2008 California Proposition 8

Proposition 8California Proposition 8Prop 8California Proposition 8 (2008)California's Proposition 8Prop 8 banCaliforniaProp 8: The MusicalProp 8 - The MusicalProp. 8
Proposition 8, known informally as Prop 8, was a California ballot proposition and a state constitutional amendment passed in the November 2008 California state elections.wikipedia
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Strauss v. Horton

lawsuitLawsuits to overturn Proposition 8
As an amendment, it was ruled constitutional by the California Supreme Court in Strauss v. Horton, in 2009, on the grounds that it "carved out a limited [or 'narrow'] exception to the state equal protection clause"; in his dissent, Justice Carlos R. Moreno wrote that exceptions to the equal protection clause could not be made by any majority since its whole purpose was to protect minorities against the will of a majority.
Strauss v. Horton 46 Cal.4th 364, 93 Cal.Rptr.3d 591, 207 P.3d 48, was the consolidation of three lawsuits following the passage of California's Proposition 8 on November 4, 2008, which went into effect on November 5.

Same-sex marriage in California

Californiasame-sex marriagemarried
The proposition was created by opponents of same-sex marriage in advance of the California Supreme Court's May 2008 appeal ruling, In re Marriage Cases, which followed the short-lived 2004 same-sex weddings controversy and found the previous ban on same-sex marriage (Proposition 22, 2000) unconstitutional.
The issuance of such licenses was halted from November 5, 2008 through June 27, 2013 (though existing same-sex marriages continued to be valid) due to the passage of Proposition 8—a state constitutional amendment barring same-sex marriages.

2000 California Proposition 22

Proposition 22California Proposition 22California Proposition 22 (2000)
The proposition was created by opponents of same-sex marriage in advance of the California Supreme Court's May 2008 appeal ruling, In re Marriage Cases, which followed the short-lived 2004 same-sex weddings controversy and found the previous ban on same-sex marriage (Proposition 22, 2000) unconstitutional.
In November 2008 California voters overturned the In re Marriage Cases decision by approving an amendment of the state constitution called Proposition 8.

Protests against Proposition 8 supporters

boycottschurch is criticizedgay marriage protesters and religious freedom
After the results were certified and same-sex marriages ceased, supporters of the initiative were targeted by opponents with actions ranging from some opponents publicly shaming supporters by disclosing their names and addresses online, causing many individual supporters to lose their jobs, and boycotting proponents' businesses and employers to others threatening supporters with murder and vandalizing their homes and property.
These included prominent protests against the Roman Catholic church and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), which supported California's Proposition 8.

LGBT rights in California

Californiaanti-gaydiscrimination based on sexual orientation
The passage of Proposition 8 received widespread media coverage over the amendment's effect on the concurrent 2008 presidential and congressional elections, as well as the pre-election effects Proposition 8 had on California's reputation as a historically LGBT-friendly state and the same-sex marriage debate that had started after same-sex marriage was legalized in Massachusetts through a 2004 court decision.
Same-sex marriage was legalized in 2008 for five months until voters approved a ban in November of the same year.

In re Marriage Cases

rules a previous ban unconstitutionaldecisiondeclared same-sex marriage legal
The proposition was created by opponents of same-sex marriage in advance of the California Supreme Court's May 2008 appeal ruling, In re Marriage Cases, which followed the short-lived 2004 same-sex weddings controversy and found the previous ban on same-sex marriage (Proposition 22, 2000) unconstitutional.
On November 4, 2008, California voters approved Proposition 8, which limited marriage under the California Constitution to opposite-sex couples.

National Organization for Marriage

2012 Presidential Pledgelegal battleNational Organization of Marriage
A political action committee run by former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney, who personally supported the proposition, donated $10,000 to the National Organization for Marriage during their campaign for the proposition. Other religious organizations that supported Proposition 8 include the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, Eastern Orthodox Church, a group of Evangelical Christians led by Jim Garlow and Miles McPherson, American Family Association, Focus on the Family and the National Organization for Marriage.
It was formed in 2007 specifically to pass California Proposition 8, a state prohibition of same-sex marriage.

