2000 California Proposition 22

Proposition 22California Proposition 22California Proposition 22 (2000)Knight InitiativeProp 222000 California initiative22a 2000 lawbanCalifornia's Proposition 22
Proposition 22 was a law enacted by California voters in March 2000 stating that marriage was between one man and one woman..wikipedia
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2008 California Proposition 8

Proposition 8California Proposition 8Prop 8
In November 2008 California voters overturned the In re Marriage Cases decision by approving an amendment of the state constitution called Proposition 8.
The proposition was created by opponents of same-sex marriage in advance of the California Supreme Court's May 2008 appeal ruling, In re Marriage Cases, which followed the short-lived 2004 same-sex weddings controversy and found the previous ban on same-sex marriage (Proposition 22, 2000) unconstitutional.

In re Marriage Cases

rules a previous ban unconstitutionaldecisiondeclared same-sex marriage legal
Because the Act was an ordinary statute, it could be struck down if it were inconsistent with the state constitution, as happened on May 15, 2008, when the state supreme court, ruling in In re Marriage Cases, declared that same-sex couples had a constitutional right to marry.
2008) was a California Supreme Court case where the court held that laws treating classes of persons differently based on sexual orientation should be subject to strict judicial scrutiny, and that an existing statute and initiative measure limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples violate the rights of same-sex couples under the California Constitution and may not be used to preclude them from marrying.

William J. Knight

Pete KnightWilliam "Pete" KnightWilliam J. "Pete" Knight
It was authored by state Senator William "Pete" Knight and is known informally as the Knight initiative.
As a politician, Knight is noted as the author of California Proposition 22, which forbade the state from performing or recognizing same-sex marriage.

Vaughn Walker

Vaughn R. WalkerJudge Vaughn Walker
In June 2010, Proposition 8 was declared unconstitutional by U.S district judge Vaughn Walker based on the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.
The case was a federal-constitutional challenge to California Proposition 8, a voter initiative constitutional amendment that eliminated the right of same-sex couples to marry, a right which had previously been granted after the California Supreme Court found that Proposition 22 was unconstitutional.

Same-sex marriage in California

Californiasame-sex marriagemarried
The next day, September 7, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger indicated he would veto the bill, citing Proposition 22, which had passed with the approval of a majority of voters five years earlier.

Domestic partnership in California

Californiadomestic partnershipdomestic partnerships
Following the passage of The California Domestic Partner Rights and Responsibilities Act of 2003, state senator William "Pete" Knight (author of the successful Proposition 22 initiative) and Assemblymember Ray Haynes sought to put the new legislation to a popular vote.

David Lane (activist)

David Lane
In the late 1990s, Lane worked against same-sex marriage in California, helping place California Proposition 22 on the ballot in 2000.

California

CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
Proposition 22 was a law enacted by California voters in March 2000 stating that marriage was between one man and one woman.. In May 2008, proposition 8 was also passed by voters, again allowing that marriage would be between one man and one woman.

Initiative

ballot initiativepopular initiativeinitiated state statute
The Act was proposed by means of the initiative process.

Due process

due process of lawDue Process Clausejudicial procedure
In June 2010, Proposition 8 was declared unconstitutional by U.S district judge Vaughn Walker based on the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

Equal Protection Clause

equal protectionequal protection of the lawsEqual Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
In June 2010, Proposition 8 was declared unconstitutional by U.S district judge Vaughn Walker based on the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Fourteenth Amendment14th AmendmentFourteenth
In June 2010, Proposition 8 was declared unconstitutional by U.S district judge Vaughn Walker based on the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
In June 2013, the United States Supreme Court in Hollingsworth v. Perry ruled that the Intervenor-Defendants had no Article III standing to appeal Walker's ruling, keeping Proposition 8 unenforceable throughout California and enabling same-sex marriage to resume just two days after the decision.

Hollingsworth v. Perry

Perry v. SchwarzeneggerPerry v. Brownfederal trial
In June 2013, the United States Supreme Court in Hollingsworth v. Perry ruled that the Intervenor-Defendants had no Article III standing to appeal Walker's ruling, keeping Proposition 8 unenforceable throughout California and enabling same-sex marriage to resume just two days after the decision.

Article Three of the United States Constitution

Article IIIU.S. Const. art. IIIArticle III of the United States Constitution
In June 2013, the United States Supreme Court in Hollingsworth v. Perry ruled that the Intervenor-Defendants had no Article III standing to appeal Walker's ruling, keeping Proposition 8 unenforceable throughout California and enabling same-sex marriage to resume just two days after the decision.

California Civil Code

Cal. Civil CodeCivil CodeCal. Civ. Code
Prior to 1977, marriage was defined in Section 4100 of the California Civil Code.

Defense of Marriage Act

DOMADefense of Marriage Act (DOMA)Defense of Marriage
The official citation of Proposition 22, the "California Defense of Marriage Act", is almost the same as that of a federal law, the Defense of Marriage Act, which was enacted by Congress in 1996.

United States Congress

CongressU.S. CongressCongressional
The official citation of Proposition 22, the "California Defense of Marriage Act", is almost the same as that of a federal law, the Defense of Marriage Act, which was enacted by Congress in 1996.

Domestic partnership

same-sex married couples or partnershipsSame-sex couplesdomestic partnerships
In 1999, California enacted the first in a series of domestic partnership provisions.

California Courts of Appeal

California Court of AppealCalifornia Court of AppealsCourt of Appeal
California Courts of Appeal rejected those claims, noting that domestic partnerships already existed as a legal institution separate from marriage at the time Prop 22 was enacted.

California State Legislature

state legislatureCalifornia LegislatureLegislature
In September 2005, the California legislature passed a bill, A.B. 849, eliminating the gender requirements for marriage now found in Family Code section 300.

Arnold Schwarzenegger

SchwarzeneggerGovernor SchwarzeneggerGovernor Arnold Schwarzenegger
Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger vetoed the bill.

Veto

overridevetoedveto power
Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger vetoed the bill.

Dictum

dictahypothetical musingin dicta
As the ultimate rulings in these cases arguably did not require a finding that Prop 22 applies to in-state marriages (both were upheld against a challenge that they constituted marriage under Prop 22, the same result that would have obtained if they had ruled Prop 22 did not apply to in-state marriages), some argue that these findings are dicta.

Supreme Court of California

California Supreme CourtChief Justice of CaliforniaSupreme Court
In 2008, the California Supreme Court resolved the controversy in ruling on the constitutionality of statutes limiting marriage to a man and a woman: "this provision reasonably must be interpreted to apply both to marriages performed in California and those performed in other jurisdictions."