433 Eros

Eros – composite image of the north polar region, with the craters Psyche above and Himeros below. The long ridge Hinks Dorsum, believed to be a thrust fault, can be seen snaking diagonally between them. The smaller crater in the foreground is Narcissus Watters, (2011)
Path in sky during opposition 2011/2012
Animation of NEAR Shoemaker trajectory from 19 February 1996 to 12 February 2001.{{hlist|{{legend2|magenta|NEAR Shoemaker}}|{{legend2|lime|Eros}}|{{legend2|RoyalBlue|Earth}}|{{legend2|cyan|Mathilde}}|{{legend2|yellow|Sun}}}}.
Animation of NEAR Shoemaker{{'s}} trajectory around 433 Eros from 1 April 2000 to 12 February 2001.
Animation of the rotation of Eros
View from one end of Eros across the gouge on its side towards the opposite end
First mosaic image of Eros taken from an orbiting spacecraft
Mosaic image of Eros
At {{convert|abbr=on|4.8|km|mi|1}} across, the crater Psyche is Eros's second largest.
Regolith of Eros, seen during NEAR's descent; area shown is about 12 meters (40 feet) across
Orbital diagram of Eros with locations on 7 May 2013
Orbital diagram of Eros with locations on 1 January 2018
Size comparison of Vesta, Ceres and Eros
Six different views of Eros in approximate natural color from NEAR-Shoemaker in February 2000
Stereo image of Eros

Stony asteroid of the Amor group and the first discovered and second-largest near-Earth object with an elongated shape and a mean diameter of approximately 16.8 km. Visited by the NEAR Shoemaker space probe in 1998, it became the first asteroid ever studied from orbit around the asteroid.

- 433 Eros
Eros – composite image of the north polar region, with the craters Psyche above and Himeros below. The long ridge Hinks Dorsum, believed to be a thrust fault, can be seen snaking diagonally between them. The smaller crater in the foreground is Narcissus Watters, (2011)

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Birthplace, 3 Avenue Marx Dormoy, La Cadière-d'Azur

Auguste Charlois

French astronomer who discovered 99 asteroids while working at the Nice Observatory in southeastern France.

French astronomer who discovered 99 asteroids while working at the Nice Observatory in southeastern France.

Birthplace, 3 Avenue Marx Dormoy, La Cadière-d'Azur

He photographed 433 Eros on the very night of its discovery by Gustav Witt, but was not able to act quickly enough before Witt announced his find.

NEAR Shoemaker

Near-Earth asteroid Eros as seen from the NEAR spacecraft.
Launch of NEAR, February 1996
One of the images from the flyby of 253 Mathilde
Eros from approximately 250 meters altitude (area in image is roughly 12 meters across). This image was taken during NEAR descent to the surface of the asteroid.
NEAR spacecraft inside its Delta II rocket.
Diagram showing location of NEAR science instruments.
Trajectory graphic depicting the voyage of the NEAR spacecraft
Animation of NEAR Shoemaker{{'s}} trajectory from February 19, 1996, to February 12, 2001{{hlist|{{legend2|magenta|NEAR Shoemaker}}|{{legend2|lime|Eros}}|{{legend2|RoyalBlue|Earth}}|{{legend2|cyan|Mathilde}}|{{legend2|yellow|Sun}}}}
Animation of NEAR Shoemaker{{'s}} trajectory around Eros from April 1, 2000, to February 12, 2001{{hlist|{{legend2|magenta|NEAR Shoemaker}}|{{legend2|Lime|433 Eros}}}}

Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year.

Plot of orbits of known potentially hazardous asteroids (size over 460 ft and passing within 4.7 e6mi of Earth's orbit) as of early 2013 ([[:File:PIA17041-Orbits-PotentiallyHazardousAsteroids-Early2013.jpg|alternate image]])

Near-Earth object

Any small Solar System body whose orbit brings it into proximity with Earth.

Any small Solar System body whose orbit brings it into proximity with Earth.

