1954 Geneva Conference

Geneva ConferenceGeneva Accordspartition of VietnamGeneva Agreements1954 Geneva Accords1954 Geneva AgreementsGeneva AccordGeneva Conference (1954)Geneva Accords of 19541954 Geneva Agreement
The Geneva Conference was a conference involving several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland from April 26 – July 20, 1954.wikipedia
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First Indochina War

Indochina WarIndochinaFrench Indochina War
It was intended to settle outstanding issues resulting from the Korean War and the First Indochina War.
At the International Geneva Conference on July 21, 1954, the new socialist French government and the Việt Minh made an agreement which effectively gave the Việt Minh control of North Vietnam above the 17th parallel.

Kingdom of Cambodia (1953–1970)

CambodiaKingdom of CambodiaKingdom of Cambodia (1953–70)
The crumbling of the French Empire in Southeast Asia would create the eventual states of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the State of Vietnam (the future Republic of Vietnam / South Vietnam), the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the Kingdom of Laos.
In part, the communists were attempting to strengthen their bargaining position at the Geneva Conference that had been scheduled to begin in late April.

North Vietnam

Democratic Republic of VietnamNorth VietnameseNorth
The crumbling of the French Empire in Southeast Asia would create the eventual states of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the State of Vietnam (the future Republic of Vietnam / South Vietnam), the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the Kingdom of Laos. On May 10, Phạm Văn Đồng, the leader of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) delegation set out their position, proposing a ceasefire; separation of the opposing forces; a ban on the introduction of new forces into Indochina; the exchange of prisoners; independence and sovereignty for Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos; elections for unified governments in each country, the withdrawal of all foreign forces; and the inclusion of the Pathet Lao and Khmer Issarak representatives at the Conference.
The negotiations in the Geneva Conference that year ended the war and recognized Vietnamese independence.

State of Vietnam

VietnamSouth Vietnam (State of Vietnam)French client state
The crumbling of the French Empire in Southeast Asia would create the eventual states of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the State of Vietnam (the future Republic of Vietnam / South Vietnam), the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the Kingdom of Laos. The agreement temporarily separated Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone to be governed by the Viet Minh rebels, and a southern zone to be governed by the State of Vietnam, then headed by former emperor Bảo Đại.
After the 1954 Geneva Agreements, the State of Vietnam had to abandon the northern part of the country to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

French Indochina

IndochinaFrench Indo-ChinaFrench colonial rule
The Geneva Accords that dealt with the dismantling of French Indochina proved to have long-lasting repercussions, however.
Following the Geneva Accord of 1954, the French evacuated Vietnam and French Indochina came to an end.

South Vietnam

Republic of VietnamSouth VietnameseSouth
The crumbling of the French Empire in Southeast Asia would create the eventual states of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the State of Vietnam (the future Republic of Vietnam / South Vietnam), the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the Kingdom of Laos.
The term "South Vietnam" became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts.

Battle of Dien Bien Phu

Dien Bien PhuBattle of Điện Biên Phủsiege of Dien Bien Phu
The deciding factor was the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, where the French were decisively defeated.
The Battle of Điện Biên Phủ was decisive; the war ended shortly after and the 1954 Geneva Accords were signed.

Zhou Enlai

Chou En-laiZhou En-laiZhou En Lai
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, an anticommunist, forbade any contact with the Chinese delegation, refusing to shake hands with Zhou Enlai, the lead Chinese negotiator.
Advocating peaceful coexistence with the West after the Korean War, he participated in the 1954 Geneva Conference and the 1955 Bandung Conference, and helped orchestrate Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China.

Bảo Đại

Bao DaiEmperor Bảo ĐạiCrown Prince Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thuy
The agreement temporarily separated Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone to be governed by the Viet Minh rebels, and a southern zone to be governed by the State of Vietnam, then headed by former emperor Bảo Đại.
The 1954 peace deal between the French and the Việt Minh, known as the Geneva Accords, involved a partition of the country into northern and southern zones.

Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower

Eisenhower administrationEisenhowerEisenhower Ten
The US had been supporting the French in Indochina for many years and the Republican Eisenhower administration wanted to ensure that it could not be accused of another "Yalta" or having "lost" Indochina to the Communists.
At the contemporaneous Geneva Conference, Dulles convinced Chinese and Soviet leaders to pressure Viet Minh leaders to accept the temporary partition of Vietnam; the country was divided into a Communist northern half (under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh) and a non-Communist southern half (under the leadership of Ngo Dinh Diem).

John Foster Dulles

DullesFoster DullesJohn
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, an anticommunist, forbade any contact with the Chinese delegation, refusing to shake hands with Zhou Enlai, the lead Chinese negotiator.
He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina but rejected the Geneva Accords that France and the communists agreed to, and instead supported South Vietnam after the Geneva Conference in 1954.

Việt Minh

Viet MinhVietminhViet-Minh
The agreement temporarily separated Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone to be governed by the Viet Minh rebels, and a southern zone to be governed by the State of Vietnam, then headed by former emperor Bảo Đại. For the Indochina side, the Accords were between France, the Viet Minh, the USSR, the PRC, the US, the United Kingdom, and the future states being made from French Indochina.
As a result of peace accords worked out at the Geneva Conference in Geneva, Switzerland, Vietnam was divided into North Vietnam and South Vietnam at the 17th Parallel as a temporary measure until unifying elections could take place in 1956.

French colonial empire

FrenchFrench EmpireFrance
The crumbling of the French Empire in Southeast Asia would create the eventual states of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the State of Vietnam (the future Republic of Vietnam / South Vietnam), the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the Kingdom of Laos.
Following the Vietnamese victory at Điện Biên Phủ and the signing of the 1954 Geneva Accords, France agreed to withdraw its forces from all its colonies in French Indochina, while stipulating that Vietnam would be temporarily divided at the 17th parallel, with control of the north given to the Viet Minh as the Democratic Republic of Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh, and the south becoming the State of Vietnam.

Annam (French protectorate)

AnnamAnnam ProtectorateFrench protectorate of Annam
The DRV/Viet Minh would be given the Cà Mau Peninsula, three enclaves near Saigon, large areas of Annam and Tonkin; the French Union forces would retain most urban areas and the Red River Delta, including Hanoi and Haiphong, allowing it to resume combat operation in the north, if necessary.
The region was divided between communist North Vietnam and anti-communist South Vietnam under the terms of the Geneva Accord of 1954.

Ho Chi Minh City

SaigonHồ Chí Minh CityHo Chi Minh City, Vietnam
The DRV/Viet Minh would be given the Cà Mau Peninsula, three enclaves near Saigon, large areas of Annam and Tonkin; the French Union forces would retain most urban areas and the Red River Delta, including Hanoi and Haiphong, allowing it to resume combat operation in the north, if necessary.
In 1954, the Geneva Agreement partitioned Vietnam along the 17th parallel (Bến Hải River), with the communist Việt Minh, under Ho Chi Minh, gaining complete control of the northern half of the country, while the Saigon government continued to govern the State of Vietnam which continued in the southern half of the country and the southern half gaining independence from France.

Ho Chi Minh

Hồ Chí MinhNguyễn Ái QuốcHô Chi Minh
This ended with a war between French troops and the Vietnamese nationalists led by Ho Chi Minh.
The 1954 Geneva Accords concluded between France and the Việt Minh, allowing the latter's forces to regroup in the North whilst anti-Communist groups settled in the South.

Pierre Mendès France

Pierre Mendès-FrancePierre Mendes FrancePierre Mendes-France
On June 18, following a vote of no-confidence, the French Laniel government fell and was replaced by a coalition with Radical Pierre Mendès France as Prime Minister, by a vote of 419 to 47, with 143 abstentions.
At the Geneva Conference of 1954 he negotiated a deal that gave the Viet Minh control of Vietnam north of the seventeenth parallel, and allowed him to pull out all French forces.

Anthony Eden

Sir Anthony EdenEdenAnthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon
Anthony Eden, leading the British delegation, favored a negotiated settlement to the conflict.
The success of the 1954 Geneva Conference on Indochina ranks as the outstanding achievement of his third term in the Foreign Office, although he was critical of the United States decision not to sign the accord.

Khmer Issarak

IssarakIssaraksKhmer uprising against the French
On May 10, Phạm Văn Đồng, the leader of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) delegation set out their position, proposing a ceasefire; separation of the opposing forces; a ban on the introduction of new forces into Indochina; the exchange of prisoners; independence and sovereignty for Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos; elections for unified governments in each country, the withdrawal of all foreign forces; and the inclusion of the Pathet Lao and Khmer Issarak representatives at the Conference.
After the Geneva Conference in 1954, due to the agreement, most of the Viet Minh guided-Issaraks exiled to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) or turned underground and formed communist organizations.

Pathet Lao

Lao communistsLao communistLao Patriotic Front
On May 10, Phạm Văn Đồng, the leader of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) delegation set out their position, proposing a ceasefire; separation of the opposing forces; a ban on the introduction of new forces into Indochina; the exchange of prisoners; independence and sovereignty for Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos; elections for unified governments in each country, the withdrawal of all foreign forces; and the inclusion of the Pathet Lao and Khmer Issarak representatives at the Conference.
The 1954 Geneva Conference agreements required the withdrawal of foreign forces, and allowed the Pathet Lao to establish itself as a regime in Laos's two northern provinces.

Ngo Dinh Diem

Ngô Đình DiệmDiệmDiem
On June 16, twelve days after France granted full independence to the State of Vietnam, Bao Dai appointed Ngo Dinh Diem as Prime Minister to replace Bửu Lộc.
The Geneva Accords were signed soon after he took office, formally partitioning Vietnam along the 17th parallel.

Berlin Conference (1954)

Berlin ConferenceBerlin
On February 18, 1954, at the Berlin Conference, participants agreed that "the problem of restoring peace in Indochina will also be discussed at the Conference [on the Korean question] to which representatives of the United States, France, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Chinese People's Republic and other interested states will be invited."
The subsequent Geneva Conference was to produce a temporary peace in Indochina and France's withdrawal from Vietnam, though formal peace in Korea remained elusive.

Phạm Văn Đồng

Pham Van Dong
On May 10, Phạm Văn Đồng, the leader of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) delegation set out their position, proposing a ceasefire; separation of the opposing forces; a ban on the introduction of new forces into Indochina; the exchange of prisoners; independence and sovereignty for Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos; elections for unified governments in each country, the withdrawal of all foreign forces; and the inclusion of the Pathet Lao and Khmer Issarak representatives at the Conference.
In May 1954, he led the delegation of the Ho Chi Minh government to the Geneva Conference.

International Control Commission

International Commission for Supervision and ControlICCICSC
Based on a proposal by Zhou Enlai, an International Control Commission (ICC) chaired by India, with Canada and Poland as members, was placed in charge of supervising the ceasefire.
It oversaw the implementation of the Geneva Accords that ended the First Indochina War with the Partition of Vietnam.

Operation Passage to Freedom

Passage to FreedomOperation "Passage to Freedom1954
North Vietnamese, especially Catholics, intellectuals, business people, land owners, anti-communist democrats, and members of the middle-class moved south of the Accords-mandated ceasefire line during Operation Passage to Freedom.
In the wake of the French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the Geneva Accords of 1954 decided the fate of French Indochina after eight years of war between French Union forces and the Viet Minh, which sought Vietnamese independence.