1982 Lebanon War

First Lebanon WarIsraeli invasion of LebanonLebanon WarOperation Peace for Galilee1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanoninvasion of Lebanon1982 invasion of LebanonIsrael invaded LebanonJune 1982 Israeli invasion of LebanonIsraeli invasion
The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border.wikipedia
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Shlomo Argov

1982 Israeli Ambassador assassination in LondonArgovAttempted assassination
The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border. The military operation was launched after gunmen from Abu Nidal's organization attempted to assassinate Shlomo Argov, Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom. Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin blamed Abu Nidal's enemy, the PLO, for the incident, and treated the incident as a casus belli for the invasion.
He was the Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom whose attempted assassination led to the 1982 Lebanon War.

Israel Defense Forces

IDFIsraeli Defense ForcesIsraeli Army
The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border. The military operation was launched after gunmen from Abu Nidal's organization attempted to assassinate Shlomo Argov, Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom. Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin blamed Abu Nidal's enemy, the PLO, for the incident, and treated the incident as a casus belli for the invasion.
The IDF served as Israel's armed forces in all the country's major military operations—including the 1948 War of Independence, 1951–1956 Retribution operations, 1956 Sinai War, 1964–1967 War over Water, 1967 Six-Day War, 1967–1970 War of Attrition, 1968 Battle of Karameh, 1973 Operation Spring of Youth, 1973 Yom Kippur War, 1976 Operation Entebbe, 1978 Operation Litani, 1982 Lebanon War, 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict, 1987–1993 First Intifada, 2000–2005 Second Intifada, 2002 Operation Defensive Shield, 2006 Lebanon War, 2008–2009 Operation Cast Lead, 2012 Operation Pillar of Defense, and 2014 Operation Protective Edge.

Sabra and Shatila massacre

Sabra and Shatilamassacreevents in Beirut
Outrage following Israel's role in the Phalangist-perpetrated Sabra and Shatila massacre, of mostly Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites, and Israeli popular disillusionment with the war would lead to a gradual withdrawal from Beirut to the areas claimed by the self-proclaimed Free Lebanon State in southern Lebanon (later to become the South Lebanon security belt), which was initiated following the 17 May Agreement and Syria's change of attitude towards the PLO.
In June 1982, the Israel Defense Forces had invaded Lebanon with the intention of rooting out the PLO.

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon

UNIFILLebanonUnited Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) was created after the incursion, following the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 in March 1978 to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Southern Lebanon, restore international peace and security, and help the government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area.
The mandate had to be adjusted twice, due to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and after the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000.

Ariel Sharon

SharonArik SharonArial Sharon
The relationship between Israel and the Maronites began to grow into a political-strategic alliance, and members of the Israeli government like Ariel Sharon began to conceive of a plan to install a pro-Israel Christian government in Lebanon, as it was known that Bashir wanted to remove the PLO and all Palestinian refugees in the country.
As Minister of Defense, he directed the 1982 Lebanon War.

Syrian Army

Syrian Arab ArmySAASyrian troops
After attacking the PLO – as well as Syrian, leftist, and Muslim Lebanese forces – the Israeli military, in cooperation with their Maronite allies and the self-proclaimed Free Lebanon State, occupied southern Lebanon, eventually surrounding the PLO and elements of the Syrian Army.
Syrian forces fought Israel during the 1982 Lebanon War.

War of the Camps

1987backing a mutiny within the PLOfighting a bloody civil war
After Israeli forces withdrew from most of Lebanon, the War of the Camps broke out between Lebanese factions, the remains of the PLO and Syria, in which Syria fought its former Palestinian allies.
Israel's second invasion of Lebanon in June 1982 succeeded in driving thousands of Palestinian fighters under the command of PLO Chairman Yassir Arafat out of Southern Lebanon and West Beirut.

Free Lebanon State

Free LebanonIndependent Free Lebanon
Outrage following Israel's role in the Phalangist-perpetrated Sabra and Shatila massacre, of mostly Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites, and Israeli popular disillusionment with the war would lead to a gradual withdrawal from Beirut to the areas claimed by the self-proclaimed Free Lebanon State in southern Lebanon (later to become the South Lebanon security belt), which was initiated following the 17 May Agreement and Syria's change of attitude towards the PLO. After attacking the PLO – as well as Syrian, leftist, and Muslim Lebanese forces – the Israeli military, in cooperation with their Maronite allies and the self-proclaimed Free Lebanon State, occupied southern Lebanon, eventually surrounding the PLO and elements of the Syrian Army.
Following the 1982 Lebanon War, much of the claimed territory of the Free Lebanon State became part of the South Lebanon Security Belt, under joint control of the Israeli Army and the Free Lebanon Army.

Beirut

Beirut, LebanonWest BeirutEast Beirut
Surrounded in West Beirut and subjected to heavy bombardment, the PLO forces and their allies negotiated passage from Lebanon with the aid of United States Special Envoy Philip Habib and the protection of international peacekeepers.
Another destructive chapter was the 1982 Lebanon War, during which most of West Beirut was under siege by Israeli troops.

Operation Mole Cricket 19

1982 air battleBeqaa Valleycompletely neutralize
In an effort to establish air superiority and greater freedom of action, the Israeli Air Force launched Operation Mole Cricket 19 on 9 June.
Operation Mole Cricket 19 (מבצע ערצב-19, Mivtza ʻArtzav Tsha-Esreh) was a suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) campaign launched by the Israeli Air Force (IAF) against Syrian targets on June 9, 1982, at the outset of the 1982 Lebanon War.

