Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony
Ferdinand Marcos (right) with his family in the 1920s
Ferdinand Marcos being conferred with a Doctor Laws, honoris causa degree during the investiture of the first Filipino president of Central Philippine University, Rex. D. Drilon, on April 21, 1967.
Ferdinand Marcos as a soldier in the 1940s
Ferdinand Marcos is sworn into his first term on December 30, 1965.
The leaders of some of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Marcos on October 24, 1966
President Marcos (left) and his wife Imelda (center) meet with US President Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in Manila in October 1966.
Marcos with Japanese Emperor Hirohito in 1966
Ferdinand Marcos takes the Oath of Office for a second term before Chief Justice Roberto Concepcion on December 30, 1969.
Richard Nixon with the Marcos family in 1969
September 24, 1972, issue of the Sunday edition of the Philippine Daily Express
Imperial Japanese Army soldier Hiroo Onoda offering his military sword to Marcos on the day of his surrender on March 11, 1974
Ferdinand Marcos with US Secretary of State George Shultz, 1982
President Ferdinand E. Marcos in Washington in 1983
Marcos at the North–South Summit on International Cooperation and Development in Cancun alongside other world leaders including I. Gandhi, F. Mitterrand, R. Reagan, M. Thatcher, K. Waldheim, Zhao Ziyang; October 23, 1981
Corazon Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., takes the Oath of Office on February 25, 1986
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos at the White House with US President Ronald Reagan in 1982
The body of Ferdinand Marcos was stored in a refrigerated crypt at the Ferdinand E. Marcos Presidential Center in Batac, Ilocos Norte until 2016.
Students of the Ateneo de Manila University along Katipunan Avenue protesting against the burial of Marcos insisting that the former president is not a hero, but a dictator
Ferdinand Marcos in Washington, 1983
A 1999 view of the San Fernando segment of North Luzon Expressway, one of Marcos's infrastructure projects
San Juanico Bridge connecting Leyte and Samar
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Johnsons in 1966
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Nixons in 1969
Marcos greeting Robert Muldoon on the latter's official visit to the Philippines, 1980. New Zealand was a valuable strategic partner for the country in the last years of Marcos' rule.

After being dared by an American journalist, President Ferdinand E. Marcos declared a snap election during an interview on the American Broadcasting Company political affairs programme, This Week with David Brinkley in November 1985.

- 1986 Philippine presidential election

This discontent, the resulting resurgence of the opposition in the 1984 Philippine parliamentary election, and the discovery of documents exposing his financial accounts and false war records led Marcos to call the snap election of 1986.

- Ferdinand Marcos
Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony

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Aquino in 1986

Corazon Aquino

Filipina politician who served as the 11th president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992.

Filipina politician who served as the 11th president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992.

Aquino in 1986
Corazon Aquino taking the oath of office before Chief Justice Claudio Teehankee Sr. in Club Filipino, San Juan on 25 February 1986
Corazon Aquino during a ceremony honoring the United States Air Force.
President Corazon Aquino with U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle participate in the Veterans' Day Service at Arlington National Cemetery on 10 November 1989.
President Aquino holds talks with the officials from the International Rice Research Institute.
President Corazon Aquino addresses base workers at a rally at Remy Field concerning jobs for Filipino workers after the Americans withdraw from the U.S. facilities.
Corazon Aquino speaking before the 2003 Ninoy Aquino Award ceremony at the U.S. Embassy in Manila.
Queue for Aquino's wake in front of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila campus, which had opened its facilities including a clinic and restrooms for the mourners. The cross topping the dome of Manila Cathedral is visible in the upper right of the photo.
The grave of Corazon and Ninoy Aquino photographed on 8 August 2009, a week after Corazon Aquino's death. Corazon Aquino shares a gravestone with her husband Ninoy Aquino at the Manila Memorial Park in Parañaque, Philippines. Their son, Benigno III, was later interred beside their graves upon his death in June 2021.
Cory Aquino memorial at General Tinio, Nueva Ecija

She was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which ended the two-decade rule of President Ferdinand Marcos and led to the establishment of the current democratic Fifth Philippine Republic.

After the election held on 7 February 1986, the Batasang Pambansa proclaimed Marcos and his running mate Arturo Tolentino as the winners, which prompted allegations of electoral fraud and Aquino's call for massive civil disobedience actions.

