2010 Canterbury earthquake

2010September 2010Canterbury earthquakea magnitude 7.1 earthquake2010 Canterbury4 September 20104 September 2010 Christchurch earthquake7.1 magnitude7.1 magnitude earthquakeChristchurch earthquake
The 2010 Canterbury earthquake (also known as the Darfield earthquake) struck the South Island of New Zealand with a moment magnitude of 7.1 at 4:35am local time on 4 September, and had a maximum perceived intensity of X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale.wikipedia
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Christchurch

Christchurch, New ZealandChristchurch CityChristchurch City Council
The earthquake on 4 September caused widespread damage and several power outages, particularly in the city of Christchurch, New Zealand's second largest city at that time.
On Saturday 4 September 2010, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake struck Christchurch and the central Canterbury region at 4:35 am.

Christchurch Central City

central citycity centreChristchurch
Initially, a curfew was established for parts of Christchurch Central City from 7 pm to 7 am in response to the earthquake.
It suffered heavy damage in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake and was devastated in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake.

Wellington

Wellington, New ZealandWellington CityWellington City Council
The National Crisis Management Centre in the basement of the Beehive in Wellington was activated, and Civil Defence declared a state of emergency for Christchurch, the Selwyn District, and the Waimakariri District, while Selwyn District, Waimakariri and Timaru activated their emergency operation centres.
Since the Canterbury earthquakes of 2010 and 2011, earthquake readiness has become even more of an issue, with buildings declared by Wellington City Council to be earthquake-prone, and the costs of meeting new standards.

Darfield, New Zealand

Darfield
The earthquake's epicentre was 40 km west of Christchurch, close to the town of Darfield. The closest faults to Christchurch capable of producing powerful earthquakes occur in the Rangiora-Cust area, near Hororata, and near Darfield.
A magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred near Darfield at 4:35 am on 4 September 2010, causing widespread damage to both the town and to surrounding areas including the city of Christchurch.

2011 Christchurch earthquake

Christchurch earthquake2011 Canterbury earthquakeearthquake
Some damaging aftershocks followed the main event, the strongest of which was a magnitude 6.3 shock known as the Christchurch earthquake that occurred nearly six months later on 22 February 2011.
Christchurch's central city and eastern suburbs were badly affected, with damage to buildings and infrastructure already weakened by the magnitude 7.1 Canterbury earthquake of 4 September 2010 and its aftershocks.

Soil liquefaction

liquefactionliquefyliquefied
The study also highlighted the dangers of soil liquefaction of the alluvial sediments underlying the city, and the likelihood of significant damage to water, sewer and power supply services.
More recently liquefaction was largely responsible for extensive damage to residential properties in the eastern suburbs and satellite townships of Christchurch, New Zealand during the 2010 Canterbury earthquake and more extensively again following the Christchurch earthquakes that followed in early and mid-2011.

State of emergency

state of siegenational emergencyemergency powers
The National Crisis Management Centre in the basement of the Beehive in Wellington was activated, and Civil Defence declared a state of emergency for Christchurch, the Selwyn District, and the Waimakariri District, while Selwyn District, Waimakariri and Timaru activated their emergency operation centres.

New Zealand Army

New Zealand Military ForcesTerritorial ForceNew Zealand
The New Zealand Army was deployed to the worst affected areas in Canterbury.
On 4 September 2010, in the aftermath of the 2010 Canterbury earthquake, the New Zealand Defence Force deployed to the worst affected areas of Christchurch to aid in relief efforts and assist NZ police in enforcing a night time curfew at the request of Christchurch Mayor Bob Parker and Prime Minister John Key.

Canterbury Plains

Central Canterbury Plainsplains
The main quake occurred as a result of strike-slip faulting within the crust of the Pacific plate, near the eastern foothills of the Southern Alps at the western edge of the Canterbury Plains.
A major earthquake on 4 September 2010 revealed a previously unknown geological fault beneath the Canterbury Plains and created a surface rift that offset features by as much as four metres in places.

Kaiapoi

Kaiapoi Woollen CompanySt Patrick's SchoolKaiapoi Borough School
A 5 km section of rail track was damaged near Kaiapoi and there was lesser track damage at Rolleston and near Belfast. This was particularly the case in the riverside areas of Avonside, Dallington, Burwood, Avondale, and Kaiapoi, and in river delta areas near Bexley, Brooklands, Spencerville, Pines Beach, and Kairaki, with other areas being affected to a substantially lesser degree or not at all.
Kaiapoi suffered extensive damage in the 2010 Canterbury and also the February 2011 Christchurch earthquakes, which rendered many homes uninhabitable and businesses inoperable.

