A. A. K. Niazi

Amir Abdullah Khan NiaziA.A.K. NiaziGeneral NiaziA A K NiaziA.A.K NiaziAmir Khan NiaziAmir NiaziAAK NiaziNiaziTiger Niazi
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004), HJ(Withdrawn), MC, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi or General Niazi was a former lieutenant-general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan known for commanding the Eastern Command of the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Eastern and the Western Fronts of the Indo-Pakistani war until the unilateral surrendering on the 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and the Bengali Liberation Forces.wikipedia
177 Related Articles

Prisoners of war during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

war prisonerprisoner of warPOW Commission
After taken and held as a prisoner of war by the Indian Army, he was repatriated to Pakistan on 30 April 1975.
Pakistan's Yahya administration conveyed their intentions to retreat from their eastern wing to the United Nations on 10 December 1971, and a formal surrender was submitted and accepted when the Commander of Eastern Command and Governor of East Pakistan, Lieutenant-General A.A.K. Niazi, signed an instrument of surrender with his counterpart, Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora, GOC-in-C of Eastern Command, on 16 December 1971.

Pakistani Instrument of Surrender

Instrument of SurrendersurrenderSurrender of Pakistan
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004), HJ(Withdrawn), MC, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi or General Niazi was a former lieutenant-general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan known for commanding the Eastern Command of the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Eastern and the Western Fronts of the Indo-Pakistani war until the unilateral surrendering on the 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and the Bengali Liberation Forces.
Lieutenant-General A A K Niazi, Martial Law Administrator of East Pakistan, surrendered to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora, Joint Commander of Indian and Bangladeshi Forces.

Pakistan Army

Pakistani ArmyArmyarmy general
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004), HJ(Withdrawn), MC, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi or General Niazi was a former lieutenant-general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan known for commanding the Eastern Command of the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Eastern and the Western Fronts of the Indo-Pakistani war until the unilateral surrendering on the 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and the Bengali Liberation Forces.
The Eastern Command under Lt-Gen. A. A. K. Niazi, who had area responsibility of the defending the Eastern Front and had the responsibility to protect, was leveled with accusations of escalating the political violence in the East by the serving military officers, politicians, and journalists in Pakistan.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

Indo-Pakistan War of 19711971 war1971
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004), HJ(Withdrawn), MC, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi or General Niazi was a former lieutenant-general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan known for commanding the Eastern Command of the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Eastern and the Western Fronts of the Indo-Pakistani war until the unilateral surrendering on the 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and the Bengali Liberation Forces.
A.A.K. Niazi (Cdr.

Indian Army

ArmyIndianIndia
Niazi had the area responsibility of defending the borders of East Pakistan from India and was held morally responsible by authors and critics within Pakistan's military for surrendering the Eastern Command, consisting of ~92,000 - 95,000 servicemen (sources vary), to the Indian Army when the preparations were underway to lay siege on Dacca.
After Pakistan's Lt General A A K Niazi signed the Instrument of Surrender, India took more than 90,000 Pakistani prisoners of war.

Delhi Agreement

repatriatedrepatriationpopulation transfer agreement
After taken and held as a prisoner of war by the Indian Army, he was repatriated to Pakistan on 30 April 1975.
In 1974, General Niazi was the last Pakistan officer symbolically repatriated through the Wagah Border.

Jagjit Singh Aurora

Jagjit Singh AroraJ.S. AroraGeneral Jagjit Singh Aurora
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004), HJ(Withdrawn), MC, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi or General Niazi was a former lieutenant-general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan known for commanding the Eastern Command of the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Eastern and the Western Fronts of the Indo-Pakistani war until the unilateral surrendering on the 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and the Bengali Liberation Forces.
The Unified Commander of Pakistan Armed Forces's Eastern Military High Command, Lieutenant General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi was forced to sign an unconditional Instrument of Surrender.

Hamoodur Rahman Commission

War Enquiry CommissioncommissionFirst Report
Niazi was dishonored from his military service after confessing at the War Enquiry Commission led by Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman.
These were Lieutenant-Generals included A.A.K. Nazi, Mohammad Jamshed, M. Rahim Khan, Irshad Ahmad Khan, B.M. Mustafa and Brigadier-Generals G.M. Baquir Siddiqui, Mohammad Hayat and Mohammad Aslam Niazi.

