A-not-A question

A-not-A
In linguistics, an A-not-A question is a polar question that offers two opposite possibilities for the answer.wikipedia
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Yes and no

noyesyes" or "no
is a neutral question where the answer to this can be yes or no in response to the first and more explicitly stated alternative.
In all languages, yes-no questions are often posed in A-not-A form, and the replies to such questions are echo answers that echo either A or not A.

Chinese grammar

ChineseChinese aspectsChinese aspect markers
In Chinese, there are 6 attested patterns of A-not-A: A-not-A, AB-not-AB, A-not-AB, AB-not-A, a-not-A, and a-not-AB of which "A" stands for the full form of the predicate, "B" stands for the complement, and "a" stands for the first syllable of a disyllabic predicate.
An alternative is the A-not-A construction, using phrases like chī bu chī (, "eat or not eat").

Echo answer

echo responserepeats the verb used in the question
The response to this question must be an echo answer, stating either "I am happy," or the correct alternative, "I am sad".
Often, yes-no questions in Mandarin are expressed in the A-not-A form, and are answered with either A or not-A.

Yes–no question

yes-no questionyes/no questionpolar question
In linguistics, an A-not-A question is a polar question that offers two opposite possibilities for the answer.
In Chinese, yes–no questions typically take an A-not-A form.

Interrogative

interrogative sentenceinterrogative moodQuestions
Interrogative
Another way of forming yes–no questions is the A-not-A construction, found for example in Chinese, which offers explicit yes or no alternatives:

Written Cantonese

CantoneseCantonese charactersnative characters
In the above table the two Chinese sentences are grammatically identical, using an A-not-A question to ask "Is it theirs?"

Intonation (linguistics)

intonationintonationalintonations
There are four basic sentence types having distinctive intonation: declarative sentences, unmarked interrogative questions, yes–no questions marked as such with the sentence-final particle ma, and A-not-A questions of the form "He go not go" (meaning "Does he go or not?").

Standard Chinese phonology

four tonestoneneutral tone
1) In other cases, 不 is pronounced with fourth tone. However, when used between words in an A-not-A question, it may become neutral in tone (e.g. 是不是 shìbushì).

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, an A-not-A question is a polar question that offers two opposite possibilities for the answer.

Varieties of Chinese

ChineseSiniticChinese varieties
This disjunctive question is predominantly found in Sinitic languages that offers a choice between an affirmative predicate and its negative counterpart.

Leading question

leading questionsleadingsuggestive
In other words, this sentence is a leading question, where the speaker has an expectation as to what the answer will be. In contrast, (1.b) "Are you happy or not?"

Modal verb

modalmodal auxiliariesmodal auxiliary
"A" is essentially a variable which can be replaced with a grammatical particle such as a modal, adverb, adjective, verb, or preposition.

Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspects
However, this clause does not apply when using perfective in aspect.

Classifier (linguistics)

classifierclassifiersnoun classifier
The word ben is a classifier, which means it is a counter word for the Noun book.

Standard Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin Chinese
Despite having the same negative marker as Standard Chinese, "不" bat1 is only used in fixed expressions or to give literacy quality.

Cantonese

Cantonese ChineseCantonese languagestandard Cantonese
One distinction in Cantonese when compared to Standard Chinese is that certain forms of A-not-A questions are not attested due to dialectal differences.

Reduplication

reduplicatedreduplicativereduplicating
Then, reduplication occurs to yield the surface form of the A-not-A question.

Government and binding theory

government and bindingmaximal projectionGovernment-Binding
The A-not-A operator can only lower to a MWd which is immediately dominated by the maximal projection that is also immediately dominated by the maximal projection of the A-not-A operator.

X-bar theory

X-bar schemaX-barX-bar theoretic
1) The A-not-A operator targets the closest MWd that is the X’-theoretic head that it c-commands.

C-command

dominate
1) The A-not-A operator targets the closest MWd that is the X’-theoretic head that it c-commands.

Covert (linguistics)

covertnotovertcovert gender
Otherwise, the reduplicant can move covertly, not spelled-out, to the right of the base maximal projection containing the MWd.

Closed-ended question

open-ended questionsclosed-endedopen-ended question
Closed-ended question
A-not-A question