2016 United States presidential election

The incumbent in 2016, Barack Obama. His second term expired at noon on January 20, 2017.
Campaign signs of third-party candidates Jill Stein and Gary Johnson, October 2016 in St. Johnsbury, Vermont
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A general election ballot, listing the presidential and vice presidential candidates
Trump campaigns in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2016
Clinton campaigns in Raleigh, North Carolina, October 22, 2016
President Barack Obama casting his vote early in Chicago on October 7, 2016
Vote margin swing by state 2012 to 2016. Only twelve states (as well as the District of Columbia and Nebraka's 2nd congressional district) shifted more Democratic. The large swing in Utah is mostly due to the votes for third candidate Evan McMullin and the 2012 candidacy of Utah's Mitt Romney.
Final polling averages for the 2016 election by state. Polls from lightly shaded states are older than September 1, 2016.
Results by state, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Results by vote distribution among states. The size of each state's pie chart is proportional to its number of electoral votes.
Results by county. Red denotes counties that went to Trump; blue denotes counties that went to Clinton.
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
A discontinuous cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election
A continuous cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election
A discretized cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election using squares
A discretized cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election using hexagons
Results of election by congressional district, shaded by winning candidate's percentage of the vote
County swing from 2012 to 2016
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Johnson
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Jill Stein
Results by state, shaded according to margin of victory

The 58th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.

- 2016 United States presidential election

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Official portrait, 2017

Donald Trump

American politician, media personality, and businessman who served as the 45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021.

American politician, media personality, and businessman who served as the 45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021.

Official portrait, 2017
Trump at the New York Military Academy in 1964
Trump (far right) and wife Ivana in the receiving line of a state dinner for King Fahd of Saudi Arabia in 1985, with U.S. president Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan
Trump Tower in Midtown Manhattan
Entrance of the Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City
Trump and New Jersey Generals quarterback Doug Flutie at a 1985 press conference in the lobby of Trump Tower
Trump's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Trump at a New York Mets baseball game in 2009
Trump and President Bill Clinton in June 2000
Trump speaking at CPAC 2011
Trump campaigning in Arizona, March 2016.
2016 electoral vote results. Trump won 304–227
Women's March in Washington on January 21, 2017
Trump is sworn in as president by Chief Justice John Roberts
Trump speaks to automobile workers in Michigan, March 2017
Trump and group of officials and advisors on the way from White House complex to St. John's Church
Trump examines border wall prototypes in Otay Mesa, California.
Trump with the other G7 leaders at the 45th summit in France, 2019
Trump and Xi Jinping at 2018 G20 Summit.
Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, and Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi at the 2017 Riyadh summit in Saudi Arabia
U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo meeting with Taliban delegation in Qatar in September 2020
Trump meets Kim Jong-un at the Singapore summit, June 2018
Putin and Trump shaking hands at the G20 Osaka summit, June 2019
Trump and his third Supreme Court nominee, Amy Coney Barrett.
Trump conducts a COVID-19 press briefing with members of the White House Coronavirus Task Force on March 15, 2020
Poland's president Andrzej Duda visited the White House on June 24, 2020, the first foreign leader to do so since the start of the pandemic.
Trump boards helicopter for COVID-19 treatment on October 2, 2020
Trump discharged on October 5, 2020, from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Members of House of Representatives vote on two articles of impeachment, December 18, 2019
Trump displaying the front page of The Washington Post reporting his acquittal by the Senate
Trump at a 2020 campaign rally in Arizona
2020 Electoral College results, Trump lost 232–306
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi signing the second impeachment of Trump
Trump speaks at the "Rally to Protect Our Elections" in Phoenix, Arizona, July 2021.
Trump talking to the press, March 2017
Fact-checkers from The Washington Post, the Toronto Star, and CNN compiled data on "false or misleading claims" (orange background), and "false claims" (violet foreground), respectively.

He won the 2016 United States presidential election as the Republican nominee against Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton but lost the popular vote, becoming the first U.S. president with no prior military or government service.

