower administration decided to overthrow Iran's government, though the predecessor Truman administration had opposed a coup, fearing the precedent that Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) involvement would set.
The Shah of Iran and pro-monarchy forces ejected him from power in the complex 1953 Iranian coup d'état (Operation Ajax).

Abadan Refinery

AbadanAbadan oil refinerythe oil refinery
Initially, Britain mobilized its military to seize control of the British-built Abadan oil refinery, then the world's largest, but Prime Minister Clement Attlee opted instead to tighten the economic boycott while using Iranian agents to undermine Mosaddegh's government.
Its nationalisation in 1951 prompted the Abadan Crisis and ultimately the toppling of the democratically elected prime minister Mossaddegh.

National Front (Iran)

National FrontNational Front of IranSecond National Front
Led by Mosaddegh, political parties and opponents of the Shah's policies banded together to form a coalition known as the National Front.
In 1951, the Front formed a government which was deposed by the 1953 Iranian coup d'état and subsequently repressed.

Pahlavi dynasty

IranPahlaviShah of Iran
By 1925 under his influence, Parliament voted to remove Ahmad Shah Qajar from the throne, and Reza Khan was crowned Reza Shah Pahlavi, of the Pahlavi Dynasty.
Following the coup d'état in 1953 supported by United Kingdom and the United States, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's rule became more autocratic and was aligned with the Western Bloc during the Cold War.

Prime Minister of Iran

Prime MinisterDeputy Prime Minister of IranDeputy Prime Minister of Iran for Revolutionary Affairs
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état, was the overthrow of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax"), and the first United States covert action to overthrow a foreign government during peacetime.
In 1951, Mohammed Mosaddeq became Prime Minister but was overthrown in a counter coup d'état in 1953.

Allen Dulles

AllenAllen W. DullesDulles
The coup was carried out by the U.S. administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower in a covert action advocated by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, and implemented under the supervision of his brother Allen Dulles, the Director of Central Intelligence.
As head of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the early Cold War, he oversaw the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, Operation Ajax, the Lockheed U-2 aircraft program and the Bay of Pigs Invasion.

1953 Iranian parliamentary dissolution referendum

dismissed parliamentreferendum to dissolve parliament August 3–10, 1953
A referendum to dissolve parliament and give the prime minister power to make law was submitted to voters, and it passed with 99.9 percent approval, 2,043,300 votes to 1300 votes against.
Following the referendum, there were talks about another referendum to abolish the Pahlavi dynasty and make Iran a republic, however the government was overthrown by a coup d'état shortly after.

John Foster Dulles

DullesFoster DullesJohn
The coup was carried out by the U.S. administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower in a covert action advocated by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, and implemented under the supervision of his brother Allen Dulles, the Director of Central Intelligence. Worried about Britain's other interests in Iran, and (thanks to the Tudeh party) believing that Iran's nationalism was really a Soviet-backed plot, Britain persuaded US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles that Iran was falling to the Soviets—effectively exploiting the American Cold War mindset.
He also helped instigate the 1953 Iranian coup d'état and the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état.

Richard Helms

Dick HelmsHelms, RichardRichard M. Helms
In a January 1973 telephone conversation made public in 2009, U.S. President Richard Nixon told CIA Director Richard Helms, who was awaiting Senate confirmation to become the new U.S. Ambassador to Iran, that Nixon wanted Helms to be a "regional ambassador" to Persian Gulf oil states, and noted that Helms had been a schoolmate of Shah Reza Pahlavi.
Under his superior and mentor the DDP Wisner, the CIA marshaled such clandestine operations, which resulted in regime change in Iran in 1953 and Guatemala in 1954 and interference in the Congo in 1960.

SAVAK

Organization of Intelligence and National SecuritySazeman-i Ettelaat va Amniyat-i Keshvarhis secret police
Schwarzkopf trained the security forces that would become known as SAVAK to secure the shah's hold on power.
After the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, when the United States and the United Kingdom, removed Mohammad Mosaddeq, who was originally focused on nationalizing Iran's oil industry, but also set out to weaken the Shah from power on August 19, 1953.

Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar

Mozaffar ad-Din ShahMozaffar al-Din ShahMozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar
In 1901, Mozzafar al-Din Shah Qajar, granted a 60-year petroleum search concession to William Knox D'Arcy.
A nephew of his wife was Mohammed Mossadeq, the Prime Minister of Iran during the Pahlavi dynasty that was overthrown by a coup d'état staged by the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1950s.

Nematollah Nassiri

former head of SAVAKGeneral Nasiri
On Saturday 15 August, Colonel Nematollah Nassiri, the commander of the Imperial Guard, delivered to Mosaddegh a firman from the Shah dismissing him.
A personal friend of the Shah, Nassiri participated in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état which removed Iranian prime minister Mosaddegh from power in 1953.

Donald Wilber

Dr. Donald N. Wilber
Operation Ajax's formal leader was senior CIA officer Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., while career agent Donald Wilber was the operational leader, planner, and executor of the deposition of Mosaddegh.
Wilber was a principal architect of the CIA project "Operation Ajax", a successful plot to overthrow the government of Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadeq.

Mohammad Amir Khatami

Mohammad KhatamMohammad Khatami
After high-level Government consultations, they were escorted to the White House, the Iraqi Government's guest house, before flying to Italy in a plane flown by Mohammad Amir Khatami.
Days before the 19 August 1953 coup on 16 August, the Shah, accompanied by his second wife Sorayya Esfandiary Bakhtiari and Aboul Fath Atabay, escaped from Iran to Iraq and then to Italy by a plane aviated by Khatami.

Anglo-Persian Oil Company

Anglo-Iranian Oil CompanyAnglo-Iranian Oil Co LtdAnglo-Iranian Oil Co.
Mosaddegh had sought to audit the documents of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC), a British corporation (now part of BP) and to limit the company's control over Iranian oil reserves.
The anti-Mossadegh plan was orchestrated under the code-name 'Operation Ajax' by CIA, and 'Operation Boot' by SIS (MI6).

Abadan Crisis

an economic crisisIranian oil crisisnationalization of oil
The National Iranian Oil Company suffered decreased production, because of Iranian inexperience and the AIOC's orders that British technicians not work with them, thus provoking the Abadan Crisis that was aggravated by the Royal Navy's blockading its export markets to pressure Iran to not nationalise its petroleum.
The democratically elected government of Iran was overthrown on 19 August 1953, following a coup d'état orchestrated by the United Kingdom and the United States, and Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh was ousted from power.

Haj Ali Razmara

Ali RazmaraRazmara
The Prime Minister Haj Ali Razmara, who opposed the oil nationalization on technical grounds, was assassinated by the hardline Fadaiyan e-Islam (whose spiritual leader the Ayatollah Abol-Qassem Kashani, a mentor to the future Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, had been appointed Speaker of the Parliament by the National Front).
As this move dealt a severe blow to the monarchy as well as to British interests in Iran, the US and Britain orchestrated the now well-known coup d'état in 1953, code-named Operation Ajax, removing Mossadegh as Prime Minister and convincing the Shah to appoint a Prime Minister of their choosing.

Hossein Fatemi

Hosseyn Fâtemi
The minister of Foreign Affairs and the closest associate of Mosaddegh, Hossein Fatemi, was executed by order of the Shah's military court by firing squad on 10 November 1954.
After the 1953 CIA-orchestrated coup d'état toppled the democratically elected government of Mosaddegh, Fatemi was arrested, tortured, and convicted by a military court of "treason against the Shah", and executed by a firing squad.

Iran crisis of 1946

Iran crisis19461946 Iran crisis
The related conflict was ended when the US lobbied for the Iranian Army to reassert control over the two occupied territories.
1953 Iranian coup d'état

Blowback (intelligence)

blowbackblowbacksintelligence blowback
The administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower considered the coup a success, but, given its blowback, that opinion is no longer generally held, because of its "haunting and terrible legacy".
In formal print usage, the term blowback first appeared in the Clandestine Service History—Overthrow of Premier Mossadeq of Iran—November 1952–August 1953, the CIA's internal history of the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, sponsored by the US and UK, which was published in March 1954.