1960 Valdivia earthquake

Great Chilean earthquakeValdivia earthquake19601960 earthquake1960 Great Chilean earthquake1960 Tsunami1960 Valdivia earthquake and tsunamiearthquakestrongest earthquake ever measuredtsunami
The 1960 Valdivia earthquake (Terremoto de Valdivia) or the Great Chilean earthquake (Gran terremoto de Chile) on 22 May 1960 is the most powerful earthquake ever recorded.wikipedia
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Moment magnitude scale

moment magnitudeM w magnitude
Various studies have placed it at 9.4–9.6 on the moment magnitude scale.
A particular problem was that the scale (which in the 1970s was the preferred magnitude scale) saturates around 8.0 and therefore underestimates the energy release of "great" earthquakes such as the 1960 Chilean and 1964 Alaskan earthquakes.

Biobío Region

Bío Bío RegionBiobíoBío Bío
The 1960 Chilean earthquakes were a sequence of strong earthquakes that affected Chile between 21 May and 6 June 1960, centered in the Araucanía, Aysén, and Bío Bío regions of the country.
The Region has been hit by many Chilean earthquakes, including the most powerful earthquake ever recorded (in 1960) and the great earthquake of 2010.

Hilo, Hawaii

HiloHilo, HIHilo, Hawai'i
The tremor caused localised tsunamis that severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 25 m. The main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and devastated Hilo, Hawaii.
On May 22, 1960, another tsunami, caused by a 9.5-magnitude earthquake off the coast of Chile that day, claimed 61 lives, allegedly due to the failure of people to heed warning sirens.

Megathrust earthquake

megathrustmegathrust typemegathrust earthquakes
The epicenter of this megathrust earthquake was near Lumaco, approximately 570 km south of Santiago, with Valdivia being the most affected city. The earthquake was a megathrust earthquake resulting from the release of mechanical stress between the subducting Nazca Plate and the South American Plate, on the Peru–Chile Trench.
The largest recorded megathrust earthquake was the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, estimated magnitude 9.4-9.6, centered off the coast of Chile along the Peru-Chile trench, where the Nazca Plate is subducting under the South American Plate.

Tsunami

tsunamistidal waveseaquake
The resulting tsunami affected southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and the Aleutian Islands.
The 1960 Valdivia earthquake (M w 9.5), 1964 Alaska earthquake (M w 9.2), 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake (M w 9.2), and 2011 Tōhoku earthquake (M w 9.0) are recent examples of powerful megathrust earthquakes that generated tsunamis (known as teletsunamis) that can cross entire oceans.

Santiago

Santiago, ChileSantiago de ChileGreater Santiago
The epicenter of this megathrust earthquake was near Lumaco, approximately 570 km south of Santiago, with Valdivia being the most affected city.
The 1960 Valdivia earthquake and the 1985 Algarrobo earthquake both caused damage in Santiago, and led to the development of strict building codes with a view to minimising future earthquake damage.

Jorge Alessandri

Jorge Alessandri RodríguezAlessandriJorge Alessandri Rodriguez
Telecommunications to southern Chile were cut off and President Jorge Alessandri cancelled the traditional ceremony of the Battle of Iquique memorial holiday to oversee the emergency assistance efforts.
In May 1960, a strong earthquake struck the densely populated area between Concepción and Puerto Montt, causing more than US$400 million in damage.

Lumaco

Lumaco Valley
The epicenter of this megathrust earthquake was near Lumaco, approximately 570 km south of Santiago, with Valdivia being the most affected city.
The epicenter of the 1960 Valdivia earthquake was near Lumaco.

Puyehue-Cordón Caulle

Cordón CaullePuyehue VolcanoPuyehue
Two days after the earthquake Cordón Caulle, a volcanic vent close to Puyehue volcano, erupted.
Cordón Caulle erupted shortly after the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in history.

List of earthquakes in 1960

top 10 by magnitude for 1960
The first three quakes, all registering in the planet's top 10 by magnitude for 1960, are grouped together as the 1960 Concepción earthquakes.
All events which are associated with the 1960 Valdivia earthquake will be listed here.

Foreshock

fore-fore-shocksforeshocks
These earthquakes formed a southward migrating foreshock sequence to the main Valdivia shock, which occurred just 15 minutes after the third event.