2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries

Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in April 2015
Senator Bernie Sanders during a rally, in July 2015
Bernie Sanders speaks in Littleton, New Hampshire
Hillary Clinton during a rally, in March 2016
Hillary Clinton speaks in Phoenix, Arizona, in March 2016
Bill Clinton campaigning for his wife in March 2016
Sanders speaks in Seattle, Washington, March 2016
Sanders speaks in Brooklyn, New York, April 2016
Clinton speaks in Washington, D.C., June 2016
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Breakdown of the results in vote distribution, by state
Results of popular vote, by county
Results in popular vote margin, by state
Results in popular vote margin, by county
Breakdown of the results in pledged delegates, by state
Breakdown of the results in total delegate count, by state
Results in pledged delegates, by state

Presidential primaries and caucuses were organized by the Democratic Party to select the 4,051 delegates to the 2016 Democratic National Convention held July 25–28 and determine the nominee for president in the 2016 United States presidential election.

Clinton in 2016

Hillary Clinton

American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state from 2009 to 2013, as a United States senator representing New York from 2001 to 2009, and as first lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001 as the wife of President Bill Clinton.

American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state from 2009 to 2013, as a United States senator representing New York from 2001 to 2009, and as first lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001 as the wife of President Bill Clinton.

Clinton in 2016
Mementos of Hillary Rodham's early life, shown at the William J. Clinton Presidential Center
Rodham in Maine South High School's 1965 yearbook
Rodham (center) campaigning for Wellesley College Government President in 1968, an election which she later won
Hillary and Bill lived in this house in Little Rock's Hillcrest neighborhood while he was Arkansas Attorney General (1977–1979).
Bill and Hillary Clinton with President Ronald and First Lady Nancy Reagan
Clinton in 1992
Clinton presenting her health care plan, September 1993
Hillary Clinton speaks about the 1993 health care plan at GWU Hospital.
Read Across America Day in Maryland, 1998
Inauguration Day walk down Pennsylvania Avenue to start Bill's second term as president, January 20, 1997
Results of the 2000 United States Senate election in New York. Clinton won the counties in blue.
Reenactment of Hillary Rodham Clinton's swearing-in as a U.S. senator by Vice President Al Gore in the Old Senate Chamber, as Bill and Chelsea look on
Official photo as U.S. senator
Clinton listens as the chief of naval operations, Admiral Michael Mullen, responds to a question during his 2007 confirmation hearing with the Senate Armed Services Committee
Clinton at the 2007 CDA National Convention
Clinton campaigning at Augsburg College in Minneapolis, Minnesota, two days before Super Tuesday, 2008
State-by-state popular votes in the Democratic primaries and caucuses, shaded by percentage won: Obama in purple, Clinton in green. (Popular vote winners and delegate winners differed in New Hampshire, Nevada, Missouri, Texas and Guam.)
Clinton speaks on behalf of her former rival, Barack Obama, during the second night of the 2008 Democratic National Convention
Official secretary of state portrait, 2009
Associate Judge Kathryn Oberly of the D.C. Court of Appeals administers the oath of office of secretary of state to Hillary Rodham Clinton as her husband Bill Clinton holds the Bible
Clinton and Obama at the 21st NATO summit, April 2009
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and Clinton hold a "reset button", March 2009
Greeting service members at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, October 2010
The London meeting to discuss NATO military intervention in Libya, March 29, 2011
Clinton with Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi during her December 2011 visit to Myanmar
Clinton, along with members of the national security team, receive an update on Operation Neptune Spear in the White House Situation Room on May 1, 2011. Everyone in the room is watching a live feed from drones operating over the Osama bin Laden complex.
Obama and Clinton honor the Benghazi attack victims at the Transfer of Remains Ceremony, held at Andrews Air Force Base on September 14, 2012
Clinton addressing email controversy with the media at the UN Headquarters on March 10, 2015
Clinton in September 2014
Clinton campaigning for president in Manchester, New Hampshire, in October 2016, with Massachusetts senator Elizabeth Warren (seated)
Clinton, accepting Senator Bernie Sanders' endorsement in New Hampshire, July 2016
Clinton delivering her concession speech
The Clintons at Donald Trump's inauguration
Clinton and her husband attend a wreath laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery after the inauguration of Joe Biden
Copies of What Happened at an event on Clinton's book tour promoting the memoir
2016 presidential campaign logo
Clinton worked at Rose Law Firm for fifteen years. Her professional career and political involvement set the stage for public reaction to her as the first lady.
Clinton in April 2015

A member of the Democratic Party, she was the party's nominee for president in the 2016 presidential election, becoming the first woman to win a presidential nomination by a major U.S. political party; Clinton won the popular vote, but lost the Electoral College vote, thereby losing the election to Donald Trump.