June 2011 Christchurch earthquake

June aftershockmagnitude 6.3 earthquake13 June 2011
The magnitude 7.1 M w event of 4 September 2010 produced by far the strongest ground motions ever recorded in the Canterbury region, triggering a large number of aftershocks.

Hororata

The closest faults to Christchurch capable of producing powerful earthquakes occur in the Rangiora-Cust area, near Hororata, and near Darfield.
Hororata sustained some damage in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake of 4 September 2010.

Selwyn District

SelwynSelwyn District CouncilSelwyn County Council
The National Crisis Management Centre in the basement of the Beehive in Wellington was activated, and Civil Defence declared a state of emergency for Christchurch, the Selwyn District, and the Waimakariri District, while Selwyn District, Waimakariri and Timaru activated their emergency operation centres.
Selwyn District, along with Christchurch and Waimakariri District, experienced some damage in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake.

KiwiRail

ONTRACKKiwiRail NetworkKiwiRail's turnaround plan
As a precaution, state rail operator KiwiRail shut down the entire South Island rail network after the earthquake, halting some 15 trains.

Peak ground acceleration

gground accelerationacceleration
The peak ground acceleration (PGA) measured was 1.26g (12.36 m/s 2 ), recorded near Darfield.

ChristChurch Cathedral

ChristChurch Cathedral, ChristchurchChristchurchAnglican cathedral
Many of Christchurch's major landmarks survived intact, including the Canterbury Provincial Council Buildings, the Anglican cathedral, and Christ's College.
Earthquakes have repeatedly damaged the building (mostly the spire): in 1881, 1888, 1901, 1922, and 2010.

Manchester Courts

New Zealand Express Company building
The seven-storey Manchester Courts (or MLC Building ), located at the busy intersection of Manchester and Hereford Streets, was extensively damaged.
A Category I heritage building, it suffered serious structural damage in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake and was condemned to be demolished.

Canterbury, New Zealand

CanterburyCanterbury RegionNorth Canterbury
The New Zealand Army was deployed to the worst affected areas in Canterbury.

Lyttelton, New Zealand

LytteltonLyttletonPort Cooper
The quake caused damage to historic buildings in Lyttelton, Christchurch's port town, including cracks in a church and the destruction of parts of a hotel.
The 2010 Canterbury earthquake damaged some of Lyttelton's historic buildings, including the Timeball Station.

Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament, Christchurch

Cathedral of the Blessed SacramentBlessed Sacrament CathedralBlessed Sacrament Christchurch
The Catholic Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament (Christchurch Basilica) also survived, although it suffered severe structural damage and also had some windows broken.
The Cathedral was closed after the 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake.

Oxford Terrace Baptist Church

The Oxford Terrace Baptist Church, constructed 1881–1882, was extensively damaged.
The main building was significantly damaged in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake and collapsed in the subsequent February 2011 Christchurch earthquake.

Avonside

Avonside Engine Co.
This was particularly the case in the riverside areas of Avonside, Dallington, Burwood, Avondale, and Kaiapoi, and in river delta areas near Bexley, Brooklands, Spencerville, Pines Beach, and Kairaki, with other areas being affected to a substantially lesser degree or not at all.
The church was damaged in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake and whilst under repair, was damaged beyond repair in the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake and demolished later that year.

Brooklands, Christchurch

BrooklandsBrooklands, Canterbury
This was particularly the case in the riverside areas of Avonside, Dallington, Burwood, Avondale, and Kaiapoi, and in river delta areas near Bexley, Brooklands, Spencerville, Pines Beach, and Kairaki, with other areas being affected to a substantially lesser degree or not at all.
The land damage sustained in the 2010 and 2011 Christchurch earthquakes and subsequent Red Zone classification resulted in the buyout and demolition of nearly all properties in Brooklands, effectively wiping the suburb off the map.

Heritage New Zealand

New Zealand Historic Places TrustHistoric Places TrustHeritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga
Heritage New Zealand board member Anna Crighton said the earthquake had been "unbelievably destructive."
The Canterbury earthquakes of September 2010 and February 2011 resulted in damage to a number of historic buildings in Christchurch.

Rolleston, New Zealand

RollestonClearview Primary SchoolRolleston, Canterbury
A 5 km section of rail track was damaged near Kaiapoi and there was lesser track damage at Rolleston and near Belfast.
Rolleston was close to the epicentre of the 2010 Canterbury earthquake being near the end of the Greendale Fault, experiencing movement two times the strength of that in Christchurch City.