Plot of orbits of known potentially hazardous asteroids (size over 460 ft and passing within 4.7 e6mi of Earth's orbit) as of early 2013 ([[:File:PIA17041-Orbits-PotentiallyHazardousAsteroids-Early2013.jpg|alternate image]])
1910 drawing of the path of Halley's Comet
The near Earth asteroid 433 Eros was visited by a probe in the 1990s
Known asteroids – as of January 2018
Video (0:55; July 23, 2018)
Asteroid 4179 Toutatis is a potentially hazardous object that passed within 4 lunar distances in September 2004 and currently has a minimum possible distance of 2.5 lunar distances.
Radar image of asteroid
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Asteroid Toutatis from Paranal
Known near-Earth asteroids by size
Types of near-Earth asteroid orbits
The group of Atira (Apohele) asteroids compared to the orbits of the terrestrial planets of the Solar System.
The Aten group compared to the orbits of the terrestrial planets of the Solar System.
Location of the Apollo asteroids compared to the orbits of the terrestrial planets of the Solar System.
The Amor asteroid group compared to the orbits of the terrestrial planets of the Solar System.
The five Lagrangian points relative to Earth and possible orbits along gravitational contours
Overview of the Inner Solar System with different co-orbital bodies.
Halley's Comet during its 0.10 AU approach of Earth in May 1910
J002E3 discovery images taken on September 3, 2002. J002E3 is in the circle
Flyby of asteroid 2004 FH (centre dot being followed by the sequence). The other object that flashes by is an artificial satellite
433 Eros as seen by NASA's NEAR probe
Image mosaic of asteroid 101955 Bennu, target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx probe
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko as seen by ESA's Rosetta probe

The first near-Earth asteroid to be discovered was 433 Eros in 1898.

Amor asteroid Eros visited by NEAR Shoemaker in 2000

Amor asteroid

[[Image:Minor Planets - Amor.svg|thumb|right|285px|The Amor asteroid group compared to the orbits of the [[terrestrial planet]]s of the Solar System.

[[Image:Minor Planets - Amor.svg|thumb|right|285px|The Amor asteroid group compared to the orbits of the [[terrestrial planet]]s of the Solar System.

Amor asteroid Eros visited by NEAR Shoemaker in 2000

The Amor asteroid 433 Eros was the first asteroid to be orbited and landed upon by a robotic space probe (NEAR Shoemaker).

A simplified illustration of the parallax of an object against a distant background due to a perspective shift. When viewed from "Viewpoint A", the object appears to be in front of the blue square. When the viewpoint is changed to "Viewpoint B", the object appears to have moved in front of the red square.

Parallax

Displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.

Displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.

A simplified illustration of the parallax of an object against a distant background due to a perspective shift. When viewed from "Viewpoint A", the object appears to be in front of the blue square. When the viewpoint is changed to "Viewpoint B", the object appears to have moved in front of the red square.
This animation is an example of parallax. As the viewpoint moves side to side, the objects in the distance appear to move more slowly than the objects close to the camera. In this case, the white cube in front appears to move faster than the green cube in the middle of the far background.
In this photograph, the Sun is visible above the top of the streetlight. In the reflection on the water, the Sun appears in line with the streetlight because the virtual image is formed from a different viewing position.
Parallax is an angle subtended by a line on a point. In the upper diagram, the Earth in its orbit sweeps the parallax angle subtended on the Sun. The lower diagram shows an equal angle swept by the Sun in a geostatic model. A similar diagram can be drawn for a star except that the angle of parallax would be minuscule.
Hubble Space Telescope – Spatial scanning precisely measures distances up to 10,000 light-years away (10 April 2014).
Stellar parallax motion
Diagram of daily lunar parallax
Example of lunar parallax: Occultation of Pleiades by the Moon
Measuring Venus transit times to determine solar parallax
The correct line of sight needs to be used to avoid parallax error.
Contax III rangefinder camera with macro photography setting. Because the viewfinder is on top of the lens and of the close proximity of the subject, goggles are fitted in front of the rangefinder and a dedicated viewfinder installed to compensate for parallax.
Failed panoramic image due to the parallax, since axis of rotation of tripod is not same of focal point.
Simple animation demonstrating the effects of parallax compensation in telescopic sights, as the eye moves relative to the sight.
Parallax theory for finding naval distances

Much later, the Solar System was "scaled" using the parallax of asteroids, some of which, such as Eros, pass much closer to Earth than Venus.

