28 Bolsheviks

Twenty-Eight BolsheviksUSSR-trained Communist Party leaders
The 28 (and half) Bolsheviks were a group of Chinese students who studied at the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University from the late 1920s until early 1935, also known as the "Returned Students".wikipedia
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Wang Ming

Wang Ming Leftist LineWang Ming”
One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Wang Ming (May 23, 1904 – March 27, 1974) was a senior leader of the early Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the mastermind of the famous 28 Bolsheviks group.

Bo Gu

Qin Bangxian
One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Qin Bangxian, better known as Bo Gu (Wade-Giles: Po Ku) (May 14, 1907 – April 8, 1946) was a senior leader of the Chinese Communist Party and a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Zhang Wentian

Luo Fu
One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
He was a member of the group known as the 28 Bolsheviks, but switched to supporting Mao Zedong during the Long March.

Wang Jiaxiang

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Wang Jiaxiang (, also known as Wang Jiaqiang ) (August 15, 1906 – January 25, 1974), one of the senior leaders of the Communist Party of China in its early stage and a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Chen Changhao

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Chen Changhao (18 September 1906 – 30 July 1967) was a member of the 28 Bolsheviks and an important military figure of Zhang Guotao's 4th Red Army from Hanyang, Wuhan.

Yang Shangkun

President YangPresident Yang Shangkun
One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Yang returned to China as one of the 28 Bolsheviks and originally supported the early communist leader Zhang Guotao, but switched allegiance to Mao's faction during the Long March.

Zhang Qinqiu

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
She was one of the first female members of the Communist Party of China, and one of the 28 Bolsheviks trained in Moscow.

Xia Xi

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Xia Xi (17 August 1901 – 28 February 1936), also known as Man Bo and Lao Xia, was an early leader of the Chinese Communist Party and a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Sheng Zhongliang

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Sheng Zhongliang (August 27, 1907 – March 29, 2007) was a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

He Zishu

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
He Zishu (1901–1932) was a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Shen Zemin

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
He was the younger brother of the prominent novelist Mao Dun (Shen Yanbing) and a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Wang Yuncheng

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Wang Yuncheng (1905 – November 1969) was a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Chen Yuandao

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Chen Yuandao (1902 – April 10, 1933) also called Yuandao, was a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Li Zhusheng

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Li Zhusheng (1903–1973), also known as Li Mengda, alias Yu Qiquan, was a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Moscow Sun Yat-sen University

Sun Yat-sen UniversityMoscowSun Yat-sen Communist university of the Toilers of China
The 28 (and half) Bolsheviks were a group of Chinese students who studied at the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University from the late 1920s until early 1935, also known as the "Returned Students".
Many who studied there went on to play leadership roles in China, including some of the 28 Bolsheviks, Zuo Quan, Wu Xiuquan, He Zhonghan, Deng Wenyi, Ji Chaoding, and both Deng Xiaoping, future leader of the People's Republic of China and Chiang Ching-kuo, future president of the Republic of China in Taiwan.

Zhu Agen

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Zhu Agen, also known as Zhu Zhiyuan was a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Song Panmin

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Song Panmin, also known as Song Panming was a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Xu Yixin

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Xu Yixin (November 14, 1911 – December 30, 1994) was an associate of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Yuan Jiayong

One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Yuan Jiayong (1905 – January 16, 1991) was a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Yin Jian (Communist leader)

Yin Jian
One lists 29 active members, including: Wang Ming and his wife Meng Qingshu ; Bo Gu; Zhang Wentian; Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chen Changhao with his wife Du Zuoxiang ; Shen Zemin and his wife Zhang Qinqiu; Kai Feng; Xia Xi; He Zishu; Sheng Zhongliang; Wang Baoli ; Wang Shengrong ; Wang Yuncheng; Zhu Agen; Zhu Zishun (朱自舜, female); Sun Jimin ; Song Panmin; Chen Yuandao; Li Zhusheng; Li Yuanjie ; Wang Shengdi ; Xiao Tefu ; Yin Jian; Yuan Jiayong, Xu Yixin.
Yin Jian (1904–1937), also known as Dongshan, alias Huang Jianchun, was an early member of the Communist Party of China and a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.

Mao Zedong

MaoMao Tse-tungChairman Mao
As a result, the conflict between the Central Committee and Mao Zedong's fledgling Chinese Soviet Republic began once again.
They replaced him with Soviet-educated Chinese Communists, known as the "28 Bolsheviks", two of whom, Bo Gu and Zhang Wentian, took control of the Central Committee.

Li Lisan

Li
This provoked a struggle with Li Lisan and his allies, who controlled the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
Wang Ming and his group of 28 Bolsheviks came back from Moscow, designated to take the leadership of the CCP by their mentors in Moscow, but they only received a cold shoulder from Li.

Long March

The Long MarchChangzhengChinese Long March
This forced the party to embark in the famous Long March of October 1934 to October 1935.
In July 1934, the leaders of the Party, dominated by the "Twenty-Eight Bolsheviks", a militant group formed in Moscow by Wang Ming and Bo Gu, forced Mao from the Politburo of the Communist Party in Ruijin and placed him briefly under house arrest.

Peng Dehuai

Marshal Peng Dehuai
He died during the Cultural Revolution after forming a "counterrevolutionary group" with Peng Dehuai.
After the consolidation of the Jiangxi Soviet, a number of USSR-trained Communist Party leaders arrived and took power in the Soviet: Peng, like most communist military leaders, supported their leadership until the Jiangxi Soviet was eventually overrun.

Zhang Guotao

Chang Kuo-taoZhang
In 1931 Zhang expressed his repentance and was sent back to China by the Comintern to clean up the mess left by the power struggle between the 28 Bolsheviks, Li Lisan, and other old CCP members.