Golani Brigade

GolaniGolani Infantry Brigade1st "Golani" Brigade
Although an order to postpone the capture of Beaufort Castle was issued, it did not reach Israeli forces in time to prevent the operation, and Israeli troops of the Golani Brigade captured the castle in the fiercely-fought Battle of the Beaufort.
It has since participated in all of Israel's major wars and nearly all major operations, including the Suez Crisis, the Six-Day War, the War of Attrition, the Yom Kippur War, Operation Entebbe, the 1978 South Lebanon conflict, the 1982 and 2006 Lebanon Wars, and various operations during the Palestinian intifadas.

Siege of Beirut

besieged by Israeli troopslaid siege to Beirut88-day siege of Beirut
Siege of Beirut had begun on 14 June: Israeli forces had completed the encirclement of the city the previous day.
The Siege of Beirut took place in the summer of 1982, as part of the 1982 Lebanon War, which resulted from the breakdown of the cease-fire effected by the United Nations.

Multinational Force in Lebanon

Multinational ForceLebanonMultinational Force in Lebanon 1982–1984
More than 14,000 PLO combatants evacuated the country in August and September, supervised by the Multinational Force in Lebanon, an international peacekeeping force with troops from the United States, United Kingdom, France, and Italy.
The Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in August 1982 following an 1981 U.S.-brokered ceasefire between the PLO and Israel to end their involvement in the conflict between Lebanon's pro-government and pro-Syrian factions.

Battle of the Beaufort (1982)

Battle of the BeaufortBeaufort battleBeaufort Castle
Although an order to postpone the capture of Beaufort Castle was issued, it did not reach Israeli forces in time to prevent the operation, and Israeli troops of the Golani Brigade captured the castle in the fiercely-fought Battle of the Beaufort.
It was one of the first clashes of the 1982 Lebanon War, and resulted in the IDF capturing the castle.

Lebanese Civil War

civil warLebanon Civil Warcivil war in Lebanon
The Lebanese Civil War would continue until 1990, at which point Syria had established complete dominance over Lebanon.
Closely aligned with the Palestinians, ASALA fought many battles on the side of the Lebanese National Movement and the PLO, most prominently against Israeli forces and their right-wing allies during the 1982 phase of the war.

Israel

State of IsraelIsraeliISR
Continual violence near the Lebanese border occurred between Israel and the PLO starting from 1968; this peaked, following the relocation of PLO bases to Lebanon after the civil war in Jordan.
Following a series of PLO attacks in 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon that year to destroy the bases from which the PLO launched attacks and missiles into northern Israel.

Battle of Sultan Yacoub

In the Battle of Sultan Yacoub, the Israelis fought fiercely to extricate themselves, and called in reinforcements and artillery fire to cover the withdrawal.
The Battle of Sultan Yacoub was a battle between Syria and Israel during the 1982 Lebanon War, which occurred near the village of Sultan Yacoub in the Lebanese Bekaa, close to the borders with Syria.

Merkava

Merkava tankMerkava IVMerkava Mark III
The war also witnessed the Israeli Merkava MBT make its first combat debut, squaring off against Syrian T-72 tanks.
It was first used extensively in the 1982 Lebanon War.

M60 Patton

M60M60A1M60A3
They tallied the destruction of 33 tanks and the capture of an M60 Patton, which was sent to Damascus and thence transported to Moscow.
In 1982 the Israelis once again used the M60 during the 1982 Lebanon War, equipped with upgrades such as explosive reactive armor to defend against guided missiles that proved very effective at destroying tanks.

Battle of Jezzine (1982)

Battle of Jezzineensuing battle
In the Battle of Jezzine, Israeli forces consisting of two tank battalions supported by a reconnaissance company and engineering platoon took Jezzine in a fierce daylong battle against a Syrian battalion, then repulsed a fierce counterattack by dozens of Syrian commandos during the night in combat that lasted until dawn.
It was the first battle between Israel and Syria in the 1982 Lebanon War.

Hezbollah

HizbullahHizbollahHizballah
The emerging Hezbollah, soon to become the preeminent Islamic militia, evolved during this period.
After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon, which was controlled by the South Lebanon Army (SLA), a militia supported by Israel.

Alexander Haig

Alexander M. HaigAlexander M. Haig Jr.Haig
US Secretary of State, Alexander Haig filed a report with US President Ronald Reagan on Saturday 30 January 1982 that revealed Secretary Haig's fear that Israel might, at the slightest provocation, start a war against Lebanon.
Critics accused Haig of "greenlighting" the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982.

Ain al-Hilweh

Ein el-HilwehAin el-HilwehEin el-Helweh
Meanwhile, Israeli forces advancing along the coastal road reached the outskirts of Sidon, but were delayed by heavy resistance in the main streets and the Ain al-Hilweh refugee camp on the southeastern edge of the city, and after an attempt by paratroopers to capture the city center and secure the south-north route through the city failed, the city was bypassed via a detour through the hills to the east.
During the First Lebanon War in 1982, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) landed north of Sidon and the city was subjected to a heavy aerial bombing, causing heavy casualties among the civilian population.

Casus belli

act of warpretextacts of war
The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border. The military operation was launched after gunmen from Abu Nidal's organization attempted to assassinate Shlomo Argov, Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom. Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin blamed Abu Nidal's enemy, the PLO, for the incident, and treated the incident as a casus belli for the invasion.
The casus belli cited by Israel for its June 1982 invasion of Lebanon was the attempted assassination of the Israeli Ambassador in London, which the Israeli government blamed on the Palestinian Liberation Organization.

Israeli Air Force

Israel Air ForceIAFAir Force
In an effort to establish air superiority and greater freedom of action, the Israeli Air Force launched Operation Mole Cricket 19 on 9 June.
Prior to the 1982 Lebanon War, Syria, with the help of the Soviet Union, had built up an overlapping network of surface-to-air missiles in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley.