1983 Beirut barracks bombings

1983 Beirut barracks bombingBeirut barracks bombingMarine barracks bombingUS Marine barracksBeirut barracks bombingsbombing of the Marine barracksMarine barracksattack on the Marine barracksattackedbarracks bombing
On October 23, 1983, two truck bombs struck buildings in Beirut, Lebanon, housing American and French service members of the Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF), a military peacekeeping operation during the Lebanese Civil War.wikipedia
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Car bomb

truck bombcar bombingcar bombs
On October 23, 1983, two truck bombs struck buildings in Beirut, Lebanon, housing American and French service members of the Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF), a military peacekeeping operation during the Lebanese Civil War.
A notable suicide car bombing was the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, when two simultaneous attacks killed 241 U.S. Marines and 58 French military personnel.

Multinational Force in Lebanon

Multinational ForceLebanonMultinational Force in Lebanon 1982–1984
On October 23, 1983, two truck bombs struck buildings in Beirut, Lebanon, housing American and French service members of the Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF), a military peacekeeping operation during the Lebanese Civil War.
In early 1984, after it became apparent that the government of Lebanon was no longer able to impose its will on warring factions as they entered Beirut and hostilities renewed, the MNF ended its presence mission in Beirut and went offshore before completely leaving Lebanon in July of the same year in the aftermath of the October 1983 barracks bombing that killed 241 U.S. and 58 French servicemen.

Islamic Jihad Organization

Islamic JihadIslamic Jihad OrganisationIslamic Jihadist
A group called Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the bombings and said that the aim was to force the MNF out of Lebanon.
Their deadliest attacks were in 1983, when they carried out the bombing of the barracks of French and U.S. MNF peacekeeping troops, and that of the United States embassy in Beirut.

9th Parachute Chasseur Regiment

9 e RCP9 e Régiment d'Infanterie de Ligne9 e Régiment de Chasseurs Parachutistes
Minutes later, a second suicide bomber struck the nine-story Drakkar building, a few kilometers away, where the French contingent was stationed; 55 paratroopers from the 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment and three paratroopers of the 9th Parachute Chasseur Regiment were killed and 15 injured.
The parachute regiment served extensively within the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFL) and the Multinational Force in 1983 where the regiment lost 3 paratroopers during the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing.

Beirut

Beirut, LebanonWest BeirutEast Beirut
On October 23, 1983, two truck bombs struck buildings in Beirut, Lebanon, housing American and French service members of the Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF), a military peacekeeping operation during the Lebanese Civil War.
In 1983, French and US barracks were bombed, killing 241 American servicemen, 58 French servicemen, six civilians and the two suicide bombers.

2nd Marine Division

2d Marine DivisionSecond Marine Division2nd
The first suicide bomber detonated a truck bomb at the building serving as a barracks for the 1st Battalion 8th Marines (Battalion Landing Team – BLT 1/8) of the 2nd Marine Division, killing 220 Marines, 18 sailors and 3 soldiers, making this incident the deadliest single-day death toll for the United States Marine Corps since the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II and the deadliest single-day death toll for the United States Armed Forces since the first day of the Tet Offensive in the Vietnam War. BLT 2/6, the Second Marine Division Air Alert Battalion stationed at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and commanded by [http://valor.militarytimes.com/recipient.php?recipientid=4375|Lt.
The Division suffered the loss of 241 Marines and Sailors during the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing.

United States Marine Corps

U.S. Marine CorpsMarinesMarine Corps
The first suicide bomber detonated a truck bomb at the building serving as a barracks for the 1st Battalion 8th Marines (Battalion Landing Team – BLT 1/8) of the 2nd Marine Division, killing 220 Marines, 18 sailors and 3 soldiers, making this incident the deadliest single-day death toll for the United States Marine Corps since the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II and the deadliest single-day death toll for the United States Armed Forces since the first day of the Tet Offensive in the Vietnam War.
On 23 October 1983, the Marine headquarters building in Beirut, Lebanon, was bombed, causing the highest peacetime losses to the Corps in its history (220 Marines and 21 other service members were killed) and leading to the American withdrawal from the country.

1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment

1 er Régiment de Chasseurs Parachutistes1 e RCP1 er R.C.P
Minutes later, a second suicide bomber struck the nine-story Drakkar building, a few kilometers away, where the French contingent was stationed; 55 paratroopers from the 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment and three paratroopers of the 9th Parachute Chasseur Regiment were killed and 15 injured.
On the morning of October 23, 1983; the bombing of the Drakkar barracks claimed the lives of 55 paratroopers of the 3rd combat company of Captain Jacky Thomas of the 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment and 3 paratroopers of the 9th Parachute Chasseur Regiment.

Lebanese Civil War

civil warLebanon Civil Warcivil war in Lebanon
On October 23, 1983, two truck bombs struck buildings in Beirut, Lebanon, housing American and French service members of the Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF), a military peacekeeping operation during the Lebanese Civil War.
On 23 October 1983, a devastating Iranian-sponsored suicide bombing targeted the barracks of U.S. and French forces in Beirut, killing 241 American and 58 French servicemen.

24th Marine Expeditionary Unit

24th24th MEU24th Marine Amphibious Unit
On July 22, Beirut International Airport (BIA), the headquarters of the U.S. 24th Marine Amphibious Unit (24th MAU), was shelled with Druze mortar and artillery fire, wounding three U.S. Marines and causing the temporary closure of the airport.
The 24th MAU lost 241 personnel in the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing.

Hezbollah

HizbullahHizbollahHizballah
Some analysis highlights the role of Hezbollah and Iran, calling it "an Iranian operation from top to bottom".

1st Battalion, 8th Marines

1st Battalion 8th Marines1st Battalion1/8
The first suicide bomber detonated a truck bomb at the building serving as a barracks for the 1st Battalion 8th Marines (Battalion Landing Team – BLT 1/8) of the 2nd Marine Division, killing 220 Marines, 18 sailors and 3 soldiers, making this incident the deadliest single-day death toll for the United States Marine Corps since the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II and the deadliest single-day death toll for the United States Armed Forces since the first day of the Tet Offensive in the Vietnam War.
During the Cold War, they were part of Operation Blue Bat in Lebanon in 1958, the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, intervention in the Dominican Republic in 1965, the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing in Lebanon in 1983 where 241 Marines, sailors and soldiers lost their lives that day.

Caspar Weinberger

Caspar W. WeinbergerWeinbergerCaspar Willard Weinberger
According to Caspar Weinberger, then United States Secretary of Defense, there is no knowledge of who did the bombing.
Weinberger was reluctant to commit the armed forces, keeping only a token force of American marines in Lebanon that then became victims in the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing.

Imad Mughniyeh

Imad MughniyahImad MugniyahAssassination of Imad Mughniyah
Lebanese author Hala Jaber claims that Iran and Syria helped organize the bombing which was run by two Lebanese Shia, Imad Mughniyah and Mustafa Badr Al Din:
It began with the Beirut barracks bombing and US embassy bombings, both of which took place in 1983 and killed over 350, as well as the kidnapping of dozens of foreigners in Lebanon in the 1980s.

Suicide attack

suicide bombingsuicide bombersuicide bombers
The first suicide bomber detonated a truck bomb at the building serving as a barracks for the 1st Battalion 8th Marines (Battalion Landing Team – BLT 1/8) of the 2nd Marine Division, killing 220 Marines, 18 sailors and 3 soldiers, making this incident the deadliest single-day death toll for the United States Marine Corps since the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II and the deadliest single-day death toll for the United States Armed Forces since the first day of the Tet Offensive in the Vietnam War.
The Islamic Dawa Party's car bombing of the Iraqi embassy in Beirut in December 1981 and Hezbollah's bombing of the U.S. embassy in April 1983 and attack on United States Marine and French barracks in October 1983 brought suicide bombings international attention.

Inman Report

commission's reportformally established in 1985
Along with the U.S. embassy bombing, the barracks bombing prompted the Inman Report, a review of the security of U.S. facilities overseas for the U.S. State Department.
The Inman Report, formally known as the Report of the Secretary of State's Advisory Panel on Overseas Security, was a report released in 1985 in response to the Marine barracks bombing and the April 1983 US Embassy bombing in Beirut, Lebanon.

