1st Armoured Division (Poland)wikipedia
The Polish 1st Armoured Division (Polish 1 Dywizja Pancerna) was an armoured division of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II. Created in February 1942 at Duns in Scotland, it was commanded by Major General Stanisław Maczek and at its peak numbered approximately 16,000 soldiers.
1st Polish Armoured Division1st Armoured DivisionPolish 1st Armoured Division1st Armoured Division (Poland)1st (Polish) Armoured Division.armoured divisionPolishFirst and Second Armoured Regiments1st Armored DivisionMaczek's Brigade

Stanisław Maczek

Stanisław MaczekGeneral MaczekMaczek
Created in February 1942 at Duns in Scotland, it was commanded by Major General Stanisław Maczek and at its peak numbered approximately 16,000 soldiers. A successful outflanking manoeuvre planned and performed by General Maczek allowed the liberation of the city of Breda without any civilian casualties (29 October 1944).
He was the commander of the famous 1st Polish Armoured Division, and later of the I Polish Army Corps under Allied Command in 1942–45.

Hill 262

Mont OrmelMont Ormel ridgeBattle of Hill 262
It twice suffered serious casualties as a result of "friendly fire" from Allied aircraft, but achieved a victory against the Wehrmacht in the battles for Mont Ormel, and the town of Chambois.
During the night of 19 August, two battlegroups of Stanisław Maczek's Polish 1st Armoured Division had established themselves in the mouth of the Falaise pocket on and around the northernmost of the Mont Ormel ridge's two peaks.

4th Canadian Division

4th Canadian Division4th Canadian Armoured Division4th Canadian (Armoured) Division
They then participated in war games together with the 4th Canadian Armoured Division.
In the United Kingdom, it participated in war games together with the Polish 1st Armoured Division, and later fought in France, the Low Countries, and Germany, both divisions followed very close paths.

1st Armoured Regiment (Poland)

1st Armoured Regiment1st Polish Armoured Regiment
1st Polish Armoured Regiment (1 Pułk Pancerny) of the 1st Polish Armoured Division (1 Dywizja Pancerna) is a short history of the 1st Armoured Regiment's origins in France till the end of World War II in Germany.

Falaise Pocket

FalaiseFalaise GapBattle of the Falaise Pocket
This series of offensive and defensive operations came to be known as the Battle of Falaise, in which a large number of German Army and SS divisions were trapped in the Falaise Pocket and subsequently destroyed.
Gaps were forced in the Allied lines by German counter-attacks, the biggest being a corridor forced past the 1st Polish Armoured Division on Hill 262, a commanding position at the mouth of the pocket.

I Corps (Polish Armed Forces in the West)

Polish I Corps1st Polish CorpsI Polish Corps
Stationed in Scotland the Polish 1st Armoured Division was formed as part of the Polish I Corps under Wladyslaw Sikorski, which guarded approximately 200 kilometres of British coast in 1940-1941.
Among the units created out of First Corps' nominal infantry brigades were 1st Armoured Division, 1st Independent Parachute Brigade, 1st Reconnaissance Regiment and a variety of other detachments.

Polish Armed Forces in the West

PolandPolishFree Polish
The Polish 1st Armoured Division (Polish 1 Dywizja Pancerna) was an armoured division of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II.
It comprised the Polish 1st Armoured Division (which later became attached to the First Canadian Army) and the Polish Independent Parachute Brigade, and other formations, such as the 4th Infantry Division, and the 16th Independent Armoured Brigade.

Operation Totalize

TotalizeHill 195Falaise Road
The division served in the final phases of the Battle of Normandy in August 1944 during Operation Totalize and the Battle of Chambois and then continued to fight throughout the campaign in Northern Europe, mainly as part of the First Canadian Army.
The II Canadian Corps, which was to launch Operation Totalize consisted of the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division, 51st (Highland) Infantry Division, 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division, 1st Polish Armoured Division, 2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade and the British 33rd Armoured Brigade.

Netherlands

Dutchthe NetherlandsNL
The Division spent the winter of 1944-1945 on the south bank of the river Rhine, guarding a sector around Moerdijk, Netherlands.
In 1944–45, the First Canadian Army, which included Canadian, British and Polish troops, was responsible for liberating much of the Netherlands.

Breda

BredaBreda, NetherlandsLordship of Breda
A successful outflanking manoeuvre planned and performed by General Maczek allowed the liberation of the city of Breda without any civilian casualties (29 October 1944).
It was liberated following a successful outflanking manoeuvre planned and performed by forces of 1st Polish Armoured Division of General Maczek on 29 October 1944.