Enrile in March 2017

Juan Ponce Enrile

Enrile in March 2017
Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile with President Ferdinand Marcos.
"FM Declares Martial Law"—the headline of the September 24, 1972 issue of the Sunday Express, which was the Sunday edition of the Philippines Daily Express. The Daily Express was the only newspaper allowed to circulate upon the declaration of Martial Law.
Juan Ponce Enrile's bullet-riddled car
Enrile in 1987.
with Hajime Ishii (left) on May 4, 2011
Enrile with Senators Jinggoy Estrada (left) and Bong Revilla (center) after Revilla's Privilege Speech at the Senate floor on June 9, 2014
Enrile promoting his autobiography

Juan Valentin Furagganan Ponce Enrile Sr., (born Juanito Furagganan; February 14, 1924), also referred to by his initials JPE, is a Filipino politician and lawyer known for his role in the administration of Philippine Dictator Ferdinand Marcos; his role in the failed coup that helped hasten the 1986 People Power Revolution and the ouster of Marcos; and his tenure in the Philippine legislature in the years after the revolution.

Before Marcos could put down the leaders of the failed coup, civilians already preparing mass protests in response to electoral fraud during the 1986 Philippine presidential election, went en masse to Epifanio de los Santos Avenue near where Enrile and Ramos were encamped, preventing Marcos from assaulting the coup organizers.

Ramos in April 1998, 2 months before the end of his term

Fidel V. Ramos

Retired Filipino general and politician who served as the 12th president of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998.

Retired Filipino general and politician who served as the 12th president of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998.

Ramos in April 1998, 2 months before the end of his term
Rented family house of Narciso Ramos and Angela Valdez in Lingayen, where Fidel and Leticia Ramos-Shahani were born
Chief of Indonesian National Police Lieutenant General Awaloedin Djamin received an honorary visit by Chief of Philippine Constabulary Maj. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos, AFP (left), December 1979
Former Secretary of National Defense Fidel V. Ramos taking his oath of office as the 12th president of the Philippines on June 30, 1992.
President Fidel V. Ramos troops the honor guards at the Pentagon with Secretary of Defense William Cohen during a state visit in 1998.
Ramos, then-Philippine Special Envoy to China, briefs President Rodrigo Duterte and the cabinet.
Then-BOAO Forum for Asia Chairman Ramos with former Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke (right), and Syed Abul Hossain (center).
Ramos House marker

He rose the ranks in the Philippine military early in his career and became Chief of the Philippine Constabulary and Vice Chief-of-Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines during the term of President Ferdinand Marcos.

On 22 February 1986, Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile protested alleged fraud committed by Marcos in the 1986 snap elections, withdrawing support and triggering the non-violent People Power Revolution.

Benigno Aquino Jr.

Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr.

Assassinated on Sunday, August 21, 1983, on the tarmac of Manila International Airport .

Assassinated on Sunday, August 21, 1983, on the tarmac of Manila International Airport .

Benigno Aquino Jr.
B-1836, the incident aircraft, taxiing at Kai Tak Airport.
Bloodied safari jacket, pants (folded), belt, and boots worn by Aquino upon his return from exile are on permanent display at the Aquino Center in Tarlac.
The airport terminal where the assassination occurred, now the present day Terminal 1 of Manila International Airport, which as since been renamed as "Ninoy Aquino International Airport" in his honor. Many still refer to the airport by its former and call this terminal as "Ninoy Aquino Terminal".

A longtime political opponent of President Ferdinand Marcos, Aquino had just landed in his home country after three years of self-imposed exile in the United States when he was shot in the head while being escorted from an aircraft to a vehicle that was waiting to transport him to prison.

It is also credited with thrusting Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, into the public spotlight and her running for president in the 1986 snap election.

Seal of the Philippine Armed Forces

Armed Forces of the Philippines

The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) are the military forces of the Philippines.

The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) are the military forces of the Philippines.

Seal of the Philippine Armed Forces
The Philippines is shown in red. The individual countries that are foreign suppliers are shown in blue. The remaining European Union members are shown in light blue.
Department of National Defense Building, Camp Aguinaldo
Framework of the Philippine Defense Reform Program
Steps of the Philippine Defense Reform Program
Funding of the Philippine Defense Reform Program
A Philippine Marine Corps instructor teaches US Marines "Pekiti-Tirsia Kali", a Philippine martial art, during military exercises
Philippine Navy rigid hull inflatable boats perform a maritime interdiction operation exercise in Manila Bay.
Philippine Marine Corps push forward after splashing ashore in an amphibious assault vehicle during an exercise.
NAVSOCOM at the SEACAT 2018 Exercise 002
Soldiers of the Philippine Army 11th "Alakdan" Infantry Division
Sulu Commander Major General William N Gonzales extended his appreciation to the soldiers of the Philippine Army 11th Infantry Division and Joint Task Force
Airmen of the 710th Special Operations Wing prepare to jump from a KC-130 during Parachute Operations training.
The Northrop F-5 was the primary multi-role aircraft of the Philippine Air Force from 1967 to 2005.
Philippine Air Force W-3A Sokol in combat helicopter paint scheme before transferring to search and rescue role.
Philippine Air Force S-70i Black Hawk
Philippine Air Force T129B ATAK
Two PAF's FA-50PH fighter jets
The BRP Jose Rizal, the first purpose-built vessel of the Philippine Navy
BRP Gregorio del Pilar steam in formation together with BRP Edsa Dos during the sea phase of CARAT Philippines 2013.
The BRP Antonio Luna (FF-151) Frigate of the Philippine Navy (PN), Photo taken at the Manila South Harbor
The BRP Artemio Ricarte during the 2008 Balikatan exercise
Salaknib Exercise 2019
Balikatan 2019 - Combined-Arms Live Fire at CERAB
A LAV-300 vehicle of the Philippine Marine Corps (PMC)
Philippine Army M113A2 FSV - 2018 Kalayaan Parade
A Philippine Army M113A2 FSV equipped with a UT30 25mm RCWS
{{center|Flag of the Armed Forces of the Philippines}}
{{center|Flag of the Philippine Army}}
{{center|Flag of the Philippine Air Force}}
{{center|Flag of the Philippine Navy}}
{{center|Flag of the Philippine Marine Corps}}
{{center|Battledress identification patch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines}}
{{center|Philippine Army battledress patch}}
{{center|Philippine Air Force battledress patch}}
Philippine Marine Corps battledress pocket patch
{{center|Philippine Navy battledress patch
{{center|Emblem of the Philippine Commonwealth Armed Forces, 1935-1946}}
{{center|Shoulder patch of the AFP General Staff, 1946-1965}}