ProtectMarriage.com

Proposition 22 Legal Defense and Education Fund
A ProtectMarriage.com spokeswoman estimated that 36 companies which had previously contributed to Equality California were targeted to receive a letter requesting similar donations to ProtectMarriage.com.
Beginning in 2001 as Proposition 22 Legal Defense and Education Fund holding the domain name protectmarriage.com, the organization reformed in 2005 as a coalition to sponsor California Proposition 8, called the California Marriage Protection Act, and was successful in placing it on the ballot in 2008.

Same-sex marriage in the United States

same-sex marriageUnited Statesgay marriage
The passage of Proposition 8 received widespread media coverage over the amendment's effect on the concurrent 2008 presidential and congressional elections, as well as the pre-election effects Proposition 8 had on California's reputation as a historically LGBT-friendly state and the same-sex marriage debate that had started after same-sex marriage was legalized in Massachusetts through a 2004 court decision.
One of the largest scale uses of social media to mobilize support for same-sex marriage preceded and coincided with the arrival at the U.S. Supreme Court of high-profile legal cases for Proposition 8 and DOMA in March 2013.

Domestic partnership in California

Californiadomestic partnershipdomestic partnerships
The proposition did not affect domestic partnerships in California, nor (following subsequent legal rulings) did it reverse same-sex marriages that had been performed during the interim period May to November 2008 (i.e. after In re Marriage Cases but before Proposition 8).
One qualified as Proposition 8.

Jim Garlow

Other religious organizations that supported Proposition 8 include the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, Eastern Orthodox Church, a group of Evangelical Christians led by Jim Garlow and Miles McPherson, American Family Association, Focus on the Family and the National Organization for Marriage.
In 2008, Garlow and Skyline Church were noted for their leading role in organizing conservative religious groups to support California Proposition 8, which affirmed marriage to be between one man and one woman in California.

8: The Mormon Proposition

In 2010, the documentary film 8: The Mormon Proposition premiered to sell-out audiences at the Sundance Film Festival.
8: The Mormon Proposition is an American documentary that examines The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and its support of California Proposition 8, stating that the church has been actively involved in the denial of LGBT human rights.

Porterville, California

PortervillePorterville, CATule River Station
During the November 2008 election campaign, Porterville's City Council was the only City Council in California that passed a Resolution in favor of Proposition 8.
During the November 2008 Prop 8 election campaign, Porterville's City Council was the only City Council in all of California that passed a Resolution in favor of Prop 8.

Gavin Newsom

NewsomMayor Gavin NewsomGovernor Gavin Newsom
During February and March 2004, San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom directed the licensing of same-sex marriages on the basis of the state's equal protection clause, prompted also by recent events including George W. Bush's proposed constitutional ban, a possible legal case by Campaign for California Families (CCF), and a Supreme Court of Massachusetts ruling deeming same-sex marriage bans unconstitutional and permitting them from May 2004.
During the 2008 election, Newsom was a prominent and vocal opponent of Proposition 8, the ballot initiative to reverse the California Supreme Court ruling that there was a constitutional right to same-sex marriage.

Anti-Defamation League

ADLAnti Defamation LeagueAnti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith
Other Jewish groups who opposed Proposition 8 include Jewish Mosaic, the American Jewish Committee, Progressive Jewish Alliance, National Council of Jewish Women, and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL).
The ADL opposed Proposition 8 and supported the Matthew Shepard Act.

Grossmont Union High School District

Grossmont Conference
The Grossmont Union High School District in San Diego County, California, publicly voted on a resolution endorsing Proposition 8.
The school board publicly voted in 2008 on a resolution endorsing Proposition 8 which would effectively ban same-sex marriage in California.

Nancy Pelosi

PelosiRep. Nancy PelosiNancy D'Alesandro Pelosi
The U.S. House Speaker, California Representative (8th District), Nancy Pelosi along with other members of the California congressional delegation and both of California's U.S. senators, Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer, voiced their opposition to Proposition 8.
She also indirectly voiced her opposition to California Proposition 8, a successful 2008 state ballot initiative which defined marriage in California as a union between one man and one woman.