Republican Party (United States)

One of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main historic rival, the Democratic Party.

One of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main historic rival, the Democratic Party.

Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States (1861–1865) and the first Republican to hold the office
Charles R. Jennison, an anti-slavery militia leader associated with the Jayhawkers from Kansas and an early Republican politician in the region
Ulysses S. Grant, 18th president of the United States (1869–1877)
James G. Blaine, 28th & 31st Secretary of State (1881; 1889–1892)
William McKinley, 25th president of the United States (1897–1901)
Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States (1901–1909)
Herbert Hoover, 31st president of the United States (1929–1933)
Ronald Reagan, 40th president of the United States (1981–1989)
Donald Trump, 45th president of the United States (2017–2021)
Calvin Coolidge, 30th president of the United States (1923–1929)
Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th governor of California (2003–2011)
John McCain, United States senator from Arizona (1987–2018)
Donald Rumsfeld, 21st United States Secretary of Defense (2001–2006)
Colin Powell, 65th United States Secretary of State (2001–2005)
Newt Gingrich, 50th Speaker of the House of Representatives (1995–1999)
Annual population growth in the U.S. by county - 2010s
This map shows the vote in the 2020 presidential election by county.
Political Spectrum Libertarian Left    Centrist   Right  Authoritarian
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.

The election of Republican Donald Trump to the presidency in 2016 marked a populist shift in the Republican Party.

Democratic Party (United States)

One of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States.

One of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States.

Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States (1829–1837) and the first Democratic president.
Martin Van Buren was the eighth president of the United States (1837–1841) and the second Democratic president.
Senator Stephen A. Douglas
The 1885 inauguration of Grover Cleveland, the only president with non-consecutive terms
Leaders of the Democratic Party during the first half of the 20th century on 14 June 1913: Secretary of State William J. Bryan, Josephus Daniels, President Woodrow Wilson, Breckinridge Long, William Phillips, and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, 32nd and 33rd presidents of the United States (1933–1945; 1945–1953), featured on a campaign poster for the 1944 presidential election
John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, 35th and 36th presidents of the United States (1961–1963, 1963–1969)
Jimmy Carter, 39th president of the United States (1977–1981), delivering the State of the Union Address in 1979
Bill Clinton, 42nd president of the United States (1993–2001), at The Pentagon in 1998
Barack Obama speaking to College Democrats of America in 2007
President Barack Obama meeting with the Blue Dog Coalition in the State Dining Room of the White House in 2009
Eleanor Roosevelt at the 1956 Democratic National Convention in Chicago
President Barack Obama signing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law at the White House on March 23, 2010
Secretary of State John Kerry addressing delegates at the United Nations before signing the Paris Agreement on April 22, 2016
Shirley Chisholm was the first major-party African American candidate to run nationwide primary campaigns.
President Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Immigration Act of 1965 as Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Senators Edward M. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy and others look on
Then-Senator Barack Obama shaking hands with an American soldier in Basra, Iraq in 2008
President Jimmy Carter and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in 1978
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu meeting with President Barack Obama at Ben Gurion Airport in 2013
Self-identified Democrats (blue) versus self-identified Republicans (red) (January–June 2010 data)
Higher percentages of Democrats than Republicans are members of union households.
Elected at age 33, Jon Ossoff is currently the youngest member of the U.S. Senate.
Hillary Clinton was the first woman to be nominated for president by a major party.
Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg
Vice President Kamala Harris
Julián Castro served as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
U.S. Senator Tammy Duckworth
Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi
U.S. Senator Kyrsten Sinema
Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.

After the 2016 election of Donald Trump, the Democratic Party transitioned into the role of an opposition party and held neither the presidency nor the Senate but won back a majority in the House in the 2018 midterm elections.

2020 United States presidential election

The 59th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 2020.