History of Bangladesh

Independence of Bangladeshindependencehistory
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004), HJ(Withdrawn), MC, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi or General Niazi was a former lieutenant-general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan known for commanding the Eastern Command of the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Eastern and the Western Fronts of the Indo-Pakistani war until the unilateral surrendering on the 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and the Bengali Liberation Forces.
On 16 December 1971, Lt. Gen A. A. K. Niazi, CO of Pakistan Army forces located in East Pakistan, signed the Instrument of Surrender and the nation of Bangla Desh ("Country of Bengal") was finally established the following day.

Bangladesh Liberation War

Liberation War of Bangladeshliberation warBangladesh War of Independence
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004), HJ(Withdrawn), MC, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi or General Niazi was a former lieutenant-general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan known for commanding the Eastern Command of the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Eastern and the Western Fronts of the Indo-Pakistani war until the unilateral surrendering on the 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and the Bengali Liberation Forces.
On 16 December 1971, Lt. Gen Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, CO of Pakistan Army forces located in East Pakistan signed the Instrument of Surrender.

Hamoodur Rahman

Hamoodur RehmanJudge Hamoodur Rahman
Niazi was dishonored from his military service after confessing at the War Enquiry Commission led by Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman.
The Report recommended a string of courts-martial and military trials against the top senior military officers including the PAF's Air Marshal Enamul Haq (the AOC of Eastern Air Command of Pakistan Air Force), Vice-Admiral Mohammad Shariff( Fleet Commander of the Eastern Naval Command of Pakistan Navy), and Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan (the GOC of Eastern Army Command of Pakistan Army), and former generals such as Amir Khan Niazi and Rao Farman Ali.

1971 Bangladesh genocide

1971 Bangladesh atrocitiesgenocideBangladesh genocide
On the issue of violences and bloodsheds, General Niazi had reportedly told his public relations officer and press secretary, Major Siddique Salik, that "we will have to account every single rape and killing when back in (West) Pakistan. God never spares the Tyrant."
The West considered the people of the East to be second-class citizens, and Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, who served as head of the Pakistani Forces in East Pakistan in 1971, referred to the region as a "low-lying land of low-lying people".

Pakistan Army order of battle, December 1971

Baqir Siddiqi
Credibility of this claim is given by Niazi's press secretary and public relations officer, then-Major Siddique Salik, who wrote in Witness to Surrender, that Niazi's chief of staff Brigadier Baqir Siddiqi reportedly scolded him of not notifying Niazi and his staff of an aerial attack on India.
From the March 1971, the Pakistani military's Eastern Command under its commander Lieutenant-General A.A.K. Niazi, started military deployment to provide the defence of borders linked with India against a possible penetration by the Indian Army.

Mohammad Shariff (admiral)

Mohammad ShariffM.S. KhanMuhammad Shariff
General Niazi, alongside with his deputy Rear-Admiral Mohammad Shariff, nervously tried reassessing the situation to hold the Indian Army's penetration by directing joint army-navy operations with no success.
After the war, he was taken as a war prisoner alongside with Lieutenant-General A.A.K Niazi, the commander of Pakistan Army' Eastern Command after conceding of the surrender of the Pakistan Armed Forces personnel to the Indian Army.

Sam Manekshaw

Field Marshal Sam ManekshawManekshawSam Maneckshaw
Only two British Indian Army officers were chosen to be decorated at that ceremony— one was Lt. Niazi and the other was Major Sam Manekshaw of the Frontier Force Regiment.
The last two broadcasts were delivered as replies to messages from the Pakistani commanders Maj. Gen. Rao Farman Ali and Lt. Gen. Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi to their troops, which were to have a devastating effect; they convinced the troops of the pointlessness of further resistance, and led to their defeat.

East Pakistan

East-PakistanEastGovernor of East Pakistan
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004), HJ(Withdrawn), MC, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi or General Niazi was a former lieutenant-general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan known for commanding the Eastern Command of the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Eastern and the Western Fronts of the Indo-Pakistani war until the unilateral surrendering on the 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and the Bengali Liberation Forces.
However, during the meeting, with no high officers willing to assume the command of East Pakistan, Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi volunteered for the command of East Pakistan.

