1987 Fijian coups d'état

two military coups1987 coupsmilitary coupsmilitary coup of 19871987 coupcoupFiji coups of 1987military coupcoups of 19871987
The Fijian coups of 1987 resulted in the overthrow of the elected government of Fijian Prime Minister Timoci Bavadra, the deposition of Elizabeth II as Queen of Fiji, and in the declaration of a republic.wikipedia
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Sitiveni Rabuka

Rabuka, SitiveniRabukaSitiveni Ligamamada Rabuka
Both military actions were led by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka, then third in command of the Royal Fiji Military Forces.
Sitiveni Ligamamada Rabuka, OBE, MSD, OStJ, (born 13 September 1948) is best known as the instigator of two military coups that shook Fiji in 1987.

Monarchy of Fiji

Queen of FijiTui VitiKing of Fiji
The Fijian coups of 1987 resulted in the overthrow of the elected government of Fijian Prime Minister Timoci Bavadra, the deposition of Elizabeth II as Queen of Fiji, and in the declaration of a republic. From independence in 1970, Fiji's head of state was the Queen of Fiji, Elizabeth II.
After a second military coup in 1987, Fiji became a republic, and the monarchy was ended.

Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth IIthe QueenQueen
The Fijian coups of 1987 resulted in the overthrow of the elected government of Fijian Prime Minister Timoci Bavadra, the deposition of Elizabeth II as Queen of Fiji, and in the declaration of a republic.
The same year, the elected Fijian government was deposed in a military coup.

House of Representatives of Fiji

House of Representativesparliamentarianparliamentary
On the morning of 14 May, around 10 am, a section of ten masked, armed soldiers entered the Fijian House of Representatives and subdued the national legislature, which had gathered there for its morning session.
Ethnic Fijian nationalists blamed the national constituencies for the election of an Indo-Fijian dominated government in 1987, and following two military coups, they were abolished by the new republican Constitution of 1990.

Kamisese Mara

Ratu Sir Kamisese MaraRatu Kamisese MaraRatu Sir'' Kamisese Mara
The Fijian general election of April 1987 resulted in the replacement of the indigenous-led conservative government of Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara with a multi-ethnic Labour-led coalition supported mostly by the Indo-Fijian plurality and Rabuka claimed ethnic Fijian concerns of racial discrimination as his excuse for seizing power.
Two military coups led by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka seriously undermined the social and economic stability, and the international prestige, of Fiji.

Fiji Labour Party

Labour PartyLabourFLP
The Fijian general election of April 1987 resulted in the replacement of the indigenous-led conservative government of Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara with a multi-ethnic Labour-led coalition supported mostly by the Indo-Fijian plurality and Rabuka claimed ethnic Fijian concerns of racial discrimination as his excuse for seizing power.
Strikes and demonstrations followed, and on 14 May the army seized power.

Fijians

Fijianindigenous Fijiansethnic Fijian
Both before and after Fiji gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1970, tensions between the indigenous Fijian and Indo-Fijian ethnic groups (comprising an estimated 46% and 49% of the 1987 population, respectively) continually manifested themselves in social and political unrest. The Commission received 860 written and 120 oral submissions, and produced a report recommending a new unicameral legislature comprising 36 Fijians (28 elected and 8 appointed by the Great Council of Chiefs), 22 Indo-Fijians, 8 General electors, 1 Rotuman, and up to four nominees of the Prime Minister.
In 1987, two military coups were staged.

Republic of Fiji Military Forces

MilitaryFiji Military ForcesArmy
Both military actions were led by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka, then third in command of the Royal Fiji Military Forces.
In 1987, soldiers were responsible for two military coups, and in 2000, the military organised a countercoup to quash George Speight's civilian coup.

Great Council of Chiefs

Bose Levu VakaturagaGCCBose Levu Vakaturaga (Great Council of Chiefs)
The Commission received 860 written and 120 oral submissions, and produced a report recommending a new unicameral legislature comprising 36 Fijians (28 elected and 8 appointed by the Great Council of Chiefs), 22 Indo-Fijians, 8 General electors, 1 Rotuman, and up to four nominees of the Prime Minister.
Following the 1987 military coup conducted by Sitiveni Rabuka, the Council reverted to being an exclusively aristocratic body, its membership reserved to high chiefs.

List of heads of state of Fiji

Head of StateKingmonarch
From independence in 1970, Fiji's head of state was the Queen of Fiji, Elizabeth II.
Fiji regained its independence as the Dominion of Fiji in 1970, and, following two military coups, it became a republic in 1987.

John Falvey

John Neil FALVEY
Following the coup, the Governor-General commissioned a Constitution Review Committee, led by Sir John Falvey to look at the "deficiencies" of Fiji's 1970 constitution.
Following the first of two military coups, Governor-General Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau appointed Falvey to chair a constitutional review commission.