The 59th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 2020.

States and territories with at least one local, state, or federal primary election date or method of voting altered as of August 5, 2020.
A poll worker sanitizes an election booth in Davis, California
Chart of July 2020 opinion survey on likelihood of voting by mail in November election, compared to 2016
President Donald Trump with Amy Coney Barrett and her family, just prior to Barrett being announced as the nominee, September 26, 2020
George Floyd protests in Minneapolis on May 26
Early voting in Cleveland, Ohio
Hexagonal cartogram of the number of electoral college votes. States with opposite outcomes from 2016 are hatched.
People celebrate in the streets near the White House after the major networks projected Biden the winner of the election on November 7.
Senator Chuck Schumer addresses a crowd celebrating in Times Square, New York City shortly after the election was called for Biden.
Voters cast ballots at Roosevelt High School in Des Moines, Iowa
Screenshot of a tweet from Trump's Twitter account where he repeatedly and falsely claimed he had won.
CNN fact checker Daniel Dale reported that through June 9, 2021, Trump had issued 132 written statements since leaving office, of which "a third have included lies about the election"—more than any other subject.
Pro-Trump rioters stormed the U.S. Capitol Building on January 6
Results by state, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Results by county
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
A discontinuous cartogram of the 2020 United States presidential election
A continuous county-level cartogram of the 2020 United States presidential election
County swing from 2016 to 2020
Election results by Congressional District
Shaded election results by county (red-purple-blue scale)
States shaded by margin of victory
Counties shaded by margin of victory

In July 2020, Trump declined to answer whether he would accept the results, just as he did in the 2016 presidential election, telling Fox News anchor Chris Wallace that "I have to see. No, I'm not going to just say yes. I'm not going to say no."

2008 United States presidential election

The 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008.

The 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008.

The incumbent in 2008, George W. Bush. His second term expired at noon on January 20, 2009.
2008 DNC during Stevie Wonder's performance
The Palins and McCains campaigning in Fairfax, Virginia, September 10, 2008, following the Republican National Convention
Obama campaigning as a symbol of change in Cleveland, Ohio with a "Change We Need" sign
Cartogram of the Electoral Votes for 2008 United States presidential election, each square representing one electoral vote. The map shows the impact of winning swing states. Nebraska, being one of two states that are not winner-take-all, for the first time had its votes split, with its second congressional district voting for Obama.
An Obama sign displayed at a home in Arlington, VA, on November 1, 2008.
States/districts in the 2008 United States Presidential election in which the margin of victory was less than 5%. Blue states/districts went for Obama, red for McCain. Yellow states were won by either candidate by 5% or more. Nevada, Colorado, New Mexico, Virginia and Iowa were won by Bush in 2004 but were won by Obama by a margin of more than 5% in 2008.
Swing by state. States are listed by (increasing) percentage of Democratic votes, showing how the share of the vote changed between 2004 and 2008. Excluding the candidates' home states, only five states trended more Republican: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee and West Virginia.
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Popular vote by county. Red represents counties that went for McCain; blue represents counties that went for Obama. Connecticut, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont had all counties go to Obama. Oklahoma had all counties go to McCain.
Presidential popular votes by county as a scale from red/Republican to blue/Democratic.
Cartogram of popular vote with each county rescaled in proportion to its population. Deeper blue represents a Democratic majority; brighter red represents a Republican majority.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/election/2008/|title=Election maps|website=www-personal.umich.edu}}</ref>
Voting shifts per county from the 2004 to the 2008 election. Darker blue indicates the county voted more Democratic. Darker red indicates the county voted more Republican.
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote.
Change in vote margins at the county level from the 2004 election to the 2008 election. Obama made dramatic gains in every region of the country except for Arizona (McCain's home state), Alaska (Palin's home state), Appalachia, and the inner South, where McCain improved over Bush.
Results by Congressional Districts, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote.

Together with Maine, which would not split its votes until 2016, Nebraska is one of two states that split their electoral votes, two going to the statewide popular vote winner and the rest going to the winner of each respective congressional district (Nebraska has three, and Maine has two).

