1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia

1960 Constitutiona new constitutionnew constitution1960 Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist RepublicConstitutionCzechoslovak
The Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Ústava Československé socialistické / Československej socialistickej republiky in Czech / Slovak), promulgated on 11 July 1960 as the constitutional law 100/1960 Sb., was the third constitution of Czechoslovakia, and the second of the Communist era.wikipedia
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Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

CzechoslovakiaCommunist CzechoslovakiaČSSR
The Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Ústava Československé socialistické / Československej socialistickej republiky in Czech / Slovak), promulgated on 11 July 1960 as the constitutional law 100/1960 Sb., was the third constitution of Czechoslovakia, and the second of the Communist era. This was reflected in the change of the country's official name from the Czechoslovak Republic (which was described as a people's democracy" after the 1948 Communist takeover) to Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Due to President and party boss Antonín Novotný's devotion to Nikita Khrushchev and oneupmanship among other Eastern Bloc countries, Czechoslovakia was declared the first country after "our great ally, the fraternal Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" which achieved socialism (3 years before Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and 5 before Socialist Republic of Romania). Thus the constitution's preamble said that "socialism has won in our country," proclaiming that the last attempt to derail the move to socialism had been derailed by "the determined action of the working people in February 1948."
The traditional name Československá republika (Czechoslovak Republic) was changed on 11 July 1960 following implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country, and remained so until the Velvet Revolution in November 1989.

Velvet Revolution

fall of communism1989fall of the communist regime
It was extensively revised after the Velvet Revolution to prune out its Communist character, with a view toward replacing it with a completely new constitution.
Two days later, the federal parliament formally deleted the sections of the Constitution giving the Communist Party a monopoly of power.

Constitutional Act on the Czechoslovak Federation

Constitutional Law of Federationfederalizationfederalization of Czechoslovakia
It replaced the 1948 Ninth-of-May Constitution and was widely changed by the Constitutional Law of Federation in 1968. The constitution was first amended by constitutional laws 110/1967 (status of Prague local councils to be set by special law), 28/1968 (similar for Bratislava), the Constitutional Law of Federation 143/1968 and accompanying 144/1968 on ethnic minorities, and further by constitutional laws 57/1969 (local councils put into the authority of national republics), 155/1969 (court reform), 43/1971 (elected bodies term of office prolonged to 5 years from 4), 50/1975 (this actually affected only the Constitutional Law of Federation, into which the Presidency had been moved: President unable to carry out his duties over a year can be replaced, i. e. ill Ludvík Svoboda with Gustáv Husák), 62/1978 (a minor change about schooling, see below), 135/1989 (leading role of the KSČ abolished etc.) and several times during 1990–1992 (e.
The promulgation of the Constitutional Law of Federation amended fifty-eight articles of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia concerning the structure of government.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechCzechoslovakian
The Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Ústava Československé socialistické / Československej socialistickej republiky in Czech / Slovak), promulgated on 11 July 1960 as the constitutional law 100/1960 Sb., was the third constitution of Czechoslovakia, and the second of the Communist era.

Ninth-of-May Constitution

1948 Constitution of Czechoslovakia1948 Constitution of the Czechoslovak Republica new constitution
It replaced the 1948 Ninth-of-May Constitution and was widely changed by the Constitutional Law of Federation in 1968.
Although the constitution did not organize government administration under the Leninist principle of democratic centralism (a provision only incorporated in the following "socialist" 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia), it did declare Czechoslovakia a "people's democracy" and dictatorship of the proletariat under the leadership of the KSČ, as was the case with other Communist parties in the Soviet bloc.

Antonín Novotný

Antonin NovotnyAntonín NovotnyAntonín Novotný Jr.
This was reflected in the change of the country's official name from the Czechoslovak Republic (which was described as a people's democracy" after the 1948 Communist takeover) to Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Due to President and party boss Antonín Novotný's devotion to Nikita Khrushchev and oneupmanship among other Eastern Bloc countries, Czechoslovakia was declared the first country after "our great ally, the fraternal Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" which achieved socialism (3 years before Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and 5 before Socialist Republic of Romania). Thus the constitution's preamble said that "socialism has won in our country," proclaiming that the last attempt to derail the move to socialism had been derailed by "the determined action of the working people in February 1948."
Three years later, he replaced the superficially democratic Ninth-of-May Constitution with a new constitution that was a fully Communist document.

Government structure of Communist Czechoslovakia

Government of CzechoslovakiaCommunist government of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak government
* Government structure of Communist Czechoslovakia
In the 1970s and 1980s the government structure was based on the amended 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia, which defined the country as the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.

Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Velvet Divorcedissolutiondissolved
However, this never took place, and it remained in force until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992.

Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920

1920 ConstitutionConstitutionCzechoslovak Constitution
The Ninth-of-May-Constitution was superficially similar in many respects to the 1920 Constitution and contained a mixture of liberal democratic and Communist elements.

People's Republic

people's democracyDemocratic People's RepublicPeople’s Republic
This was reflected in the change of the country's official name from the Czechoslovak Republic (which was described as a people's democracy" after the 1948 Communist takeover) to Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Due to President and party boss Antonín Novotný's devotion to Nikita Khrushchev and oneupmanship among other Eastern Bloc countries, Czechoslovakia was declared the first country after "our great ally, the fraternal Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" which achieved socialism (3 years before Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and 5 before Socialist Republic of Romania). Thus the constitution's preamble said that "socialism has won in our country," proclaiming that the last attempt to derail the move to socialism had been derailed by "the determined action of the working people in February 1948."

Nikita Khrushchev

KhrushchevNikita S. KhrushchevNikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev
This was reflected in the change of the country's official name from the Czechoslovak Republic (which was described as a people's democracy" after the 1948 Communist takeover) to Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Due to President and party boss Antonín Novotný's devotion to Nikita Khrushchev and oneupmanship among other Eastern Bloc countries, Czechoslovakia was declared the first country after "our great ally, the fraternal Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" which achieved socialism (3 years before Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and 5 before Socialist Republic of Romania). Thus the constitution's preamble said that "socialism has won in our country," proclaiming that the last attempt to derail the move to socialism had been derailed by "the determined action of the working people in February 1948."

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
This was reflected in the change of the country's official name from the Czechoslovak Republic (which was described as a people's democracy" after the 1948 Communist takeover) to Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Due to President and party boss Antonín Novotný's devotion to Nikita Khrushchev and oneupmanship among other Eastern Bloc countries, Czechoslovakia was declared the first country after "our great ally, the fraternal Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" which achieved socialism (3 years before Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and 5 before Socialist Republic of Romania). Thus the constitution's preamble said that "socialism has won in our country," proclaiming that the last attempt to derail the move to socialism had been derailed by "the determined action of the working people in February 1948."

Socialism

socialistsocialistssocialistic
This was reflected in the change of the country's official name from the Czechoslovak Republic (which was described as a people's democracy" after the 1948 Communist takeover) to Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Due to President and party boss Antonín Novotný's devotion to Nikita Khrushchev and oneupmanship among other Eastern Bloc countries, Czechoslovakia was declared the first country after "our great ally, the fraternal Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" which achieved socialism (3 years before Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and 5 before Socialist Republic of Romania). Thus the constitution's preamble said that "socialism has won in our country," proclaiming that the last attempt to derail the move to socialism had been derailed by "the determined action of the working people in February 1948."

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

SFR YugoslaviaYugoslaviaFPR Yugoslavia
This was reflected in the change of the country's official name from the Czechoslovak Republic (which was described as a people's democracy" after the 1948 Communist takeover) to Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Due to President and party boss Antonín Novotný's devotion to Nikita Khrushchev and oneupmanship among other Eastern Bloc countries, Czechoslovakia was declared the first country after "our great ally, the fraternal Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" which achieved socialism (3 years before Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and 5 before Socialist Republic of Romania). Thus the constitution's preamble said that "socialism has won in our country," proclaiming that the last attempt to derail the move to socialism had been derailed by "the determined action of the working people in February 1948."

Socialist Republic of Romania

communist regimeRomaniaCommunist Romania
This was reflected in the change of the country's official name from the Czechoslovak Republic (which was described as a people's democracy" after the 1948 Communist takeover) to Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Due to President and party boss Antonín Novotný's devotion to Nikita Khrushchev and oneupmanship among other Eastern Bloc countries, Czechoslovakia was declared the first country after "our great ally, the fraternal Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" which achieved socialism (3 years before Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and 5 before Socialist Republic of Romania). Thus the constitution's preamble said that "socialism has won in our country," proclaiming that the last attempt to derail the move to socialism had been derailed by "the determined action of the working people in February 1948."