M. A. G. Osmani

Muhammad Ataul Gani OsmaniM.A.G OsmaniM.A.G. Osmani
The Pakistani military combat units found themselves involved in a guerrilla war with the Mukti Bahini led under Atul Osmani, and were unprepared and untrained for such warfare.
Osmani attended the Long Term Staff Course at the Quetta Staff College and served with Yahya Khan, Tikka Khan and A. A. K. Niazi, all of whom led the Pakistan Army against his Bangladesh forces in 1971.

Hilal-i-Jur'at

Hilal-i-JuratHJHilal-e-Jurat
His role in a tank battle led him to be decorated with the Hilal-e-Jurat by the President of Pakistan.

Siddique Salik

Siddiq Salik
On the issue of violences and bloodsheds, General Niazi had reportedly told his public relations officer and press secretary, Major Siddique Salik, that "we will have to account every single rape and killing when back in (West) Pakistan. God never spares the Tyrant."
He joined the senior military staff at the GHQ Dacca as a PRO, working to release official statements made by the Eastern Command that was led by its Commander East, Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan, and later A.A.K. Niazi.

Evolution of Pakistan Eastern Command plan

Eastern CommandEastern Military CommandEast Pakistani military
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004), HJ(Withdrawn), MC, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi or General Niazi was a former lieutenant-general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan known for commanding the Eastern Command of the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Eastern and the Western Fronts of the Indo-Pakistani war until the unilateral surrendering on the 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and the Bengali Liberation Forces. Niazi had the area responsibility of defending the borders of East Pakistan from India and was held morally responsible by authors and critics within Pakistan's military for surrendering the Eastern Command, consisting of ~92,000 - 95,000 servicemen (sources vary), to the Indian Army when the preparations were underway to lay siege on Dacca.
Senior general officers and admirals were unwilling to assume the command of East Pakistan until Lieutenant-General Amir Niazi volunteered for this assignment.

Khalid Mahmud Arif

K.M. ArifKM ArifGeneral Khalid Mahmud Arif
Niazi's military staff further regretted for not heeding the intelligence warnings issued earlier in a compiled report by Major K.M. Arif, the military intelligence official in Niazi's staff.
In East, he fought and led companies to fight the approaching Indian Army, and was captured by the Indian Army units who held him as war prisoner after the instrument of surrender was signed between Lieutenant-General A.A.K. Niazi and Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora, GOC-in-C of Eastern Command of Indian military in 1971.

Tikka Khan

General Tikka KhanGen Tikka KhanMaj General Tikka Khan
After General Tikka Khan had initiated the military crackdown in March 1971, many officers had declined to be stationed in the East and Lieutenant-General Niazi arrived in Dhaka on 4 April 1971 to assume the Eastern Command from Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan.
He was immediately called back to Pakistan, and relinquished the Eastern Command to Lieutenant-General Amir Khan Niazi.

Abdul Motaleb Malik

By September 1971, he was appointed the martial law administrator in order to provide his support to Governor Abdul Motaleb Malik who appointed a civilian cabinet.

Sagat Singh

Lt Gen Sagat SinghLt. Gen Sagat Singh
The Indian Army commanders, Lieutenant General Sagat Singh, Lieutenant General J.S. Aurora, and Major-General Rafael Farj Jacob arrived on Dhaka via helicopter with the surrender documents.
He witnessed in Dacca the signing of the surrender instrument by General Niazi.

J. F. R. Jacob

J.F.R. JacobJ F R JacobFarj R. Jacob
Subsequently, the Indian Army began encircling the Dacca and Lieutenant-General Jagjit Singh Aurora sent a message through Major-General Rafael Jacob that issued an ultimatum to surrender in "30-minutes" time window on 16 December 1971.
Realising that the Pakistani Army's commander of its eastern command, A. A. K. Niazi, was going to fortify the towns and "defend them in strength", his plan was to bypass intermediary towns altogether, neutralise Pakistan's command and communication infrastructure, and use secondary routes reach Dhaka.