American intelligence agencies concluded that Russian president Vladimir Putin personally ordered the covert operation, code named Project Lakhta, while Putin denied the allegations. At the 2018 Helsinki summit, Putin said that he wanted Trump to win because he talked about normalizing the U.S.–Russia relationship.

Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections

American intelligence agencies concluded that Russian president Vladimir Putin personally ordered the covert operation, code named Project Lakhta, while Putin denied the allegations. At the 2018 Helsinki summit, Putin said that he wanted Trump to win because he talked about normalizing the U.S.–Russia relationship.
The Russian Institute for Strategic Studies began working for the Russian presidency after 2009.
Initially in 2016 Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg said, "I think the idea that fake news on Facebook influenced the election in any way, I think is a pretty crazy idea."
Former site of the Internet Research Agency in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Debbie Wasserman Schultz resigned her position as chairperson of the DNC.
WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange
John O. Brennan, Assistant to the President for Counterterrorism and Homeland Security, in the Oval Office, January 4, 2010
James R. Clapper
President Obama ordered the United States Intelligence Community to investigate election hacking attempts since 2008.
German Chancellor Angela Merkel criticized the CAATSA sanctions against Russia, targeting EU–Russia energy projects.
Special counsel Robert Mueller directed the FBI from 2001 to 2013.
Russian ambassador Sergey Kislyak met with a number of U.S. officials.
Former Attorney General Jeff Sessions talked with the Russian ambassador during the Trump campaign and recused himself from the investigation.
Jared Kushner, President Trump's son-in-law and senior advisor, failed to disclose meetings with Russian officials.
Hillary Clinton said Vladimir Putin held a grudge against her due to her criticism of the 2011 Russian legislative election.
Trump's transition team dismissed the U.S. Intelligence community conclusions.
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov called American accusations "nonsense".

The Russian government interfered in the 2016 U.S. presidential election with the goals of harming the campaign of Hillary Clinton, boosting the candidacy of Donald Trump, and increasing political and social discord in the United States.

Official portrait, 2012

Barack Obama

American politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017.

American politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017.

Official portrait, 2012
Stanley Armour Dunham, Ann Dunham, Maya Soetoro and Barack Obama, (L to R) mid-1970s in Honolulu
Barack Obama's school record in St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Elementary School. Obama was enrolled as "Barry Soetoro" (no. 1), and was wrongly recorded as an Indonesian citizen (no. 3) and a Muslim (no. 4).
Obama poses in the Green Room of the White House with wife Michelle and daughters Sasha and Malia, 2009
Obama playing in a pickup game on the White House basketball court, 2009
The Obamas worship at African Methodist Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C., January 2013
State Senator Obama and others celebrate the naming of a street in Chicago after ShoreBank co-founder Milton Davis in 1998
Results of the 2004 U.S. Senate race in Illinois; Obama won the counties in blue.
Official portrait of Obama as a member of the United States Senate
Obama and U.S. Senator Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian facility for dismantling mobile missiles (August 2005)
Obama on stage with wife and daughters just before announcing presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, February 10, 2007
2008 electoral vote results. Obama won 365–173.
2012 electoral vote results. Obama won 332–206.
Obama takes the oath of office administered by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. at the Capitol, January 20, 2009
Obama delivers a speech at joint session of Congress with Vice President Joe Biden and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi on February 24, 2009.
Obama visits an Aurora shooting victim at University of Colorado Hospital, 2012.
The White House was illuminated in rainbow colors on the evening of the Supreme Court same-sex marriage ruling, June 26, 2015.
Deficit and debt increases, 2001–2016
US employment statistics (unemployment rate and monthly changes in net employment) during Obama's tenure as U.S. president
Obama at a 2010 briefing on the BP oil spill at the Coast Guard Station Venice in Venice, Louisiana
Obama signs the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act at the White House, March 23, 2010.
Maximum Out-of-Pocket Premium as Percentage of Family Income and federal poverty level, under Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, starting in 2014 (Source: CRS)
Percentage of Individuals in the United States without Health Insurance, 1963–2015 (Source: JAMA)
June 4, 2009 − after his speech A New Beginning at Cairo University, U.S. President Obama participates in a roundtable interview in 2009 with among others Jamal Khashoggi, Bambang Harymurti and Nahum Barnea.
Obama with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi at Hyderabad House in New Delhi, January 2015.
Obama meets with Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi at the White House, October 2016.
Meeting with UK Prime Minister David Cameron during the 2010 G20 Toronto summit
Obama after a trilateral meeting with Afghan President Hamid Karzai (left) and Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari (right), White House Cabinet Room, May 2009
Obama meeting with Israeli President Shimon Peres in the Oval Office, May 2009
President Obama meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin to discuss Syria and ISIS, September 29, 2015.
Obama and members of the national security team receive an update on Operation Neptune's Spear in the White House Situation Room, May 1, 2011. See also: Situation Room
Obama talks with Benjamin Netanyahu, March 2013.
President Obama meeting with Cuban President Raúl Castro in Panama, April 2015
Obama meets Russian President Vladimir Putin in September 2015.
Presidential approval ratings
G8 leaders watching the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final
Obama with his then-new successor Donald Trump and his later successor Joe Biden, at the former's inauguration on January 20, 2017
Obama playing golf with the President of Argentina Mauricio Macri, October 2017
Obama and his wife Michelle at the inauguration of Joe Biden
Job growth during the presidency of Obama compared to other presidents, as measured as a cumulative percentage change from month after inauguration to end of his term