Duns

dunsThe Ba game of Duns
Created in February 1942 at Duns in Scotland, it was commanded by Major General Stanisław Maczek and at its peak numbered approximately 16,000 soldiers.
Duns, and the surrounding area, was home to the First and Second Armoured Regiments of the Polish Army, who learned and practised their armoured warfare skills on the moors of Berwickshire.

3rd Polish Infantry Brigade

3rd Polish Infantry Brigade3rd Infantry Brigade
Together with the 10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade they formed part of the 1st Polish Armoured Division and was created from Polish soldiers who had already escaped from Poland to France, and after the fall of France made their way to Great Britain.

First Canadian Army

Canadian First ArmyCanadian ArmyCanadian 1st Army
The division served in the final phases of the Battle of Normandy in August 1944 during Operation Totalize and the Battle of Chambois and then continued to fight throughout the campaign in Northern Europe, mainly as part of the First Canadian Army.
In addition to II Canadian Corps (which included the Canadian formations under command described above), other formations under command included the British I Corps, and the 1st Polish Armoured Division, as well as, at various times, the American 104th Infantry Division (Timberwolf), 1st Belgian Infantry Brigade, Royal Netherlands Motorized Infantry Brigade and 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade.

Poles in the United Kingdom

Polish communityPolishPoles
Farther west, General Stanisław Maczek's armoured division, part of the Polish First Corps, fought with conspicuous gallantry in France (before France's fall, and in Normandy during Operation Overlord), in the Netherlands, and in Germany.

10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade (Poland)

10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade (Poland)10. Cavalry Brigade
The commander of the Division, General Stanislaw Maczek, was Poland’s premier mechanized commander, and many of his subordinate officers from the unit he commanded in 1939, the 10th Mechanized Brigade, had made their way to Britain with him.
During the Fall of France in June 1940 the veterans of "The Black Brigade" were evacuated to Great Britain where they became the core of the Polish 1st Armoured Division formed in February 1942.

Chambois, Orne

ChamboisDonjon de Chambois
It twice suffered serious casualties as a result of "friendly fire" from Allied aircraft, but achieved a victory against the Wehrmacht in the battles for Mont Ormel, and the town of Chambois.
Here, the 90th Infantry Division (United States) finally met 10th Dragoons from 1st Armoured Division (Poland) (Polish 1 Dywizja Pancerna) in the evening of 19 August 1944.

2nd Armoured Regiment (Poland)

2nd Polish Armoured Regiment2nd Armoured Regiment (Poland)2nd Armoured Regiment
The reconstituted unit returned to France in late July 1944 as a part of the 10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade, 1st (Polish) Armoured Division..

10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade (Poland)

10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade (Poland)10th Armoured Brigade
It was later reformed in Great Britain as a part of the 1st Armoured Division.

1st Independent Parachute Brigade (Poland)

1st Polish Parachute Brigade1st Independent Parachute BrigadePolish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade
There the Division ended the war and, joined by the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade, undertook occupation duties until it was disbanded in 1947; it, together with the many Polish displaced persons in the Western occupied territories, formed a Polish enclave at Haren in Germany, which was for a while known as "Maczków".
In 1945, the Brigade was attached to the Polish 1st Armoured Division and undertook occupation duties in Northern Germany until it was disbanded on 30 June 1947.

Haren, Germany

HarenWesuweHaren/Ems
There the Division ended the war and, joined by the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade, undertook occupation duties until it was disbanded in 1947; it, together with the many Polish displaced persons in the Western occupied territories, formed a Polish enclave at Haren in Germany, which was for a while known as "Maczków".
As Haren lay in the occupation zone administered by the Polish I Corps (and more specifically the Polish 1st Armoured Division), it was chosen as the most appropriate centre of a Polish enclave in Germany.

Battle of Chambois

Chambois pocket
The division served in the final phases of the Battle of Normandy in August 1944 during Operation Totalize and the Battle of Chambois and then continued to fight throughout the campaign in Northern Europe, mainly as part of the First Canadian Army.

Great Polish Map of Scotland

Following the formation of the 1st Polish Armoured Division in February 1942, Polish troops under the command of General Stanisław Maczek trained in Perthshire, East Lothian, Berwickshire, and East Anglia before taking part in the Normandy landings of 1944.

Polish hussars

hussarshusariahussar
The badge of the Polish Army's 1st Armoured Division is inspired by the armour of the Winged Hussars.

British logistics in the Normandy Campaign

Between them they had six armoured divisions (including the Polish 1st Armoured Division), ten infantry divisions, two airborne divisions, nine independent armoured brigades and two commando brigades.