Jerry Brown

BrownGovernor Jerry BrownEdmund G. Brown Jr.
On June 28, 2013, the Ninth Circuit, on remand, dismissed the appeal for lack of jurisdiction and dissolved their previous stay of the district court's ruling, enabling Governor Jerry Brown to order same-sex marriages to resume.
Proposition 8, a contentious voter-approved amendment to the state constitution that banned same-sex marriage was upheld in May 2009 by the California Supreme Court.

November 15, 2008 anti-Proposition 8 protests

Anti-Proposition 8mass protests
Following the passage of Proposition 8, mass protests took place across the state.
On November 15, 2008, thousands of people in cities across the United States and ten other countries protested California voters' approval of Proposition 8, which changed the state Constitution to restrict the definition of marriage to opposite-sex couples and eliminated same-sex couples' right to marry.

Supreme Court of California

California Supreme CourtChief Justice of CaliforniaSupreme Court
As an amendment, it was ruled constitutional by the California Supreme Court in Strauss v. Horton, in 2009, on the grounds that it "carved out a limited [or 'narrow'] exception to the state equal protection clause"; in his dissent, Justice Carlos R. Moreno wrote that exceptions to the equal protection clause could not be made by any majority since its whole purpose was to protect minorities against the will of a majority. The proposition was created by opponents of same-sex marriage in advance of the California Supreme Court's May 2008 appeal ruling, In re Marriage Cases, which followed the short-lived 2004 same-sex weddings controversy and found the previous ban on same-sex marriage (Proposition 22, 2000) unconstitutional.

Salvatore Cordileone

Salvatore J. CordileoneSalvatore Joseph Cordileone1213
His successor, Salvatore Cordileone was regarded as instrumental in devising the initiative.
A vocal opponent of gay rights and same-sex marriage, Cordileone helped to draft Proposition 8 in 2008, California's Constitutional amendment to define marriage as between one man and one woman, and raise substantial sums to pass it.

George Hugh Niederauer

George NiederauerGeorge H. NeiderauerGeorge H. Niederauer
George Hugh Niederauer as Archbishop of San Francisco campaigned in 2008 in favor of the Proposition, and claimed to have been instrumental in forging alliances between Catholics and Mormons to support the measure.
In 2008, Archbishop Niederauer campaigned in favor of California's Proposition 8, a ballot measure to recognize heterosexual marriage as the only valid marriage within California.

Focus on the Family

Plugged InFocus on the Family Radio TheatrePluggedIn
Other religious organizations that supported Proposition 8 include the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, Eastern Orthodox Church, a group of Evangelical Christians led by Jim Garlow and Miles McPherson, American Family Association, Focus on the Family and the National Organization for Marriage.
Focus on the Family is a member of ProtectMarriage.com, a coalition formed to sponsor California Proposition 8, a ballot initiative to restrict marriage to opposite-sex couples, which passed in 2008, but was subsequently struck down as being unconstitutional by a federal court in Perry v. Schwarzenegger.

2008 United States elections

20082008 elections2008 election
The passage of Proposition 8 received widespread media coverage over the amendment's effect on the concurrent 2008 presidential and congressional elections, as well as the pre-election effects Proposition 8 had on California's reputation as a historically LGBT-friendly state and the same-sex marriage debate that had started after same-sex marriage was legalized in Massachusetts through a 2004 court decision.
]]* State constitutional amendments prohibiting same-sex marriage are passed in three states: Arizona, California, and Florida.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

LDS ChurchLatter-day SaintChurch of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The California Fair Political Practices Commission fined the LDS Church in 2010 for failing to follow campaign disclosure policies during the last two weeks leading up to the election, which amounted to $37,000 in non-monetary contributions.
It has previously opposed same-sex marriage in California Prop 8, supported a gay rights bill in Salt Lake City which bans discrimination against homosexual persons in housing and employment, opposed gambling, opposed storage of nuclear waste in Utah, and supported the Utah Compact.