After Russia's invasion of Crimea in 2014, military intervention in Syria in 2015, and the interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Obama's Russia policy was widely seen as a failure.

Electoral votes, out of 538, allocated to each state and the District of Columbia for presidential elections to be held in 2024 and 2028, based on representation, which depends on population data from the 2020 census. Every jurisdiction is entitled to at least 3.

United States Electoral College

Group of presidential electors required by the Constitution to form every four years for the sole purpose of appointing the president and vice president.

Group of presidential electors required by the Constitution to form every four years for the sole purpose of appointing the president and vice president.

Electoral votes, out of 538, allocated to each state and the District of Columbia for presidential elections to be held in 2024 and 2028, based on representation, which depends on population data from the 2020 census. Every jurisdiction is entitled to at least 3.
In the 2020 presidential election (held using 2010 census data) Joe Biden received 306 and Donald Trump 232 of the total 538 electoral votes.
In Maine (upper-right) and Nebraska (center), the small circled numbers indicate congressional districts. These are the only two states to use a district method for some of their allocated electors, instead of a complete winner-takes-all.
Cases of certificates of the electoral college votes confirming the results of the 2020 US election, after they had been removed from the House Chambers by congressional staff during the 2021 U.S. Capitol attack.
After the popular election in November, a state's Certificate of Ascertainment officially announces the state's electors for the Electoral College. The appointed Electoral College members later meet in the state capital in December to cast their votes.
Population per electoral vote for each state and Washington, D.C. (2010 census). By 2020 estimates, a single elector could represent more than 700,000 people or under 200,000.
When the state's electors meet in December, they cast their ballots and record their vote on a Certificate of Vote, which is then sent to the U.S. Congress. (From the election of 1876)
This cartogram shows the number of electors from each state for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 presidential elections. Following the 2010 Census, New York and Ohio lost two electoral votes, 8 states lost one, 6 states gained one, Florida gained two, and Texas gained four.
This graphic demonstrates how the winner of the popular vote can still lose in an electoral college system similar to the U.S. Electoral College.
Bar graph of popular votes in presidential elections (through 2020). Black stars mark the five cases where the winner did not have the plurality of the popular vote. Black squares mark the two cases where the electoral vote resulted in a tie, or the winner did not have the majority of electoral votes. An H marks each of two cases where the election was decided by the House; an S marks the one case where the election was finalized by the Supreme Court.
These maps show the amount of attention given to each state by the Bush and Kerry campaigns (combined) during the final five weeks of the 2004 election: each waving hand (purple map) represents a visit from a presidential or vice presidential candidate; each dollar sign (green map) represents one million dollars spent on TV advertising.
Half the U.S. population lives in 143 urban / suburban counties out of 3,143 counties or county equivalents (2019 American Community Survey)

Thus, a president may be elected who did not win the national popular vote, as occurred in 1824, 1876, 1888, 2000, and 2016.