35 mm movie projector in operation
Eastman (L) giving Edison the first roll of movie film, which was 35 mm
Simulation of a spinning zoopraxiscope
35 mm film diagram
An early projector and seats from a movie theater
A photo of a 35 mm film print featuring all four audio formats (or "quad track") — from left to right: SDDS, a soundtrack as an image of a digital signal (blue area to the left of the sprocket holes); Dolby Digital sound (grey area between the sprocket holes labelled with the Dolby "Double-D" logo in the middle); analog optical sound, optically recorded as waveforms containing the audio signals for the left and right audio channels (the two white lines to the right of the sprocket holes); and the DTS time code (the dashed line to the far right).
1910's 35mm hand-cranked tinplate toy movie projector manufactured by Leonhard Müller in Nuremberg, Germany.
An "over-under" 3D frame. Both left and right eye images are contained within the normal height of a single 2D frame.
35 mm Kinoton FP30ST movie projector, with parts labeled. (Click thumbnail for larger text.)
Comparison of common 35 mm film formats
Mechanical sequence when image is shown twice and then advanced. 
Outer sprockets rotate continuously while the frame advance sprockets are controlled by the mechanism shown – a Geneva drive.
A diagram of the VistaVision format, affectionately dubbed "Lazy 8" because it is eight perforations long and runs horizontally (lying down)
Imaging lens Diastar of an Askania 35 mm movie projector (focal length: 400 mm)
35 mm film perforation hole types.
Christie AW3 platter, BIG SKY Industries console, and Century SA projector
Areas on an Academy-width 35 mm spherical film print:
nonrewind in Royal – Malmö, Sweden
A diagram of the VistaVision format
A photo of a 35 mm film print featuring all four audio formats (or "quad track")- from left to right: SDDS (blue area to the left of the sprocket holes), Dolby Digital (grey area between the sprocket holes labelled with the Dolby "Double-D" logo in the middle), analog optical sound (the two white lines to the right of the sprocket holes), and the Datasat time code (the dashed line to the far right.)
Simulated wide screen image with 1.96 to 1 ratio as it would be seen in a camera viewfinder or on a theater screen
Simulated anamorphed image with 1.33 to 1 ratio (4:3) as it would appear on a frame of film

The ubiquity of 35 mm movie projectors in commercial movie theaters made 35 mm the only motion picture format that could be played in almost any cinema in the world, until digital projection largely superseded it in the 21st century.

- 35 mm movie film

See the 35 mm film article for more information on both digital and analog methods.

- Movie projector

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Animated GIF of Prof. Stampfer's Stroboscopische Scheibe No. X (Trentsensky & Vieweg 1833)

Film

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Work of visual art that simulates experiences and otherwise communicates ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images.

Work of visual art that simulates experiences and otherwise communicates ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images.

Animated GIF of Prof. Stampfer's Stroboscopische Scheibe No. X (Trentsensky & Vieweg 1833)
An animated GIF of a photographic sequence shot by Eadweard Muybridge in 1878. His chronophotographic works can be regarded as very short movies that were recorded before there was a proper way to replay the material in motion.
A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world's earliest surviving film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888
A famous shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film and also an early science fiction film.
Salah Zulfikar, one of the most popular actors in the golden age of Egyptian Cinema
This 16 mm spring-wound Bolex "H16" Reflex camera is a popular entry level camera used in film schools.
Founded in 1912, the Babelsberg Studio near Berlin was the first large-scale film studio in the world, and the forerunner to Hollywood. It still produces global blockbusters every year.
The Lumière Brothers, who were among the first filmmakers
Salah Zulfikar and Faten Hamama in the premiere of Bain Al-Atlal ("Among the Ruins") in Cairo, 1959
An animated image of a horse, made using eight pictures.
An animation of the retouched Sallie Garner card from The Horse in Motion series (1878–1879) by Muybridge. His chronophotographic works can be regarded as very short movies that were recorded before there was a proper way to replay the material in motion.

The images are transmitted through a movie projector at the same rate as they were recorded, with a Geneva drive ensuring that each frame remains still during its short projection time.

Stock widths and the film format for images on the reel have had a rich history, though most large commercial films are still shot on (and distributed to theaters) as 35 mm prints.

Modern cinema auditorium in Madrid, Spain

Movie theater

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Building that contains auditoria for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment.

Building that contains auditoria for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment.

