1st Armoured Division (Poland)wikipedia

The Polish 1st Armoured Division (Polish 1 Dywizja Pancerna) was an armoured division of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II. Created in February 1942 at Duns in Scotland, it was commanded by Major General Stanisław Maczek and at its peak numbered approximately 16,000 soldiers.
1st Polish Armoured Division1st Armoured DivisionPolish 1st Armoured DivisionArmoured DivisionPolishFirst and Second Armoured Regiments1st Armored DivisionMaczek's BrigadePolish 1st Armored Division1st Polish Armored Division
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Stanisław Maczek

General MaczekMaczekStanislaw Maczek
Created in February 1942 at Duns in Scotland, it was commanded by Major General Stanisław Maczek and at its peak numbered approximately 16,000 soldiers. A successful outflanking manoeuvre planned and performed by General Maczek allowed the liberation of the city of Breda without any civilian casualties (29 October 1944).
He was the commander of the famous 1st Polish Armoured Division, and later of the I Polish Army Corps under Allied Command in 1942–45.

Hill 262

Mont OrmelMont Ormel ridgeBattle of Hill 262
It twice suffered serious casualties as a result of "friendly fire" from Allied aircraft, but achieved a victory against the Wehrmacht in the battles for Mont Ormel, and the town of Chambois.
During the night of 19 August, two battlegroups of Stanisław Maczek's Polish 1st Armoured Division had established themselves in the mouth of the Falaise pocket on and around the northernmost of the Mont Ormel ridge's two peaks.

4th Canadian Division

4th Canadian Armoured Division4th Canadian (Armoured) Division4th Division
They then participated in war games together with the 4th Canadian Armoured Division.
In the United Kingdom, it participated in war games together with the Polish 1st Armoured Division, and later fought in France, the Low Countries, and Germany, both divisions followed very close paths.

1st Armoured Regiment (Poland)

1st Armoured Regiment1st Polish Armoured Regiment
1st Polish Armoured Regiment (1 pułk pancerny) - Lt.Col. Aleksander Stefanowicz
1st Polish Armoured Regiment (1 Pułk Pancerny) of the 1st Polish Armoured Division (1 Dywizja Pancerna) is a short history of the 1st Armoured Regiment's origins in France till the end of World War II in Germany.

Falaise Pocket

FalaiseBattle of the Falaise PocketFalaise Gap
This series of offensive and defensive operations came to be known as the Battle of Falaise, in which a large number of German Army and SS divisions were trapped in the Falaise Pocket and subsequently destroyed.
Gaps were forced in the Allied lines by German counter-attacks, the biggest being a corridor forced past the 1st Polish Armoured Division on Hill 262, a commanding position at the mouth of the pocket.

Operation Totalize

TotalizeHill 195Falaise Road
The division served in the final phases of the Battle of Normandy in August 1944 during Operation Totalize and the Battle of Chambois and then continued to fight throughout the campaign in Northern Europe, mainly as part of the First Canadian Army.
The II Canadian Corps, which was to launch Operation Totalize consisted of the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division, 51st (Highland) Infantry Division, 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division, 1st Polish Armoured Division, 2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade and the British 33rd Armoured Brigade.

I Corps (Polish Armed Forces in the West)

Polish I Corps1st Polish CorpsI Polish Corps
Stationed in Scotland the Polish 1st Armoured Division was formed as part of the Polish I Corps under Wladyslaw Sikorski, which guarded approximately 200 kilometres of British coast in 1940-1941.
The units created out of First Corps' nominal infantry brigades were 1st Armoured Division, 1st Independent Parachute Brigade, 1st Reconnaissance Regiment, and a variety of other detachments.

Duns

The Ba game of Duns
Created in February 1942 at Duns in Scotland, it was commanded by Major General Stanisław Maczek and at its peak numbered approximately 16,000 soldiers.
Duns, and the surrounding area, was home to the First and Second Armoured Regiments of the Polish Army, who learned and practised their armoured warfare skills on the moors of Berwickshire.