The grey line indicates the Earth–Sun distance, which on average is about 1 astronomical unit.

Astronomical unit

Unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun and equal to 150 e6km or 8.3 light minutes.

Unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun and equal to 150 e6km or 8.3 light minutes.

The grey line indicates the Earth–Sun distance, which on average is about 1 astronomical unit.
Transits of Venus across the face of the Sun were, for a long time, the best method of measuring the astronomical unit, despite the difficulties (here, the so-called "black drop effect") and the rarity of observations.
The astronomical unit is used as the baseline of the triangle to measure stellar parallaxes (distances in the image are not to scale)

The discovery of the near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros and its passage near Earth in 1900–1901 allowed a considerable improvement in parallax measurement.

The asteroids of the inner Solar System and Jupiter: The belt is located between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars.

Asteroid belt

Torus-shaped region in the Solar System, located roughly between the orbits of the planets Jupiter and Mars.

Torus-shaped region in the Solar System, located roughly between the orbits of the planets Jupiter and Mars.

The asteroids of the inner Solar System and Jupiter: The belt is located between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars.
The relative masses of the top 12 asteroids known compared to the remaining mass of all the other asteroids in the belt
By far the largest object within the belt is the dwarf planet Ceres. The total mass of the asteroid belt is significantly less than Pluto's, and roughly twice that of Pluto's moon Charon.
Johannes Kepler noticed in 1596 irregularities in the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, which were later explained by the gravity from the asteroids.
Giuseppe Piazzi, discoverer of Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt: Ceres was known as a planet, but later reclassified as an asteroid and from 2006 as a dwarf planet.
The asteroid belt showing the orbital inclinations versus distances from the Sun, with asteroids in the core region of the asteroid belt in red and other asteroids in blue
Hubble views extraordinary multi-tailed asteroid P/2013 P5.
The asteroid belt (showing eccentricities), with the asteroid belt in red and blue ("core" region in red)
The zodiacal light, a minor part of which is created by dust from collisions in the asteroid belt
This plot of orbital inclination (ip) versus eccentricity (ep) for the numbered main-belt asteroids clearly shows clumpings representing asteroid families.
Overview of the Inner Solar System asteroids up to the Jovian System.
Linear overview of the Inner Solar System bodies.
Artist's concept of the Dawn spacecraft with Vesta and Ceres

Galileo imaged 951 Gaspra in 1991 and 243 Ida in 1993, NEAR imaged 253 Mathilde in 1997 and landed on 433 Eros in February 2001, Cassini imaged 2685 Masursky in 2000, Stardust imaged 5535 Annefrank in 2002, New Horizons imaged 132524 APL in 2006, Rosetta imaged 2867 Šteins in September 2008 and 21 Lutetia in July 2010, and Dawn orbited Vesta between July 2011 and September 2012 and has orbited Ceres since March 2015.

Carl Gustav Witt

German astronomer and discoverer of two asteroids who worked at the Berlin Urania Observatory, a popular observatory of the Urania astronomical association of Berlin.

German astronomer and discoverer of two asteroids who worked at the Berlin Urania Observatory, a popular observatory of the Urania astronomical association of Berlin.

Witt discovered two asteroids, most notably 433 Eros, the first asteroid with a male name, and the first known near-Earth object.

Headquarters of the Royal Society in Carlton House Terrace in London

Arthur Robert Hinks

British astronomer and geographer.

British astronomer and geographer.

Headquarters of the Royal Society in Carlton House Terrace in London

Although Hinks had originally intended to measure stellar parallax, and produced an ambitious plan to do so in conjunction with Henry Norris Russell, an even more fundamental opportunity arose with the discovery in 1898 of 433 Eros.

CBE neck decoration (in civil division)

Harold Spencer Jones

English astronomer.

English astronomer.

CBE neck decoration (in civil division)

He obtained improved measurements of the distance of the Sun from the Earth using observations of the position of Mars in the sky through its parallax, and carried out a series of observations of the minor planet 433 Eros during its close approach in 1930–1931 for the same purpose.