Modern cinema auditorium in Madrid, Spain
Rodgers Theatre in Poplar Bluff in Missouri. This Art Deco-style theater opened in 1949.
The view from the projectionist's booth at Ultimate Palace Cinema in Oxford. The projector is displaying the 1997 Universal Pictures logo.
A cinema auditorium in Australia
The Fox Theater in Atlanta has an old-fashioned neon sign.
Kay Theater in Rockdale, Texas
The Berlin Wintergarten theatre was the site of the Skladanowsky brothers's first film presentation from 1 to 31 November 1895
L'Idéal Cinéma at Aniche, France, opened 23 November 1905, closed 1977, demolished in 1995
A small still-active Kino Juha movie theatre in Nurmijärvi, Finland, opened in 1958
Regent Theatre in Hokitika, New Zealand
Cinema Odeon auditorium in Florence
Interior of Hoyts cinemas auditorium in Perth, Australia, with stadium seating with cup holders, acoustic wall hangings and wall-mounted speakers.
Interior of a 1950s-style fine arts movie theater auditorium. A low pitch viewing floor is used.
Tennispalatsi, one of the major Finnkino multiplex movie theatre places, in Helsinki, Finland
A typical raked (sloped) floor for a movie auditorium, which gives all viewers a clear view of the screen.
Example of a Multiplex layout
A drive-in with a 33-metre (108-foot) wide inflatable movie screen in the centre of Brussels
A giant inflatable movie screen used at a temporary outdoor movie theater (open air cinema)
1967 Bedford mobile cinema
A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles)
Non-movie-theater screening: movie in a culture club in Germany
35 mm movie projector
Broadcast center
Admission prices board, Cinema Museum (London)
Seating indicator
Box office of a 1950s style fine arts movie theater.
A theatre-goer enjoys a show
Some movie theaters in Finland sell alcohol to take along to the movie itself in select showings. Such showings are always adults-only, regardless of the rating of the movie.
These ratings are from the revised Taiwan motion picture rating system which took effect in October 2015.
Admission ticket for the premier of the movie A Viszkis
A bag of popcorn from the Plaza Theater in Atlanta, Georgia.
Hallway of MPX Grande, a defunct movie theater in Pasaraya Blok M, Jakarta.

The film is projected with a movie projector onto a large projection screen at the front of the auditorium while the dialogue, sounds, and music are played through a number of wall-mounted speakers.

IMAX is a system using film with more than ten times the frame size of a 35 mm film to produce image quality far superior to conventional film.

Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet

Kinetoscope

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Early motion-picture exhibition device.

Early motion-picture exhibition device.

Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet
Sheet of images from one of the three Monkeyshines films (c. 1889–90) produced as tests of an early version of the Kinetoscope
An acre in size, Edison's exhibit at the Exposition Universelle included an entire electrical power station. (Smithsonian Institution/William J. Hammer Collection)
Charles Kayser of the Edison lab seated behind the Kinetograph. Portability was not among the camera's virtues.
35 mm filmstrip of the Edison production Butterfly Dance (c. 1894–95), featuring Annabelle Whitford Moore, in the format that would become standard for both still and motion picture photography around the world.
Construction of the imposing Black Maria began in December 1892. In order to take full advantage of sunlight, the tar paper–lined studio was equipped with a hinged, flip-up roof and the entire structure could rotate on a track. "It obeys no architectural rules," declared Dickson, who found it "productive of the happiest effects in the films."
A San Francisco Kinetoscope parlor, c. 1894–95.
Advertisement announcing the initial Kinetoscope exhibition in London, held on October 17, 1894.
The 1895 version of the Kinetophone in use, showing the earphones that lead to the cylinder phonograph within the cabinet
Reverse side of a kinetophone, showing a wax cylinder phonograph driven by a belt.
In the first decade of the 1900s, years before developing the compact Home Projecting Kinetoscope, Edison marketed an essentially theatrical 35 mm Projecting Kinetoscope for domestic use.
Image of a Projecting Kinetoscope published in 1914
Promotion of Kinetophone system, January 1913

The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector, but it introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video.

The filmstrip, based on stock manufactured first by Eastman, and then, from April 1893 onward, by New York's Blair Camera Co., was 35 mm (1 3/8 inches) wide; each vertically sequenced frame bore a rectangular image and four perforations on each side.

Panavision

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American motion picture equipment company founded in 1953 specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California.

American motion picture equipment company founded in 1953 specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California.

Screenshot of The Big Fisherman (1959), the first film released using the Super Panavision 70 process. The image shows the 2.20:1 aspect ratio in which the film was presented.
Panavision cinematic camera R-200°

In 1972, Panavision helped revolutionize filmmaking with the lightweight Panaflex 35 mm movie camera.

Panavision was established principally for the manufacture of anamorphic projection lenses to meet the growing demands of theaters showing CinemaScope films.

A 35mm film gauge illuminated with the flashlight of a smartphone.

Film gauge

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Physical property of photographic or motion picture film stock which defines its width.

Physical property of photographic or motion picture film stock which defines its width.

A 35mm film gauge illuminated with the flashlight of a smartphone.

Traditionally, the major movie film gauges are 8 mm, 16 mm, 35 mm, and 65/70 mm (in this case 65 mm for the negative and 70 mm for the release print; the extra five millimeters are reserved for the magnetic soundtrack).

Larger film gauge is generally associated with higher image quality, higher image detail, greater materials expense, heavier camera equipment, larger and most costly projection equipment, as well as greater bulk and weight for distribution and storage (both interim and archival).