VMM-162

HMM-162Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron (HMM-162)Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 162
Medevac helicopters, CH-46s from Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron (HMM-162), were airborne by 6:45 AM.
While in theater, the squadron provided helicopter support during the deployment, and provided critical support during the aftermath of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing.

2nd Battalion, 6th Marines

2nd Battalion 6th Marines2nd Battalion2nd Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment
BLT 2/6, the Second Marine Division Air Alert Battalion stationed at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and commanded by [http://valor.militarytimes.com/recipient.php?recipientid=4375|Lt.
They returned on October 23, 1983, as relief for 1st Battalion, 8th Marines after the bombing of the Marine barracks.

George Shultz

George P. ShultzShultzShultz, George P.
A true retaliatory strike failed to materialize because there was a rift in White House counsel (largely between George P. Shultz of the Department of State and Weinberger of the Department of Defense) and because the extant evidence pointing at Iranian involvement was circumstantial at that time: the Islamic Jihad, which took credit for the attack, was a front for Hezbollah which was acting as a proxy for Iran; thus, affording Iran plausible deniability.
The October 1983 bombing of the Marine barracks in Beirut killed 241 U.S. servicemen, after which the deployment came to an ignominious end.

Mustafa Badreddine

Mustafa Badr Al DinMustafa Amine BadreddineMustafa Badreddin
Lebanese author Hala Jaber claims that Iran and Syria helped organize the bombing which was run by two Lebanese Shia, Imad Mughniyah and Mustafa Badr Al Din:
Ya Libnan reported that he had been behind the bombing of the US Marine Corps barracks in Lebanon in 1983, killing 241 marines.

Pentaerythritol tetranitrate

PETNnitropentapenthrite
Much of what is now public knowledge of Iranian involvement, e.g., PETN purportedly supplied by Iran, the suicide bomber's name and nationality, etc., in the bombings was not revealed to the public until the 2003 trial, Peterson, et al v. Islamic Republic, et al.
In 1983, 307 people were killed after a truck bomb filled with PETN was detonated at the Beirut barracks.

United States Navy Dental Corps

Navy Dental CorpsDental CorpsDental
24th MAU medical personnel, Navy dentists LT Gil Bigelow and LT Jim Ware, established two aid stations to triage and treat casualties.
On 23 October 1983, the bombing of the Marine headquarters and barracks of Battalion Landing Team 1/8 of the 24th Marine Amphibious Unit at Beirut International Airport, Lebanon, left 241 American servicemen dead.

Arnold Resnicoff

Arnold E. ResnicoffRabbi Arnold ResnicoffRabbi Arnold E. Resnicoff
According to Rabbi Arnold Resnicoff, one of the navy chaplains present during the attack, "Amidst the rubble, we found the plywood board which we had made for our "Peace-keeping Chapel." The Chaplain Corps Seal had been hand-painted, with the words "Peace-keeping" above it, and "Chapel" beneath. Now "Peace-keeping" was legible, but the bottom of the plaque was destroyed, with only a few burned and splintered pieces of wood remaining. The idea of peace – above; the reality of war – below."
In 1984 the President of the United States spoke on his eyewitness account of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing.

RAF Akrotiri

AkrotiriR.A.F. AkrotiriAkrotiri airbase
U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force and Royal Air Force medevac planes transported the seriously wounded to the hospital at RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus and to U.S. and German hospitals in West Germany.
Due to the station's relative proximity to the Middle East, it is often used by British allies when needed, such as for casualty reception for Americans after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing and as a staging post before heading into theatres of combat in the Middle East/Persian Gulf theaters.

Robert McFarlane

Robert C. McFarlaneBud McFarlaneRobert "Bud" McFarlane
Special Representative in the Middle East Robert McFarlane's team had requested New Jersey after the August 29th Druze mortar attack that killed two Marines.
McFarlane has been criticized for involving the United States armed forces in the Lebanon Civil War with gunship bombardment of Lebanese opposition forces which may have led to the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing where 241 American servicemen were killed.