1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état

Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948Communist coup d'étatCommunist coup
This was reflected in the change of the country's official name from the Czechoslovak Republic (which was described as a people's democracy" after the 1948 Communist takeover) to Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Due to President and party boss Antonín Novotný's devotion to Nikita Khrushchev and oneupmanship among other Eastern Bloc countries, Czechoslovakia was declared the first country after "our great ally, the fraternal Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" which achieved socialism (3 years before Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and 5 before Socialist Republic of Romania). Thus the constitution's preamble said that "socialism has won in our country," proclaiming that the last attempt to derail the move to socialism had been derailed by "the determined action of the working people in February 1948."

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Communist PartyCzechoslovak Communist PartyCommunist
Infamous Article 4 stipulated that "the leading force in the society and the state is the vanguard of the working class, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ)."

Slovakia

SlovakSVKSlovak Republic
The 1960 Constitution severely limited the autonomy granted to Slovakia.

National Council (Slovakia)

National CouncilNational Council of the Slovak RepublicSlovak National Council
The executive branch of the Slovak government was abolished and its duties assigned to the Presidium of the Slovak National Council, thus combining executive and legislative functions into a single body.

Prague

Prague, Czech RepublicPrague, CzechoslovakiaPraha
The constitution was first amended by constitutional laws 110/1967 (status of Prague local councils to be set by special law), 28/1968 (similar for Bratislava), the Constitutional Law of Federation 143/1968 and accompanying 144/1968 on ethnic minorities, and further by constitutional laws 57/1969 (local councils put into the authority of national republics), 155/1969 (court reform), 43/1971 (elected bodies term of office prolonged to 5 years from 4), 50/1975 (this actually affected only the Constitutional Law of Federation, into which the Presidency had been moved: President unable to carry out his duties over a year can be replaced, i. e. ill Ludvík Svoboda with Gustáv Husák), 62/1978 (a minor change about schooling, see below), 135/1989 (leading role of the KSČ abolished etc.) and several times during 1990–1992 (e.

Bratislava

PressburgPozsonyBratislava, Slovakia
The constitution was first amended by constitutional laws 110/1967 (status of Prague local councils to be set by special law), 28/1968 (similar for Bratislava), the Constitutional Law of Federation 143/1968 and accompanying 144/1968 on ethnic minorities, and further by constitutional laws 57/1969 (local councils put into the authority of national republics), 155/1969 (court reform), 43/1971 (elected bodies term of office prolonged to 5 years from 4), 50/1975 (this actually affected only the Constitutional Law of Federation, into which the Presidency had been moved: President unable to carry out his duties over a year can be replaced, i. e. ill Ludvík Svoboda with Gustáv Husák), 62/1978 (a minor change about schooling, see below), 135/1989 (leading role of the KSČ abolished etc.) and several times during 1990–1992 (e.

Ludvík Svoboda

Ludvik SvobodaCzechoslovak General Ludvík SvobodaGeneral in command of the 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps, Ludvík Svoboda
The constitution was first amended by constitutional laws 110/1967 (status of Prague local councils to be set by special law), 28/1968 (similar for Bratislava), the Constitutional Law of Federation 143/1968 and accompanying 144/1968 on ethnic minorities, and further by constitutional laws 57/1969 (local councils put into the authority of national republics), 155/1969 (court reform), 43/1971 (elected bodies term of office prolonged to 5 years from 4), 50/1975 (this actually affected only the Constitutional Law of Federation, into which the Presidency had been moved: President unable to carry out his duties over a year can be replaced, i. e. ill Ludvík Svoboda with Gustáv Husák), 62/1978 (a minor change about schooling, see below), 135/1989 (leading role of the KSČ abolished etc.) and several times during 1990–1992 (e.

Gustáv Husák

Gustav HusakHusákGustav Husák
The constitution was first amended by constitutional laws 110/1967 (status of Prague local councils to be set by special law), 28/1968 (similar for Bratislava), the Constitutional Law of Federation 143/1968 and accompanying 144/1968 on ethnic minorities, and further by constitutional laws 57/1969 (local councils put into the authority of national republics), 155/1969 (court reform), 43/1971 (elected bodies term of office prolonged to 5 years from 4), 50/1975 (this actually affected only the Constitutional Law of Federation, into which the Presidency had been moved: President unable to carry out his duties over a year can be replaced, i. e. ill Ludvík Svoboda with Gustáv Husák), 62/1978 (a minor change about schooling, see below), 135/1989 (leading role of the KSČ abolished etc.) and several times during 1990–1992 (e.

National symbol

national symbolssymbolsNational river
g. 102/1990 change of the national symbols - the constitutional laws changing the country's name twice weren't formally amendments to the constitution; 23/1991 incorporation of the human rights charter that replaced the Chapter 2 below, etc.).