President Ferdinand Marcos sought to have a strong personal influence over the Armed Forces as soon as he became president in 1965, holding on to the portfolio of defense secretary in the first thirteen months of his presidency to develop what scholars have noted to be "a patronage system within the defense establishment."

Due to what was popularly believed to be electoral fraud during the 1986 Philippine presidential election, February 1986 saw a period of uncertainty.

History of the Philippines (1965–1986)

Location of the Philippines in Southeast Asia.
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with Lyndon B. Johnson and Lady Bird Johnson during a visit to the United States.
Location of the Philippines in Southeast Asia.
Ferdinand Marcos, president from 1965 to 1986.

The history of the Philippines, from 1965 to 1986, covers the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos.

This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a series of events, including pressure from the United States, that culminated in a snap presidential election on February 7, 1986.

Benigno Aquino Jr.

Both a Filipino and Spanish name.

Both a Filipino and Spanish name.

Benigno Aquino Jr. (right) with President Ramon Magsaysay in August 1951
Aquino with Jose W. Diokno; the two main opposition leaders arrested by Marcos in Laur, Nueva Ecija after Proclamation No. 1081
President Ferdinand Marcos meeting Aquino
The room where Aquino was detained from August 1973 to 1980
Aquino delivers a prepared statement against the Marcos regime
B-1836, the aircraft involved in the assassination, taxiing at Kai Tak Airport
Clothes worn by Aquino upon his return from exile at the Aquino Center in Tarlac
Aquino's grave next to his wife's at the Manila Memorial Park
Ninoy Aquino on a 2000 stamp of the Philippines

Aquino, together with Gerardo Roxas and Jovito Salonga, helped form the leadership of the opposition towards then President Ferdinand Marcos.

His death revitalised opposition to Marcos; it also catapulted his widow, Corazon, into the political limelight and prompted her to successfully run for a six-year term as president as a member of the United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO) party in the 1986 snap election.

Imelda in July 2008

Imelda Marcos

Imelda in July 2008
Imelda Marcos in 1953
Imelda Romualdez-Marcos with former President Ferdinand Marcos and family during the 1965 inauguration
Imelda Marcos at the Bataan Death March Memorial
Lyndon B. Johnson and Imelda Marcos dancing
Meeting of the Marcoses and the Nixons in 1969 at the Malacañang Palace
Imelda Marcos features prominently in protest art displayed in the lobby of the Bantayog ng mga Bayani Museum, which documents the events of the Marcos Dictatorship and "honors the heroes and martyrs that fought the regime".

Imelda Romualdez Marcos (born Imelda Remedios Visitacion Trinidad Romualdez; July 2, 1929) is a Filipina politician and convicted criminal who was First Lady of the Philippines for 20 years, during which she and her husband Ferdinand Marcos stole billions of pesos from the Filipino people, amassing a personal fortune estimated to have been worth US$5 billion to US$10 billion by the time they were deposed in 1986.

On February 7, 1986, snap elections were held between Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino, the widow of Benigno Aquino Jr. Despite Ferdinand Marcos claiming to have won the election, allegations of vote rigging led to mass protests, later known as the People Power Revolution.

A ballot box used in France

Snap election

Election that is called earlier than the one that has been scheduled.

Election that is called earlier than the one that has been scheduled.

A ballot box used in France

However, during the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, the constitution starting from 1973, and first applied in 1978, placed the country under the semi-presidential system of government, where the Batasang Pambansa (parliament) can be dissolved.

In the Philippines, the term "snap election" often refers to the 1986 presidential election.