2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake2004 Indian Ocean tsunami2004 tsunamiIndian Ocean tsunamitsunamiBoxing Day tsunamiAsian tsunami2004 Asian tsunami2004 Boxing Day tsunamitsunami disaster
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (also known as the Boxing Day Tsunami) occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December, with an epicentre off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia.wikipedia
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List of natural disasters by death toll

deadliest natural disasters in recorded historydeadliest wildfiresList of deadliest natural disasters
The earthquake was one of the [[List of natural disasters by death toll#Ten deadliest natural disasters since 1900|deadliest natural disasters in recorded history]].

Humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake

humanitarian responsetsunami reliefresponse to the December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
The plight of the affected people and countries prompted a worldwide humanitarian response, with donations totaling more than US$14 billion.
The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake of a magnitude of 9.3 was prompted by one of the worst natural disasters of modern times.

Tsunami

tsunamistidal waveseaquake
A series of large tsunami waves up to 30 m high were created by the underwater seismic activity.
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean.

Banda Aceh

KutarajaAcehBanda Aceh, Indonesia
The Indonesian city of Banda Aceh reported the largest number of victims.
The city rose to international prominence in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean earthquake in 2004, which struck off the western coast of Sumatra.

Megathrust earthquake

megathrustmegathrust typemegathrust earthquakes
It was an undersea megathrust earthquake that registered a magnitude of 9.1–9.3, reaching a Mercalli intensity up to IX in certain areas.
This subduction zone was responsible for the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.

Indonesia

Republic of IndonesiaIndonesianIndonesian Republic
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (also known as the Boxing Day Tsunami) occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December, with an epicentre off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia.
A political settlement to an armed separatist conflict in Aceh was achieved in 2005 following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed 130,000 Indonesians.

Foreshock

fore-fore-shocksforeshocks
The 2002 Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been a foreshock, preceding the main event by over two years.
They occur from a matter of minutes to days or even longer before the main shock; for example, the 2002 Sumatra earthquake is regarded as a foreshock of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake with a delay of more than two years between the two events.

Lists of earthquakes

most powerfullargestlargest earthquakes
The earthquake was the third largest ever recorded and had the longest duration of faulting ever observed; between eight and ten minutes.

Sumatra

SumateraSumatra IslandSumatran
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (also known as the Boxing Day Tsunami) occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December, with an epicentre off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia.
The island was heavily impacted by both the 1883 Krakatoa eruption and the 2004 Christmas Tsunami.

Aceh

Aceh ProvinceAchehAtjeh
The rupture proceeded at about 2.8 km/s, beginning off the coast of Aceh and proceeding north-westerly over about 100 seconds.
Aceh was the closest point of land to the epicenter of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, which devastated much of the western coast of the province.

Sunda megathrust

Sunda subduction megathrust
The northern section of the Sunda megathrust ruptured over a length of 1300 km.
It is one of the most seismogenic structures on Earth, being responsible for many great and giant earthquakes, including the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed over 230,000 people.

Thailand

ThaiSiamTHA
The direct results caused major disruptions to living conditions and commerce, particularly in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. The earthquake (followed by the tsunami) was felt in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami hit the country, mostly in the south.

2002 Sumatra earthquake

20022002-11-02
The 2002 Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been a foreshock, preceding the main event by over two years.
This earthquake is regarded as a foreshock of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which had an epicenter about 60 km to the northwest.

2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami2011 Tōhoku earthquakeGreat East Japan earthquake
The only other recorded earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater were off Kamchatka, Russia, on 4 November 1952 (magnitude 9.0) and Tōhoku, Japan (magnitude 9.1) in March 2011.
The surface energy of the seismic waves from the earthquake was calculated to be at 1.9×10 17 joules, which is nearly double that of the 9.1 M w 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed 230,000 people.

Sri Lanka

CeylonCeyloneseDemocratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
The direct results caused major disruptions to living conditions and commerce, particularly in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. The earthquake (followed by the tsunami) was felt in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
The 2004 Asian tsunami killed over 35,000 in Sri Lanka.

2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake

2005earthquakeNias–Simeulue earthquake
The magnitude 8.7 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake, which originated off the coast of the Sumatran island of Nias, is not considered an aftershock, despite its proximity to the epicenter, and was most likely triggered by stress changes associated with the 2004 event.
The event caused panic in the region, which had already been devastated by the massive tsunami triggered by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, but this earthquake generated a relatively small tsunami that caused limited damage.

Aftershock

aftershocksOmori's lawOmori law
Numerous aftershocks were reported off the Andaman Islands, the Nicobar Islands and the region of the original epicentre in the hours and days that followed.
In the case of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2008 Sichuan earthquake the aftershock distribution shows in both cases that the epicenter (where the rupture initiated) lies to one end of the final area of slip, implying strongly asymmetric rupture propagation.

Submarine earthquake

undersea earthquakeunderseaSubmarine
It was an undersea megathrust earthquake that registered a magnitude of 9.1–9.3, reaching a Mercalli intensity up to IX in certain areas.

Maldives

Maldivianthe MaldivesRepublic of Maldives
The earthquake (followed by the tsunami) was felt in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
On 26 December 2004, following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, the Maldives were devastated by a tsunami.

Simeulue

Simeulue IslandSimeuluëisland of Simeulue
Its epicentre was between Simeulue and mainland Sumatra.
Simeulue was close to the epicenter of the 9.3 magnitude 26 December 2004 earthquake.

Andaman Islands

AndamanAndamansAndaman Archipelago
Numerous aftershocks were reported off the Andaman Islands, the Nicobar Islands and the region of the original epicentre in the hours and days that followed. After a pause of about another 100 seconds, the rupture continued northwards towards the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
On 26 December 2004, the coast of the Andaman Islands was devastated by a 10 m tsunami following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which is the longest recorded earthquake, lasting for between 500 and 600 seconds.

Teletsunami

ocean-wide tsunamiteletsunamis
A tsunami that causes damage far away from its source is sometimes called a teletsunami and is much more likely to be produced by vertical motion of the seabed than by horizontal motion.
All teletsunamis have been generated by major earthquakes such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, 1960 Valdivia earthquake, 1964 Alaska earthquake, and 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.

Alpide belt

Alps-Himalaya SystemAlpideAlp-Himalayan
Indonesia lies between the Pacific Ring of Fire along the north-eastern islands adjacent to New Guinea, and the Alpide belt that runs along the south and west from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Flores to Timor.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake just off the coast of Sumatra was located within the Alpide belt.

Andaman Sea

AndamanAndaman seacoast
Thailand was struck about two hours later despite being closer to the epicentre, because the tsunami traveled more slowly in the shallow Andaman Sea off its western coast.
The fishery and tourist infrastructure was severely damaged by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.

Sunda Trench

Java TrenchSunda–Java Trenchsubduction zone at Sunda
The India Plate meets the Burma Plate (which is considered a portion of the great Eurasian Plate) at the Sunda Trench.
Mappings after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake of the plate boundary showed resemblance to suspension bridge cables, with peaks and sags, indicative of asperity and locked faults, instead of the traditional wedge shape expected.