President of Fiji

PresidentpresidentialPresidency
Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau resigned as Governor-General on 15 October, although he was made the first President of Fiji on 6 December 1987. A new constitution was ratified in 1990, in which the offices of President and Prime Minister, along with two-thirds of the Senate, a substantial majority of the House of Representatives were reserved for indigenous Fijians.
The office of President was established following two military coups in 1987 that led to the proclamation of a republic on 7 October, ending the Fijian monarchy.

1987 Fijian general election

1987 general election1987 electiongeneral election
The Fijian general election of April 1987 resulted in the replacement of the indigenous-led conservative government of Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara with a multi-ethnic Labour-led coalition supported mostly by the Indo-Fijian plurality and Rabuka claimed ethnic Fijian concerns of racial discrimination as his excuse for seizing power.
Effective Indo-Fijian domination of the government caused widespread resentment among the ethnic Fijian community, and after less than a month in office, the new government was deposed in on 14 May 1987 in a coup d'état led by Lieutenant-Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka.

Penaia Ganilau

Ratu Sir Penaia GanilauPenaia Kanatabatu Ganilau Ratu '''Sir Penaia Kanatabatu Ganilau
The actions of the Governor-General were viewed with suspicion by the deposed government and Bavadra challenged Ratu Sir Penaia's decision in the Supreme Court of Fiji.
Two military coups were carried out in 1987 by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka.

General electors

Generalminoritiesminority
The Commission received 860 written and 120 oral submissions, and produced a report recommending a new unicameral legislature comprising 36 Fijians (28 elected and 8 appointed by the Great Council of Chiefs), 22 Indo-Fijians, 8 General electors, 1 Rotuman, and up to four nominees of the Prime Minister.
In the wake of the 1987 coup, a new constitution was promulgated in 1990 aimed at enforcing and institutionalising ethnic Fijian dominance.

1997 Constitution of Fiji

1997 ConstitutionConstitutionConstitution of Fiji
These discriminatory provisions were eventually overturned by a constitutional revision in 1997.
The first, adopted in 1970 upon independence, was abrogated following two military coups in 1987.

Commonwealth of Nations

CommonwealthBritish CommonwealthCommonwealth countries
The Commonwealth responded with Fiji's immediate expulsion from the association.
The declaration of a Republic in Fiji in 1987, after military coups designed to deny Indo-Fijians political power, was not accompanied by an application to remain.

Senate of Fiji

SenateSenatorSenators
A new constitution was ratified in 1990, in which the offices of President and Prime Minister, along with two-thirds of the Senate, a substantial majority of the House of Representatives were reserved for indigenous Fijians.
The Constitution was rewritten following two military coups in 1987.

National constituencies

nationalcross-voting
National constituencies, ethnically allocated and elected by universal suffrage, were to be abolished, and all voting was to be communal.
National constituencies were abolished in the wake of the Fiji coups of 1987.

Economy of Fiji

FijieconomicFijian economy
Fiji's economy contracted by as much as 7.8% between 1987 and 1988, due to a major downturn in tourism and sugar production.
Since 1987, when the country was destabilized by two military coups, Fiji has suffered a very high rate of emigration, particularly of skilled and professional personnel.

Timoci Bavadra

BavadraBavadra governmentBavadra, Dr Timoci
The Fijian coups of 1987 resulted in the overthrow of the elected government of Fijian Prime Minister Timoci Bavadra, the deposition of Elizabeth II as Queen of Fiji, and in the declaration of a republic.

Lieutenant colonel

Lieutenant-ColonelLt. Col.Lt. Colonel
Both military actions were led by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka, then third in command of the Royal Fiji Military Forces.

Coup d'état

coupcoup d'etatmilitary coup
Depending on perspective, one may view the event either as two successive coups d'état separated by a four-month intermission, or as a single coup begun on 14 May and completed with the declaration of the republic.

Indo-Fijians

Indo-FijianFiji IndianIndian
The Fijian general election of April 1987 resulted in the replacement of the indigenous-led conservative government of Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara with a multi-ethnic Labour-led coalition supported mostly by the Indo-Fijian plurality and Rabuka claimed ethnic Fijian concerns of racial discrimination as his excuse for seizing power. Both before and after Fiji gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1970, tensions between the indigenous Fijian and Indo-Fijian ethnic groups (comprising an estimated 46% and 49% of the 1987 population, respectively) continually manifested themselves in social and political unrest. The Commission received 860 written and 120 oral submissions, and produced a report recommending a new unicameral legislature comprising 36 Fijians (28 elected and 8 appointed by the Great Council of Chiefs), 22 Indo-Fijians, 8 General electors, 1 Rotuman, and up to four nominees of the Prime Minister.

Racial discrimination

discriminationraceracial
The Fijian general election of April 1987 resulted in the replacement of the indigenous-led conservative government of Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara with a multi-ethnic Labour-led coalition supported mostly by the Indo-Fijian plurality and Rabuka claimed ethnic Fijian concerns of racial discrimination as his excuse for seizing power.