3rd Polish Infantry Brigade

3rd Infantry Brigade
3rd Polish Infantry Brigade (3 Brygada Piechoty) - Col. Marian Wieroński :
Together with the 10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade they formed part of the 1st Polish Armoured Division and was created from Polish soldiers who had already escaped from Poland to France, and after the fall of France made their way to Great Britain.

Netherlands

Dutch🇳🇱the Netherlands
The Division spent the winter of 1944-1945 on the south bank of the river Rhine, guarding a sector around Moerdijk, Netherlands.
In 1944–45, the First Canadian Army, which included Canadian, British and Polish troops, was responsible for liberating much of the Netherlands.

First Canadian Army

Canadian First ArmyCanadian ArmyCanadian 1st Army
The division served in the final phases of the Battle of Normandy in August 1944 during Operation Totalize and the Battle of Chambois and then continued to fight throughout the campaign in Northern Europe, mainly as part of the First Canadian Army.
In addition to II Canadian Corps (which included the Canadian formations under command described above), other formations under command included the British I Corps, and the 1st Polish Armoured Division, as well as, at various times, the American 104th Infantry Division (Timberwolf), 1st Belgian Infantry Brigade, Royal Netherlands Motorized Infantry Brigade and 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade.

Poles in the United Kingdom

Polish communityPolishPoles
Polish migration to the United Kingdom
Farther west, General Stanisław Maczek's armoured division, part of the Polish First Corps, fought with conspicuous gallantry in France (before France's fall, and in Normandy during Operation Overlord), in the Netherlands, and in Germany.

Chambois, Orne

ChamboisDonjon de Chambois
It twice suffered serious casualties as a result of "friendly fire" from Allied aircraft, but achieved a victory against the Wehrmacht in the battles for Mont Ormel, and the town of Chambois.
Here, the 90th Infantry Division (United States) finally met 10th Dragoons from 1st Armoured Division (Poland) (Polish 1 Dywizja Pancerna) in the evening of 19 August 1944.

10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade (Poland)

10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade10th Armoured Brigade10th Brigade of Armored Cavalry
10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade (10 Brygada Kawalerii Pancernej) - Col. T. Majewski:
It was later reformed in Great Britain as a part of the 1st Armoured Division.

Breda

Breda, NetherlandsLordship of BredaMayor of Breda
A successful outflanking manoeuvre planned and performed by General Maczek allowed the liberation of the city of Breda without any civilian casualties (29 October 1944).
It was liberated following a successful outflanking manoeuvre planned and performed by forces of 1st Polish Armoured Division of General Maczek on 29 October 1944.

Battle of Chambois

Chambois pocket
The division served in the final phases of the Battle of Normandy in August 1944 during Operation Totalize and the Battle of Chambois and then continued to fight throughout the campaign in Northern Europe, mainly as part of the First Canadian Army.

Great Polish Map of Scotland

Great Polish Map of Scotland
Following the formation of the 1st Polish Armoured Division in February 1942, Polish troops under the command of General Stanisław Maczek trained in Perthshire, East Lothian, Berwickshire, and East Anglia before taking part in the Normandy landings of 1944.

Polish hussars

hussarshusariahussar
The badge of the Polish Army's 1st Armoured Division is inspired by the armour of the Winged Hussars.

Operation Tractable

TractableThe Laisoncapture
This operation was undertaken by the First Canadian Army with the 1st Polish Armoured Division (Generał brygady Stanisław Maczek) and a British armoured brigade against Army Group B of the Westheer in what became the largest encirclement on the Western Front during the Second World War.

Polish Armed Forces

Polish ArmyPolandPolish military
Amongst their most notable operations were the actions of the 1st Armoured Division at Mont Ormel, during the Normandy campaign, the Battle of Monte Cassino (Operation Diadem) scaling of the mountain by elements of II Polish Corps, and actions during the Battle of Arnhem by the 1st Polish Parachute Brigade.

II Canadian Corps

Canadian II CorpsCanadian troops2nd Canadian Army Corps
Finally, for most of the campaign through Northwest Europe the Corps also included Polish 1st Armoured Division.

Grainville-Langannerie Polish war cemetery

The cemetery contains 615 graves of soldiers belonging to the 1st Armoured Division commanded by Major-General Stanisław Maczek.