Valdivia

Valdivia, ChileSanta María la Blanca de ValdiviaBierfest Valdivia
The epicenter of this megathrust earthquake was near Lumaco, approximately 570 km south of Santiago, with Valdivia being the most affected city.
In 1960 Valdivia was severely damaged by the Great Chilean earthquake, the most powerful earthquake ever recorded at magnitude 9.5.

Cruces River

CrucesRío Cruces
Soil subsidence also destroyed buildings, deepened local rivers, and created wetlands in such places as the Río Cruces and Chorocomayo, a new aquatic park north of the city.
The wetlands were created when the soil that surrounded the river sunk during the Great Chilean earthquake.

Nazca Plate

NazcaNazca platesNazca tectonic plate
The earthquake was a megathrust earthquake resulting from the release of mechanical stress between the subducting Nazca Plate and the South American Plate, on the Peru–Chile Trench.
The subduction of the Nazca plate under southern Chile has a history of producing massive earthquakes, including the largest ever recorded on earth, the moment magnitude 9.5 1960 Valdivia earthquake.

Subduction

subduction zonesubductedsubducting
The earthquake was a megathrust earthquake resulting from the release of mechanical stress between the subducting Nazca Plate and the South American Plate, on the Peru–Chile Trench.
Nine of the ten largest earthquakes of the last 100 years were subduction zone events, which included the 1960 Great Chilean earthquake, which, at M 9.5, was the largest earthquake ever recorded; the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami; and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.

Corral, Chile

Corral
At Corral, the main port of Valdivia, the water level rose 4 m before it began to recede.
The decline of Corral culminated with the 1960 Valdivia earthquake that destroyed houses, roads and port facilities.

Tralcán

TralcanMount TralcánTralcán Mount
During the Great Chilean earthquake, several landslides west of Tralcán Mountain blocked the outflow of Riñihue Lake.
Despite having been sacred to the huilliches for centuries, the mount became famous when several landslides near Tralcan dammed the Riñihue Lake after the 1960 Valdivia earthquake.

Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault

Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault ZoneLiquiñe-OfquiLiquine-Ofqui Fault
This earthquake probably occurred along the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault, meaning in this case that the fault would have moved as a consequence of the 22 May Valdivia earthquake.
A portion of the fault in Aysén Region likely slipped (moved) in an aftershock a few weeks after the 1960 Valdivia earthquake.

Peru–Chile Trench

Peru-Chile TrenchAtacama TrenchChile Trench
The earthquake was a megathrust earthquake resulting from the release of mechanical stress between the subducting Nazca Plate and the South American Plate, on the Peru–Chile Trench.

Chiloé Archipelago

ChiloéChiloeArchipelago of Chiloé
The earthquake's rupture zone was 800 km long, stretching from Arauco (37° S) to Chiloé Archipelago (43° S).
The cathedral in Ancud was destroyed and Castro was badly damaged by the Great Chilean earthquake of 1960, the most powerful ever recorded.

Puerto Montt

Puerto Montt, Chile
Puerto Montt, a major city today, had in the early 1960s about 49,500 inhabitants.
However, the 1960 Valdivia earthquake destroyed much of Puerto Montt, collapsing the port and the train station along with many building and houses.

Riñihuazo

dammed the Riñihue LakeRiñihue Lake damsThe Riñihuazo
This earthquake was of similar strength and also caused a Riñihuazo.
The Riñihuazo is the name given to the landslide damming of Riñihue Lake on 22 May 1960, after a landslide caused by the Great Chilean earthquake blocked its outflow.

Riñihue Lake

RiñihueLake Riñihue
During the Great Chilean earthquake, several landslides west of Tralcán Mountain blocked the outflow of Riñihue Lake. One landslide caused destruction and alarm following its blockage of the outflow of Riñihue Lake (see "Riñihuazo" section below).
During the Great Chilean earthquake a landslide near the Tralcan Mount dammed the Riñihue Lake.

2010 Chile earthquake

2010 Chilean earthquakeearthquake8.8 magnitude earthquake
On 27 February 2010 at 03:34 local time, an 8.8 magnitude earthquake occurred just to the north (off the coast of the Maule region of Chile, between Concepción and Santiago).
In historical times the Chilean coast has suffered many megathrust earthquakes along this plate boundary, including the strongest earthquake ever measured, which is the 1960 Valdivia earthquake.

1837 Valdivia earthquake

1837An earthquake in Valdivia1837 tsunami
Other lesser earthquakes that preceded the 1960 event occurred in 1737 and 1837.
Together with earthquakes in 1575 and 1737 the earthquake is among the historical predecessors to the great 1960 earthquake.